Text of EAST ASIA. Topics: China: Emerging superpower Japan’s monster 2011 earthquake and tsunami East...
Topics: China: Emerging superpower Japans monster 2011 earthquake and tsunami East Asia: The worlds economic powerhouse North Korean provocations The Taiwan conundrum REALM
EAST ASIA THE GEOGRAPHIC PANORAMA Triangular wedge between Russia and Southeast Asia. Mountains and plateaus. Three major river valleys. Deserts: Takla Makan, Gobi, Ordos Sichuan Basin. Islands: Japan Hokkaidocold northern island Kyushuwarm southern island Honshucore area Kurile Islands Taiwan Hainan Peninsulas: Korean Shandong Liaodong A myriad of tectonic plate boundaries, island chains, and smaller islands in the East/South China Seas and the Pacific Ocean.
EAST ASIA A GEOPOLITICAL REALM ChinaPeoples Republic of China (PRC) Dominant country - Demographically, economically, and politically. 85% of realms population. Communist government. Japanmonarchy South Koreademocracy North Koreafailed state Mongoliabuffer state TaiwanRepublic of China (ROC) Political entitynot recognized as a sovereign state. 1 Nation, 2 Systems possible. (Ex. Hong Kong)
EAST ASIA ENVIRONMENT/POPULATION Collision of Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates. Himalayan Mountains Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau Earthquakes 2008Sichuan Province Magnitude 7.9, killed 90,000 Pacific Ring of Fire Pacific Plate subducting beneath the North American Plate. March 11, 2011Tohoku earthquake (Japan) Tsunami (seismic sea wave). Vulnerability of Japan Particularly active tectonic-plate collision zone. Densely populated areas in confined, low-lying plains on the east coast open to flooding. Most nuclear power plants along susceptible shorelines.
EAST ASIA ENVIRONMENT AND POPULATION Western and northern sectors H (highland) climates Tibet (Xizang) and Qinghai B (desert and steppe) climates Mongolia Northeastern sectors D climates Eastern and southern sectors C (humid-temperate) climates Majority of East Asias population found in easternmost one-third of the realms territory. Most densely settled population cluster in the world. Agriculture, Fisheries, Resources. Pacific ports and commerce.
The Great Rivers Huang He (Yellow River) Historic core area. North China Plain. Beijing. Flows into the Bo Hai. Chang Jiang (Yangzi) Shanghai (Chinas largest city) at the mouth of the river. Three Gorges Damworlds biggest dam. Xi Jiang (Pearl) Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Hub of globalization. Liao Northeast China Plain. Mining and industry. Major DAMS built in China for water and hydroelectricity.
EAST ASIA NATURAL RESOURCES 1/4 th of worlds population. High demand for natural resources. Japan Limited domestic resources. Set up global networks. Urbanized and modern populations demand for consumer goods. China Cities and industries grew rapidly in 1980s. Needs for oil, gas, metals, food, electricity, and water multiplied. China replaced Japan as Australias primary customer. Environmental costs in terms of air pollution and water contamination. Ex. Chinese Olympic Games and SMOG hazards.
EAST ASIA HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY Ancient China State formationlong before Greece or Rome. Neolithic (New Stone Age) Millet, rice, and wheat domesticated. Dynasties: Han Dynastyone of the longest lasting. People of Hanethnic Chinese. Korea and Japan influenced by Chinese norms. Japanese borrowed heavily from Chinese culture Confucianisminfusions. The Great Wall of China
Chinas Imperial Geography Expanded and contracted over time. Sinicization or Hanification = Growing state territory and centralized power. Chinese cultural imprint from: Korea to Vietnam, Mongolia to Burma (Myanmar). Diverse mosaic of ethnicities
End of the Chinese Empire Qing Empirelargest and last. Europeans, Russians, Japanese Colonists. Outsiders controlled trade, forced concessions and leases to foreign merchants. BritishHong Kong PortugalMacau GermanyShandong Peninsula Francein the south RussiaNortheast (Manchuria) JapanKorea, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan Extraterritorialitycolonial powers immune to Chinese law. Boxer Rebellion (1900)resistance to foreigners. Revolutionary China Nationalist movement Sun Yat-sen Overthrew Qing Dynasty (1911) Chinese Communist Party Mao Zedong 1920s - Nationalists and Communists cooperated. Chiang Kai-shek became the Nationalists leader. Long MarchCommunist column of 100,000 people marched westward. Nationalist forces attacked. 20,000 survivors in Shaanxi Province. Prepared for renewed campaign against Nationalists.
JAPANS HISTORICAL ROLE IN EAST ASIA From Isolationism to Imperialism Isolationism Foreign influence shunned. Japanese people not allowed to travel outside Japan. Foreigners not tolerated on Japanese soil. Meiji Restoration1868 Introduced wholesale change in Japanese foreign policy. Aimed at rapid modernization. Emulated the West. Moved the capital from Kyoto to Edo (renamed Tokyo). Modernization built on Japanese cultural traditions. Increased efficiency, from producing goods to running railroads to fighting war. Westernization not desirable. Japan was a unique combination of modern and traditional elements.
JAPANS HISTORICAL ROLE IN EAST ASIA Japan in China 1894-1895 - First Sino-Japanese War. Long-term Japanese presence on the mainland in the Northeast, Korea, and Taiwan. 1904-1905 - Japanese defeated Russia. More aggressive foreign policy. 1910annexed Korea. 1931took firm control of Manchuria (Northeast China). 1937full-scale war with China. 1940invaded French Indochina, Philippines, Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), Burma (Myanmar) and Malaysia. 1941attacked the U.S. at Pearl Harbor. *Militaristic History!
POST-WORLD WAR II EAST ASIA Communist China October 1, 1949birth of Peoples Republic of China (PRC). Communists completely overhauled Chinese society. Great Leap Forward Worst human-engineered catastrophe in history. Estimated 30 to 45 million deaths. Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966- 1976). Campaign against contamination from Soviet deviationism and emerging elitism in society. Youth organized into Red Guards. Ordered to attack bourgeois elements and opponents of the system. Chinas leading intellectuals, moderate leaders, teachers, elderly citizens, and older revolutionaries were killed or tortured. Deng Xiaoping became leader in the post- Mao period of economic transformation.
Japans Defeat and Recovery World War II expansion ended when U.S. nuclear bombs devastated two Japanese cities. Japanese surrendered. Country lay in ruins. Japan forced to accept a new constitution and territorial adjustments. Could not spend more than 1% of GDP on military. Accepted U.S. troops on its soil. Japan induced to shift its focus to economic prowess. Japans Economic Miracle Accelerated economic recovery: Industrial giant. Technological pacesetter. Fully urbanized society. Political power. One of the most affluent nations on Earth. Stalled economy: Third-largest economy in the world. Lost its dynamism and momentum. Tokyo, Japan - modern day.
EAST ASIAS ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION The Asian Tigers Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore. Replicated the Japanese economic miracle Rapid industrialization. Foreign investment. Export processing zones for high value- added goods. Computers, mobile phones, kitchen appliances, and electronic devices. Became trading nations oriented to rich Western markets. Most of worlds largest ports are located in East Asia. Exports shipped mainly to North America and Europe. Chengdu City, China GROWTH!
EAST ASIAS ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION Chinas Even Greater Economic Miracle Historic transformation: Creation of favorable environment for foreign investment to support the growth of manufacturing sector. Chinese wages kept low. Training programs aimed at upgrading skills of local workforce. Stable political conditions with tight government control. Adept at understanding how global capitalism works and how to put it to use. Emerged as the most dynamic and fastest- growing component of the world economy. 2010surpassed Japan to become the second-largest economy in the world. Example Chinese City = Shenzhen: fastest growing city in human/world history! 9 million people today. Mandarin speakers. Business-friendly.
GEOPOLITICS OF EAST ASIA Sino-Japanese Relations Chinese and Japanese relations are problematic. Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and occupied China, committing atrocities. 1990s renewed Japanese presence after Chinas economic reforms. China has surpassed Japan in economic size and is the biggest exporter in the world. Diplomatic relations are strained by clashing interests, historical memory, and cultural friction. Senkaku Islands in East China Sea. Seized by Japan in 1895, claimed by China and Taiwan. Matter of national pride. Recently discovered oil and gas deposits in territorial waters. Ownership of islands and resources a modern issue.
GEOPOLITICS OF EAST ASIA The Korea Factor Divided, partitioned, colonized, and occupied by Chinese and Japanese. 1910annexed by Japan. 1945Allied powers divided Korea into North and South along 38 th parallel. 1950North Korean Communist forces invaded South Korea. 1953military stalemate