Effective QuestioningMary-Anne Murphy
Objectives for the dayCourse Content:To determine why questioning is importantTo link questioning with the New CurriculumTo determine the profiles of an effective question and an effective questioner To understand where questioning fits into an Inquiry modelTo understand the 3Cs of questioningTo share strategies that assist in question development.To start to plan for questioning within a unit of learning we wish to use.
Format for the day:Session 1: Determine why questioning is importantLink questioning with the New CurriculumSession 2:Teachers and questioningSession 3:Students as questionersSession 4:Planning for questioning
Meet n GreetYour mission...Using the following question starters, find out 7 things about a person at your table that you do not already know.
Who? What? When? Where? How? Why? Which?Now share that information with another person at your table.
Answer QuestionHere are the answers... What are the questions?TreesMiningPakistanTelevisionChildrenSunlightHow could you modify this activity for use within your own curriculum area/s?
Session 1Determine why questioning is importantLink questioning with the New Curriculum
If we hope to see inventive thought infused with critical judgment, questions and questioning must become a priority of schooling and must gain recognition as a supremely important technology. Jamie McKenzie
Why do we ask questions?Beside each reason, indicate what Key Competency is being developed: TRUMP
Teaching as Inquiry
ThinkingRelating to othersUsing language, symbols and textsManaging SelfParticipation
Questioning and the Key Competencies
Managing Self:To make informed choices requires a range of skills amongst which questioning plays a major role.
Relating to Others: Questioning is a central component of "interacting effectively with a diverse range of people" and being"open to new learning"
Participating and Contributing: When we work "to make connections to others" and strive to"participate and contribute actively in new roles" questioning is going to be one of the major skills we will be utilising.
Thinking: De Bono states that 'questioning is the engine-house of thinking. Jamie McKenzie sees questioning as an extremely important technology.
Using Language, Symbols, and Texts: This competency covers the basics of communication including textual, graphical and mathematical literacies. Within it questioning again will play a major role as students make "meaning of the codes in which knowledge is expressed", "discover, express, and explore the relationships to be found in quantities, space, and data".
Active Listening/Reflective QuestioningEffective questioning brings insight, which fuels curiosity, which cultivates wisdom Chip Bell
If speaking is silver, then listening is gold Turkish Proverb
Reflective ExercisePlace your name in the centre of a piece of paper. Circle it.
In the next outer circle write your beliefs about learning.
Outside this circle write names of people who have influenced your ideas about learning.
Active listening is one of the most important of the coaching skills and is one of the first requirements of effective dialogue (Isaacs, 1999). To listen for even 3 or 4 minutes without interrupting and without sharing ones own stories or giving advice is something that leaders often find difficult. Within the coaching relationship, active listening gives each leader, in turn, the freedom to articulate their practice, to justify why they are doing what they are doing, and to reflect on the impact they believe their actions will have.
Robertson, J. (2005) Coaching Leadership p. 110
To be active listeners coaches should:Give the speaker full attention;
Encourage that person to keep talking;
Not break into conversation by sharing war stories or their own experience;
Not give advice;
Take careful note of what is said, writing if necessary;
Not ask questions;
Focus in particular on what is said about leadership (teaching/learning) process;
Listen as well for what is not said and what is important to the speaker.
Three Level Thinking
Reflective QuestioningRobertson, J. (2005)3 storey thinkingCosta, A.& Kallick, B. (2002)Level 1: designed to clarify thinking about events, situations, actions and feelingsLevel 1: fact collectors, data gathering cognitive operations.
Level 2: used to clarify purpose reasons and intended consequencesLevel 2: processing-compare, reason, generalise, making sense and meaning of informationLevel 3: move leaders into exploring the basis or outcomes of their actions.Level 3: speculate, imagine, idealise, predict, elaborate and apply concepts in new and hypothetical situations
ReflectionFor this process to work well...
What do we need to knowWhat do we need to doWho do we need to be
ReflectionIn what ways could you use this process within your own or others learning?
Session 2: Teachers and questioning
Need a new quote here
What strategies do we currently employ that facilitate deep thinking in our students?
What strategies do you currently employ that facilitate effective questioning from your students?
How do we walk on Hot Sand?Key points and actions on each aspect of the reading... (pairs)1. Prepare key questions to ask 2. Ask fewer and better questions 3. Use appropriate language and content 4. Distribute questions around the class5. Thinking time and pauses between questions 6. Use questions to make progressive cognitive demands 7. Prompt pupils, give clues 8. Use pupils responses, even incorrect ones 9. Encourage pupils to ask questions 10. Listen and acknowledge pupils responses positively
What does research say?
How do they walk on hot sand?
Using questions to help pupils learn
(jigsaw to become experts and share information)
What implications does this have for your practice?
(Reflection and talk for action!)
What do you need to know and do to be an effective questioner?
(Model co-construction process using T chart)
What strategies do we employ that assist in question development?Spreading questions around roomPing-ponging questions that ariseWait-timeFacilitation role, rather than transmissive ? teachingCollaborative Learning structuresTime for discussionAccess to a variety of resourcesPlan for questioning limit number of T questionsModelling quality questioningTalk about questioningExposure to resources that promote questioning eg: cluedo, fish, mysteries/whodunnits, science experimentsGuide students with their question creationNon-verbal promptsMeaningful contextWebquests teacher and student createdReciprocal/Guided ReadingRestate or Paraphrase student questions or information
What other strategies can we use to enhance questioning?Parking LotPing-ponging questionsPost-boxesCo-operative learning structuresTexts / Text displaysMulti-mediaVisual imagesQuestions placed around room
Session 3:Students as Questioners
Once you have learned how to ask relevant and appropriate questions, you have learned how to learn and no one can keep you from learning whatever you want or need to know.
Neil PostmanTeaching as a subversive activity
How might you like this to look? Discuss.
Teacher as Questioner
Student as Questioner
So what are the attributes of an Effective Questioner?
Complete the role on wall outline.
What are the attributes of an effective questioner? Is aware of a need for information.
Able to clarify what information is needed.
Has a base set of vocabulary that is relevant to the context or issue.
Is able to ask a range of relevant questions.
Takes that range of relevant questions to a range of appropriate resources.
Persists in their search for the answer/s.
Edits their questions as necessary
What makes a good question?
Brainstorm in pairs
Questioning Rubric for creating and evaluating Effective Questions
Trevor Bond, 2008
StageQuestion Type7Used multiple question words to create a probing question when interviewing an expert.6Used relevant synonyms to edit questions.5Used the seven servants and relevant key words and phrases to create questions. (Which, could, might, can, will)4Used the seven servants to write/ask open thick questions (who, when, what, where, how, which, why)3Asked a relevant yes/no/maybe question. Closed / Open, thin (is, can, does, could, may)2Any non-relevant question (does not contain contextual key words, or phrases)1Created statements, rather than questions
Without strong questioning skills, you are just a passenger on someone elses bus tour. You may be on the highway, but someone is doing the driving.Jamie Mc Kenzie
But how do we get our students there???
TTL LT LDemonstration Shared Guided Independent Demonstration Practice Practice
Strategies that facilitate student questioning...