Enduring Understandings

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Enduring Understandings. A government’s actions impacts its citizens. People tend to justify their actions based on ideals and principles. New ideas can lead to conflict and change. Individuals and groups have struggled to attain equality. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Enduring UnderstandingsA governments actions impacts its citizens.People tend to justify their actions based on ideals and principles.New ideas can lead to conflict and change.Individuals and groups have struggled to attain equality.Leadership can play a significant role in the outcome of war.The EnlightenmentA time period where philosophers began to use logic and reason to look at the world, its laws, and how we treat each other.

Famous philosophers of the Enlightenment:

Montesquieu RousseauLockeSmith

Also known as the Age of Reason.

Sapere Aude! [Dare to know!] Have the courage to use your own intelligence! is therefore the motto of the enlightenment. -- Immanuel Kant

John LockeAdam Smith He argued that humans have the natural rights.Believed that governments have the responsibility to protect peoples rights.Baron de MontesquieuHe believed in a separation of powers to avoid tyranny.

Smith opposed government interference in economic affairs. Believed in a free market economy with supply and demand.Jean-Jacques Rousseau He wrote The Social Contract in 1762. He believed in the idea of popular sovereignty.

Benjamin FranklinPrinter, scientist, inventor, author, and philosopher.Author of Poor Richards AlmanacVery influential on life in the colonies. Below are a few of his achievements:American Philosophical SocietyPublic LibrariesVolunteer Fire BrigadeFranklin StoveBifocalsLightning RodTheories on Electricity

Education in the Colonies1st Public Schools established in MassachusettsHornbook textbookNew England Primer required reading in schools and churchDame School: main school for women

Universities in the colonies:

Harvard (New College)College of William & Mary Yale University (College School)University of PennsylvaniaPrinceton University Columbia Univ. (Kings College)Brown UniversityDartmouth College Rutgers (QueensCollege)Newspapers and BooksMajor source of information and communication was through a printers office.

Printers served many different roles:Sold stationarypost officeadvertising agencyNewsstandWould publish broadsides (public announcements), business forms & laws.The Zenger TrialPrinter John Peter Zenger was arrested for seditious libels for printing criticism of the Governor of New York.

This was an early defense of the freedom of the press in the colonies.

The burning of Zenger's New York Weekly Journal (Bettman Archive)The French and Indian War1754 - 1763War between the English Colonies and the French + their Native American allies.2. Conflict began in the North American colonies.3. Called the Seven Years War in Europe.

The results of this war will be a major cause for the colonists to want to fight for independence.Albany Plan of UnionWritten by Benjamin Franklin

Suggestion to the English Colonies that they needed to unite together to fight the French or they would fail.

Join, or Die

Before (1754)

After (1763)

Proclamation of 1763The Colonists & the King did not want to pay to keep the armies in the colonies & western frontier.

Forbid colonists to settle west of the Appalachian mountains

Colonists upset. Why?They fought the French and Indian War War.

1763 to 1776



Revolution!TAXMoney paid to the government.

Mr. MatthewsGovernmentWhy did the British need to raise taxes?1. Pay for the war with France it was expensive.

2. Extra troops were sent to protect the colonies it was expensive.Sugar Act - 1764Tax on sugar and molassesRequired direct trade with England for tobacco, timber, and sugar.Also included taxes on cloth & wine.

Harsh punishment of smugglers

Why would this upset colonists?

Writs of Assistance(Search Warrants)

Military officers could enter homes or businesses to search for smuggled goods.

Many colonists felt these violated their natural rights.James Otis

Massachusetts lawyer who protested against unfair English laws such as illegal searches.

Raised the issue:

No Taxation Without Representation!

Quartering Act - 1765Law that said that colonists had to provide:shelterFoodand supplies to British soldiers.

Mostly affected New York

All legal and commercial documents had to carry a stamp to show that taxes were paid in silver.

Stamp Act - 1765Tax on :DiplomasContractsNewspapersPlaying cards

What is the trend?

Sons of LibertySecret Society

Lawyers, businessmen, and craftsmen

Staged protests against British laws they felt were unfair.Sam AdamsLeader of Bostons Sons of Liberty

Argued that the colonies should withdraw and form their own country.

Colonists Protest the Stamp ActSome protests were violent:

1. Burning of stamped paper

2. Attacking officials

many tax collectors quit their positions.

Boycott!Refusal to buy.

Many colonists started making their own goods rather than buy from Britain.

Stamp Act Congress 1765Nine colonies sent representatives.

Write a petition to King George III to repeal the Stamp Act and Sugar Act.

Grievance: No taxation without representation violates colonists rights.Victory!Parliament repeals the Stamp Act!!!

The Americans have not acted in all things with prudence and [good] temper. They have been driven to madness by injustice. Will you punish them for the madness you have [caused]?--William Pittand defeat.Declaratory Act:

Parliament had the supreme power to write laws about the colonies.Townshend Acts - 1767Suspended New York representative assembly until they paid for quartering of soldiers.Tariffs on:GlassLeadPaperPaintTea

Daughters of LibertySpin their own wool at home.Boycott (dont buy) British productsLook for substitutes for British productsEx- Basil tea, coffee

Abigail AdamsDeborah FranklinSarah Bradlee Fulton


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