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Education Investment Commitment

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    Education investment and commitment: Education investment and commitment: reassessing the international benchmarksreassessing the international benchmarks

    UNESCO Institute for StatisticsIWGE 2010, Stockholm

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICS

    7 June 2010

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    UIS and global education finance dataUIS and global education finance data

    The UNESCO Institute for Statistics:

    Collects national domestic finance data annuallyDisseminates data three times a year on the UIS Data Centre

    Uses and interprets data Impact of financial crisis on education budgets (2009) Financing education in Africa (with Pole de Dakar and IIEP in 2010)

    Provides technical assistance/data quality diagnoses Sustainable reporting of financing data in sub Saharan Africa

    (sector review follow up) Data quality assessment framework (DQAF)

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICS

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    The global distribution of The global distribution of

    education s endin 2007education s endin 2007Public education expenditure (billion PPP$)

    .

    Arab States (15/20) 88.1Central/Eastern Europe 219.7(18/21)

    Central Asia (7/9) 8.7

    (35/41).

    South/West Asia (7/9) 153.7

    SubSaharan Africa (38/45) 53.8

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICSSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2010

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    The investment to educate a childThe investment to educate a childOne year of primary school, PPP$

    . ,Kuwait 2,618

    eyc e es ,

    Estonia 2,896Poland 3,041

    Hungary 3,978

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICSSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2010

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    Risks in benchmarking public Risks in benchmarking public

    education spendingeducation spending

    Crude measures of macro level inputsMissing a big part of the picture where household contributions are not counted

    regional governmentsRel in onl on relative measures one can lose si ht of absolute needsMissing the underlying story of the conditions that influence spending/costs

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICS

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    Accounting for national contextsAccounting for national contexts

    Overall proportion of and growth rates of the school age populationCoverage o t e e ucat on system

    even by single grades!The roles of government and societies

    Redistributive or direct channel for families

    Volume of

    education

    provision

    ,

    Quality of education provision teaching standards, teaching/learning environment

    Efficiency of education provision repetition, retention and completion

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICS

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    Different levels of capacity and demand Different levels of capacity and demand

    im l different resource needsim l different resource needsSierra Leone

    160

    Group AGroup AGrou BGrou B

    Madagascar

    MalawiRwanda

    GabonNepalBelize

    Sao Tome

    Cambodia

    LesothoGuyana

    120 5

    Russian Fed.

    Equat. Guinea

    100 r y

    G E R 2 0 Zambia

    YemenGambia AfghanistanUAE

    ChadSenegal PNGCote d'Ivoire

    Guinea

    Congo

    80 P r i m

    EritreaSudanBurkina FasoCAR

    Djibouti

    60

    Group CGroup C

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICS

    40 60 80 100 120 140 160

    Primary school age population (1995=100)declining population increasing population

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    The traditional benchmarksThe traditional benchmarks

    Investment/cost Per pupil public expenditure as a share of GDP per capita

    Effort/commitment Public education expenditure as a share of national

    ncome or per cap ta Public education expenditure as a share of government

    budget (TGE) Share of education expenditure by source of funds

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICS

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    Investment/costInvestment/cost

    Per pupil expenditure is calculated as the annual expenditure recurrent or total divided b the number of u ils

    Countries range from 2% to 25% and less than PPP$100 to more than PPP$15,000

    Often presented as unit costs but only represents part of total

    costs; better described as public investment per pupil Two complementary measures

    Relative (as a % of GDP per capita) allows cross national comparisons

    so u e measures

    n

    a ow

    assessmen

    o

    s su c ency

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICS

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    Relative and absolute measures of per primary Relative and absolute measures of per primary

    pupil public

    expenditure

    in

    SS

    Africa,

    2008pupil

    public

    expenditure

    in

    SS

    Africa,

    2008

    1,386

    1,600

    30

    35

    p i t a

    PPP $% GDP per Capita

    1,021

    806

    1,200

    i n P P P $

    20

    25

    f G D P p e r c a

    461346400

    800

    E x p e n

    d i t u r

    10

    15

    d i t u r e a s a

    %

    263162 156 132 110 94 83 81 77 76 75 72 61 51 39

    0 0

    5 E x p e n

    S o u t h

    A f r i c a

    N a m i b i a

    B o t s w

    a n a - 1

    C a p e

    V e r d e

    L e s o t h o

    B u r k i

    n a F a s o -

    K e n y a - 2 N i g e

    r

    B e n i n - 2

    C o m o r o s

    C a m e

    r o o n M a l i

    R w a n d a - 1 U g

    a n d a

    M o z a

    m b i q u e - T o

    g o - 1 E t h

    i o p i a - 1

    M a d a

    g a s c a r

    B u r u n d

    i

    E r i t r e a - 2

    l A f r i c

    a n R e

    p u b l i c -

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICSSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2010

    C e n t r

    Note: -1 data refer to 2007; -2 data refer to 2006

    Source: UNESCO Institute for Statist ics.

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    Effort/commitment, IEffort/commitment, I

    The share of national income (GDP) invested in education often inter reted as a measure of commitment to education

    Countries range from less than 1% to 15%

    Often misapplied, e.g., 56% of GDP should be spent on education cited (based on OECD)

    Not always a good measure of government effort because of differences in duration of schooling, coverage of education

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICS

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    Effort/commitment, IIEffort/commitment, II

    The share of public expenditure invested in education

    education Countries ran e from less than 10% to 30%

    Closer to commitment in that it represents the actual government budget constraints

    Level highly dependent upon the role of governments and societies; whether governments play a redistributive

    role or families and communities are more directly responsible for the education of their children

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICS

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    Comparing national effort fromComparing national effort from

    the perspective

    of

    fiscal

    spacethe

    perspective

    of

    fiscal

    space

    Timor-Leste

    90

    100

    > 7.0

    CubaCyprus-1

    70

    80

    g e o

    f G D P

    . - .

    5.0-6.0

    2.5-5.0

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    Developing the measurement agendaDeveloping the measurement agenda

    Improve relevance of benchmark measures

    investments/costs Capture the full picture of investments/costs

    Improve comparative frameworks for measuring

    household contributions

    to

    education

    eac consensus on w a represen s an e uca on cos in different societies/economies

    Data indicators that are needed to address emerging issues... open for discussion

    UNESCO INSTITUTE for STATISTICS

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