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Early Blight and Septoria Leaf Spot of Tomato. Sources of Pathogen. Seed and transplants. Spores dispersed by wind or water. Crop debris. Potential Impact. Loss of leaves. Sunscald of exposed fruit. Fruit lesions due to EB. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Early BlightandSeptoria Leaf Spotof Tomato
Sources of PathogenSeed and transplants.Spores dispersed by wind or water.Crop debris.
Potential ImpactLoss of leaves.Sunscald of exposed fruit.Fruit lesions due to EB.Poor fruit quality (lower sugar content).Plants produce less.Severity increases over years.
ManagementPurchase seed from reliable supplier.Hot water treat seed right before planting. Rotate land. At least 3 yrs,Select EB resistant varieties when suitable.Early maturing varieties have more EB.Indeterminant varieties have less EB.Mulch to interfere with spore dispersal.Hairy vetch might induce resistance.Rows parallel to prevailing wind.
ManagementWide row and plant spacing.Separate plantings.Stake or trellise; disinfect first if used.Optimum growing conditions.Drip irrigate or overhead when leaf wetness period minimally extended.Work when foliage is dry.
ManagementControl weeds and volunteer tomato plants.Rescue treatments start very early.Use disease forecasting system.Copper fungicides, Sonata biofungicide, PlantShield (not labeled for this use)
Incorporate crop residue promptly after harvest.
Early Blight Resistant VarietiesMountain series from NC:Mountain Pride, Supreme, Gold, Fresh and Belle. Late maturing and fruit small.
Cornell Program. First variety expected available in 2007. More suitable for northeast.
New Tomato Selection from CornellStandardSusceptibleVarietySelection with Resistance to early blight and late blightDefoliationdue tolate blight (US-7) in 1999
Plantshield (Trichoderma harzianum)drench + foliar applicationsMycostop (Streptomyces griseoviridis) - drenchTrilogy (neem oil) - foliar Serenade (Bacillus subtilis) - 4 and 8 lb/A foliarOxidate (hydrogen dioxide) - foliar
Drench after transplanting (1 or 9 days after).3 Foliar sprays at 2-week interval.Treatments - Tomato Early Blight(Abby Seaman, 2001 and 2002)
Plantshield drench5.6aPlantshield foliar20.0bPlantshield drench + foliar10.0abTrilogy8.1auntreated21.3b % Diseased FoliageTreatment 9/26/01Treatments - Tomato Early Blight
Plantshield drench6.25bcPlantshield foliar8.25abPlantshield drench + foliar 4.50cMycostop drench7.25bcTrilogy8.75abSerenade 8 lb/A7.00bcOxidate7.00bcuntreated11.25a % Diseased FoliageTreatment 10/3/02Treatments - Tomato Early Blight
Organic Tomato ProductionFertilityLow N - vetch cover cropHigh N - vetch + peanut meal (50 lb/A N)Control of Foliar DiseasesCompost teaSonata (2 qt/A)(AgraQuest biofungicide)Compost tea + SonataCompost tea + rescue fungicides
Organic Tomato Production6/1Flail chopped vetch.6/11Transplanted.6/23Peanut meal applied.
Tomato Foliar DiseasesPowdery mildewSeptoria leaf spotBacterial speckCompost tea.Fungicides for organic production.
Foliar Disease TreatmentsCompost teaapplied undiluted with fish hydrolysate (1 oz/15 gal) and nuFilm P (6 oz/A) on 8, 16, 23, and 29 Jul; 4, 11, 17, and 25 Aug; and 1 and 8 Sep. Sonata (2 qt/A)(AgraQuest biofungicide)applied 11, 17, and 25 Aug; and 1, 8, and 17 Sep. Rescue fungicidesJMS Stylet oil (5 qt/100 gal) applied on 25 Aug and 1 Sep for powdery mildew.copper fungicide Champion (4 lb/A) applied on 3, 12 and 17 Sep for all 3 diseases.
Low NitrogenNontreated1153Compost tea (10X; 7/30 - 9/24)335High NitrogenNontreated1143Compost tea (10X)1046Sonata (6X)962Tea (10X) + Sonata (6X) 840Tea + Rescue fungicides (5X)940 Powdery Mildew SeverityTreatment 9/19/24Organic Control Tomato Diseases
Low NitrogenNontreated2844Compost tea (10X; 7/30 - 9/24)3646High NitrogenNontreated1844Compost tea (10X)3642Sonata (6X)3244Tea (10X) + Sonata (6X) 3855Tea + Rescue fungicides (5X)3848 Bacterial Speck Incidence (%)Treatment 9/2410/1Organic Control Tomato Diseases
Low NitrogenNontreated3041Compost tea (10X; 7/30 - 9/24)3551High NitrogenNontreated2834Compost tea (10X)5652Sonata (6X)3648Tea (10X) + Sonata (6X) 4548Tea + Rescue fungicides (5X)3941 Septoria Leaf Spot IncidenceTreatment 9/2410/1Organic Control Tomato Diseases
Low NitrogenNontreated1153Compost tea (10X; 7/30 - 9/24)335High NitrogenNontreated1143Compost tea (10X)1046Sonata (6X)962Tea (10X) + Sonata (6X) 840Tea + Rescue fungicides (5X)940 Defoliation (%)Treatment 9/2410/1Organic Control Tomato Diseases
Treatment not started early enough?Need to treat seed or seedlings?Effective organisms not present?Change recipe?Change brewing conditions?Applied at wrong time?Evening better than morning?Why Was Compost Tea Ineffective?
9/23/04Nontreated, High N
9/23/04Compost tea + Rescue fungicides, High N
Compost Tea Recipes20032004Ingredient4 lb Grape pumice compost 4 lbLeaf-based compost4 lb4 lbVermicompost (manure-based compost)12 oz 12 ozKelp (Fertrell Liquid Kelp) 7 oz4 ozFish hydrolysate (Organic Gem Liquid Fish or Neptunes Harvest Benefits of Fish)7 oz16 ozHumic acid (Fertrell Bio-Hume)60 gal waterBrewed 24 hr in Sotillo Brewer
Compost Tea Expenses, 2004$6.72 8 lbVermicompost $1.89 16 ozHumic acid (Fertrell Bio-Hume)$1.3112 ozKelp (Fertrell Liquid Kelp) $0.524 ozFish hydrolysate (Neptune) $10.3560 gal$19.16110 gal/A$1.92 Fish hydrolysate (2 oz/15 gal) $1.64nuFilm P spreader (6 oz/A)$22.72per acre cost undiluted
Treatment Costs ($/A)$22.72Compost tea (undiluted)$26.50Serenade (4 lb/A)$6.50Champion (2 lb/A)