Eurocode 4 Design Composite Steel Concrete Structures

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    DESIGNERS GUIDES TO THE EUROCODES

    DESIGNERS GUIDE TO EUROCODE 4:

    DESIGN OF COMPOSITE STEEL AND

    CONCRETE STRUCTURESEN 1994-1-1

    Second edition

    ROGER P. JOHNSON

    University of Warwick, UK

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    Published by ICE Publishing, 40 Marsh Wall, London E14 9TP

    Full details of ICE Publishing sales representatives and distributors can be found at:www.icevirtuallibrary.com/info/printbooksales

    First edition published 2004

    www.icevirtuallibrary.com

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    ISBN 978-0-7277-4173-8

    # Thomas Telford Limited 2012

    ICE Publishing is a division of Thomas Telford Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Institution of CivilEngineers (ICE).

    All rights, including translation, reserved. Except as permitted by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any formor by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publishing Director, ICE Publishing, 40 Marsh Wall, London E14 9TP.

    This book is published on the understanding that the authors are solely responsible for the statements madeand opinions expressed in it and that its publication does not necessarily imply that such statements and/oropinions are or reect the views or opinions of the publishers. While every effort has been made to ensurethat the statements made and the opinions expressed in this publication provide a safe and accurate guide,no liability or responsibility can be accepted in this respect by the authors or publishers.

    Typeset by Academic Technical, BristolPrinted and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY

    Eurocodes Expert

    Structural Eurocodes offer the opportunity of harmonised design standards for the European constructionmarket and the rest of the world. To achieve this, the construction industry needs to become acquaintedwith the Eurocodes so that the maximum advantage can be taken of these opportunities.

    Eurocodes Expert is an ICE and Thomas Telford initiative set up to assist in creating a greater awarenessof the impact and implementation of the Eurocodes within the UK construction industry.

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    Designers Guide to Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structuresISBN 978-0-7277-4173-8

    ICE Publishing: All rights reservedhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1680/dcscb.41738.001

    Introduction

    The provisions of EN 1994-1-1 (British Standards Institution, 2004a) are preceded by a foreword,most of which is common to all Eurocodes. The Foreword contains clauses on:

    g the background to the Eurocode programmeg the status and eld of application of the Eurocodesg national standards implementing Eurocodesg links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specications for productsg additional information specic to EN 1994-1-1g the National Annex for EN 1994-1-1.

    Guidance on the common text is provided in the introduction to the Designers Guide to EN 1990,Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (Gulvanessian et al ., 2002), and only background informa-tion essential to users of EN 1994-1-1 is given here.

    EN 1990 (British Standards Institution, 2005a) lists the following structural Eurocodes:

    EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural designEN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structuresEN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structuresEN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structuresEN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structuresEN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structuresEN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structuresEN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical designEN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistanceEN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

    The ten codes have 58 parts, all of which have been published in the UK by the British StandardsInstitution (BSI) as, for example, BS EN 1994-1-1.

    The information specic to EN 1994-1-1 emphasises that this standard is to be used withother Eurocodes. The standard includes many cross-references to particular clauses in EN 1992(British Standards Institution, 2004b) and EN 1993 (British Standards Institution, 2005b).Similarly, this guide is one of a series on Eurocodes, and is for use with the guide for EN 1992-1-1 (Beeby and Narayanan, 2005) and the guide for EN 1993-1-1 (Gardner and Nethercot, 2007).Where, in a building, types of loading or structural member occur that are typicalof bridges, EN 1994-2 (British Standards Institution, 2005c) is relevant, and the guide toEN 1994-2, Composite bridges (Hendy and Johnson, 2006), may be useful.

    Each national standards body has implemented each Eurocode part as a national standard. Itcomprises, without any alterations, the full text of the Eurocode and its annexes as publishedby the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), usually preceded by a National TitlePage and a National Foreword, and followed by a National Annex.

    Each Eurocode recognises the right of national regulatory authorities to determine values relatedto safety matters. Values, classes or methods to be chosen or determined at national level arereferred to as Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs). A recommended value for each one

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    is given in a note that follows the relevant clause. These clauses are listed in the Foreword . Thevalues are usually those assumed during drafting and used for calibration work.

    In EN 1994-1-1 the NDPs are principally the partial factors for material or product propertiespeculiar to this standard; for example, for the resistance of headed stud shear connectors, andof composite slabs to longitudinal shear. Other NDPs are values that may depend on climate,such as the free shrinkage of concrete.

    Each National Annex gives or cross-refers to the values to be used for the NDPs in its country. Allbut one of the 12 recommended values of NDPs in EN 1994-1-1 have been accepted for use in theUK, two with qualication. The exception is in clause 9.6 (2), on the deection of proled sheeting.Otherwise, the National Annex may contain only the following (European Commission, 2002):

    g decisions on the application of informative annexesg references to non-contradictory complementary information (NCCI) to assist the user in

    applying the Eurocode.

    It will be noted that National Annexes may refer to NCCI, but cannot include it. In practice,questions on the interpretation of code clauses always arise. Any organisation can publishmaterial claimed to be non-contradictory, and particular industries may have a vested interestin doing so. Two interpretations of a particular provision could appear, such that they cannotboth be non-contradictory.

    Each National Annex will have been approved by the relevant national standards body (BSIfor the UK), which in effect gives NCCI to which it refers a status close to that of a nationalstandard. However, much NCCI will appear after the National Annex has been published.Before using such material for work claimed to be in accordance with Eurocodes, the designershould be satised that it is non-contradictory.

    Drafting errors in codes and some questions of interpretation are resolved by the ofcialcorrigenda and amendments that appear during the lifetime of a code. Proposals for these areclassied as editorial or technical. As they would apply in all EU member states, technicalchanges have to be approved by CEN Committee TC250/SC4. A list of editorial corrigenda toEN 1994-1-1 was issued by the BSI in April 2008. The important ones are mentioned in thisguide. So far, (2011) there have been no technical changes to EN 1994-1-1.

    REFERENCES

    Beeby AW and Narayanan RS (2005) Designers Guide to EN 1992-1-1. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures (Common Rules for Buildings and Civil Engineering Structures ). Thomas

    Telford, London.British Standards Institution (BSI) (2004a) BS EN 1994-1-1. Design of composite steel and concrete

    structures. Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings. BSI, London.BSI (2004b) BS EN 1992-1-1. Design of concrete structures. Part 1-1: General rules and rules for

    buildings. BSI, London.BSI (2005a) BS EN 1990 A1. Eurocode: basis of structural design. BSI, London.BSI (2005b) BS EN 1993-1-1. Design of steel structures. Part 1-1: General rules and rules for

    buildings. BSI, London.BSI (2005c) Design of composite steel and concrete structures. Part 2: Bridges. BSI, London,

    BS EN 1994-2.European Commission (2002) Guidance Paper L (Concerning the Construction Products Directive

    89/106/EEC ). Application and Use of Eurocodes . EC, Brussels.

    Gardner L and Nethercot D (2007) Designers Guide to EN 1993-1-1. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures (General Rules and Rules for Buildings ). Thomas Telford, London.

    Gulvanessian H, Calgaro JA and Holicky M (2002) Designers Guide to EN 1990. Eurocode: Basisof Structural Design . Thomas Telford, London.

    Hendy CR and Johnson RP (2006) Designers Guide to EN 1994-2. Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures. Part 2: General Rules and Rules for Bridges . ThomasTelford, London.

    Designers Guide to Euroco