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  • Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013

    15

    A BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM & APPENDED ZCS

    (PWM) RESONANT CONVERTER DC-DC BUCK: TECHNIQUE FOR BATTERY CHARGER TO YIELD

    EFFICIENT PERFORMANCE IN CHARGING SHAPING

    IrfanJamil*1, Zhao Jinquan

    2, Rehan Jamil

    3, Rizwan Jamil

    4and Abdus Samee

    5

    1,2Department of Energy & Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China

    [email protected]

    3School of Physics & Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, China

    [email protected]

    4Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC-3) Taxila, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    [email protected]

    5Chashma Centre of Nuclear Training, PAEC, Pakistan

    [email protected]

    ABSTRACT

    This paper presents technique for battery charger to achieve efficient performance in charging shaping,

    minimum low switching losses and reduction in circuit volume .The operation of circuit charger is switched

    with the technique of zero-current-switching, resonant components and append the topology of dc-dc buck.

    The proposed novel dc-dc battery charger has advantages with the simplicity, low cost, high efficiency and

    with the behaviour of easy control under the ZCS condition accordingly reducing the switching losses. The

    detailed study of operating principle and design consideration is performed. A short survey of battery

    charging system, capacity demand & its topologies is also presented. In order to compute LC resonant pair

    values in conventional converter, the method of characteristic curve is used and electric function equations

    are derived from the prototype configuration. The efficient performance of charging shaping is confirmed

    through the practical examines and verification of the results is revealed by the MATLAB simulation. The

    efficiency is ensured about 89% which is substantially considered being satisfactory performance as

    achieved in this paper.

    KEYWORDS

    ZCS, PWM Resonant Converter, dc-dc Buck, Battery Charger

    1. INTRODUCTION

    In recent years, with the enhancement of power electronics technology and control strategies in

    power electronics devices coupled with the increasing demand of high efficiency in battery

    charger system has invoked enormous attention from the research scholars around the world.

    Battery charger system technology is currently being incorporated in urban industrial areas to

    maintain with these demands lot of work is on towards. Therefore, many battery chargers with

    different ratings and functionalities are being developed for high output efficiency since few

  • Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013

    16

    years. The battery charger usually works to globalize the energy saving and to serve in fast

    transportation systems. The use of battery charger brings convince life solution during the

    traveling from urban to rural areas. Many techniques were fetched out by the scientists since

    battery charger device was developed for renewable energy generation, electronic communication

    power supplies, electric vehicles, UPS or an uninterruptible power supplies, PV systems and

    portable electronics products. Many charging methods have been developed to improve the

    battery charger efficiency in the last few decades. In order to achieving high efficiency in battery

    charger, append the traditional battery charger with the technique of ZCS ( Zero-Current-

    Switching) resonant buck topology which delivered the efficient performance in charging

    shaping[11-12-13-14].

    This work looks at the issues which associates ZCS PWM (Zero-Current-Switching Pulse width

    Modulation) converter, buck topology with the battery charger. This paper develops a novel high-

    efficiency battery charger with ZCS PWM buck topology which has simple circuit structure, low

    switching losses, easy control and high charging efficiencies [1-3]. Zero Current Switching

    resonant buck converter is analyzed and mode of operation is also studied. Various waveforms &

    charging curve period were noted down during the piratical examine using MATLAB software.

    The curve of charging efficiency during the charging period shows 89% charging output

    efficiency of novel proposed prototype.

    Fig.1 Block Diagram for the Proposed Novel Battery Charger

    2. BATTERY CHARGERING SYSTEM & CAPACITY DEMAND

    Todays most modern electrical appliances receive their power directly right away the utility grid.

    Many devices are being developed everyday which requires electrical power from the batteries in

    order to achieve large mobility and greater convenience.

    The battery charger system utilizes the battery by working to recharge the battery when its energy

    has been drained. The uses rechargeable batteries include everything from low-power cell phones

    to high-power industrial fork lifts, and other construction equipment. Many of these products are

    used everyday around-the-clock commonly in offices, schools, and universities, urban and

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    civilian areas [8-9]. In fig. 2 shows that the Battery Capacities of Various Battery-Powered

    Devices which are used in different rate of watt per hours level in cell phones, laptops, power

    tools, forklifts and golf crafts etc.[10].

    Fig.2 Battery Capacities of Various Battery-Powered Devices

    A battery charger system is a system which uses energy drawn from the grid, stores it in an

    electric battery, and releases it to power device. While engineers are used modern techniques to

    usually design the battery charger systems, which maximize the energy efficiency of their devices

    to make certain long functioning & operation time between charging; however they often neglect

    how much energy is used in the conversion process of ac electrical power into dc electrical power

    stored in the battery from the utility grid.

    Apparently, energy savings can be possible if the conversion losses are reduced which associated

    with the charging batteries in battery-powered products & output voltage can be controlled via

    switching frequency. We can achieve these savings using different techniques including

    battery charger topology that is readily available today and is being employed in existing

    products. The same technique and topology is discussed in this paper which increases the

    efficient performance in charging shaping of novel battery charger.

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    Fig.3Structure of a multi- piece battery charger system. The efficiency calculation is made over a

    24 hour charge and maintenance period and a 0.2C discharge for the battery. (Prepared for

    California Energy Commission Contract by EPRI Solution Ltd.,) [10].

    3. METHODS OF BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM & ITS TOPOLOGIES

    Methods of efficiency improvements in battery charger systems in use today have substantially

    lower possibilities due to a lack of cognitive skills in the charger and battery which commonly

    consume more electricity than the product they power. The energy savings are achieved in

    millions of battery charger systems that are presently in operation worldwide by reducing

    inefficiencies in charger and battery. Battery charger systems work in three modes of operation.

    In charge mode of operation, the battery is accumulating the charge while the maintenance mode

    of operation occurs when battery is fully charged and charger is only started to supply energy to

    undermine the natural discharge. No-battery mode of operation shows that the battery has been

    physically disconnected from the charger [8-9].

    Fig.4SwitchModeBatteryChargerPowerVisibility

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    There are lots of methods which are recognized to achieve the higher efficiency in battery charger

    systems, including:

    Higher voltage systems

    Switch mode power supplies

    Synchronous rectification

    Improved semiconductor switches

    Lithium-ion batteries

    Charge and discharge at lower current rate

    Off-grid charger when no battery is present.

    Topologies

    Normal

    Efficiency

    Range(%)

    Estimated

    Improved

    Efficiency

    Range (%)

    Switch Mode

    40%- 60%

    50%- 70%

    SCR

    30%- 55%

    45%- 60%

    Ferro resonant

    25%-50%

    45%-55%

    Linear

    2%- 30%

    20%- 40%

    TABLE: 1 Efficiency improvements in charger topologies

    Table.1 show that the efficiencies of normal and improved range are measured less than 15%,

    comparable systems with overall efficiencies of 65% or greater are technically feasible in charger

    topologies for battery charger system. The linear and switch mode chargers are analogous to

    linear and switch mode power supplies with the exception that the charger topologies also

    incorporate charge control circuitry on their outputs. Most multi- or single-piece chargers are

    either linear or switch mode chargers. These two categories are found commonly in consumer

    applications, particularly in the residential pub

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