Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flow by Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flow by Additives Guest Editors: Jinjia

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  • Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flow by Additives Guest Editors: Jinjia Wei, Yasuo Kawaguchi, and Bo Yu

    Advances in Mechanical Engineering

  • Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flow by Additives

  • Advances in Mechanical Engineering

    Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flow by Additives

    Guest Editors: Jinjia Wei, Yasuo Kawaguchi, and Bo Yu

  • Copyright © 2011 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.

    This is a special issue published in volume 2011 of “Advances in Mechanical Engineering.” All articles are open access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, pro- vided the original work is properly cited.

  • Advances in Mechanical Engineering

    Editorial Board

    Koshi Adachi, Japan Mehdi Ahmadian, USA Rehan Ahmed, UK Claude Bathias, France Adib Becker, UK Leonardo Bertini, Italy L. A. Blunt, UK Marco Ceccarelli, Italy Hyung Hee Cho, Republic of Korea Seung Bok Choi, Republic of Korea Bogdan I. Epureanu, USA M. R. Eslami, Iran A. Faghri, USA Ali Fatemi, USA Siegfried Fouvry, France Ian Frigaard, Canada M. I. Friswell, UK Yuebin Guo, USA Zhen Huang, China Thomas H. Hyde, UK

    Jiin Yuh Jang, Taiwan Zhongmin Jin, UK Essam Eldin Khalil, Egypt Xianwen Kong, UK Jaw-Ren Lin, Taiwan Cheng-Xian Lin, USA Oronzio Manca, Italy Aristide Fausto Massardo, Italy Kim Choon Ng, Singapore C. T. Nguyen, Canada Hirosi Noguchi, Japan Andrew Ooi, Australia Hakan F. Oztop, Turkey Duc Truong Pham, UK Homer Rahnejat, UK S. Rakheja, Canada John E. Renaud, USA Robert L. Reuben, UK Bidyut Baran Saha, Singapore Dik J. Schipper, The Netherlands

    Steven R. Schmid, USA A. Seshadri Sekhar, India A. A. Shabana, USA C. S. Shin, Taiwan Yung C. Shin, USA Ray W. Snidle, UK Christian Soize, France Margaret M. Stack, UK Neil Stephen, UK Kumar K. Tamma, USA Yaya Tan, China Cho W. Solomon To, USA Yoshihiro Tomita, Japan Shandong Tu, China Moran Wang, USA Fengfeng Xi, Canada Hiroshi Yabuno, Japan Wei Mon Yan, Taiwan Byeng D. Youn, USA Zhongrong Zhou, China

  • Contents

    Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flow by Additives, Jinjia Wei, Yasuo Kawaguchi, and Bo Yu Volume 2011, Article ID 952659, 2 pages

    Review on Drag Reduction and Its Heat Transfer by Additives, Yi Wang, Bo Yu, Jacques L. Zakin, and Haifeng Shi Volume 2011, Article ID 478749, 17 pages

    The Combination of Polymer, Compliant Wall, and Microbubble Drag Reduction Schemes, Boris N. Semenov Volume 2011, Article ID 743975, 10 pages

    Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions, Satoshi Ogata, Tetsuya Numakawa, and Takuya Kubo Volume 2011, Article ID 528373, 6 pages

    Combined Effects of Temperature and Reynolds Number on Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Cationic Surfactant Solution, Ning Ma, Jianfeng Wang, and Jinjia Wei Volume 2011, Article ID 879615, 8 pages

    Flow Drag and Heat Transfer Reduction Characteristics of Organic Brine (Potassium Acetate) and Inorganic Brine (Calcium Chloride) Solutions with Nonionic Surfactant, Naoto Haruki and Akihiko Horibe Volume 2011, Article ID 206219, 10 pages

    Enhancing Heat Transfer of Drag-Reducing Surfactant Solution by an HEV Static Mixer with Low Pressure Drop, Haifeng Shi, Yi Wang, Wu Ge, Bo Fang, Jacob T. Huggins, Thaddaus R. Huber, and Jacques L. Zakin Volume 2011, Article ID 315943, 10 pages

    On Relationships among the Aggregation Number, Rheological Property, and Turbulent Drag-Reducing Effect of Surfactant Solutions, Ying-Bo Zhou, Na Xu, Ning Ma, Feng-Chen Li, Jin-Jia Wei, and Bo Yu Volume 2011, Article ID 345328, 5 pages

    Experimental Investigation on Zonal Structure in Drag-Reducing Channel Flow with Surfactant Additives, Masaaki Motozawa, Takahiro Watanabe, Weiguo Gu, and Yasuo Kawaguchi Volume 2011, Article ID 120438, 12 pages

    Analysis of Zero Reynolds Shear Stress Appearing in Dilute Surfactant Drag-Reducing Flow, Weiguo Gu, Dezhong Wang, and Yasuo Kawaguchi Volume 2011, Article ID 367042, 9 pages

    Evaluation of Surfactant Drag Reduction Effect in a District Heating System, Ning Ma, Jinjia Wei, and Jianfeng Wang Volume 2011, Article ID 947179, 7 pages

  • Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Mechanical Engineering Volume 2011, Article ID 952659, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2011/952659


    Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flow by Additives

    Jinjia Wei,1 Yasuo Kawaguchi,2 and Bo Yu3

    1 State Key laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510, Japan 3 Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249, China

    Correspondence should be addressed to Jinjia Wei, jjwei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    Received 9 August 2011; Accepted 9 August 2011

    Copyright © 2011 Jinjia Wei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    Turbulent drag reduction by additives is a striking phe- nomenon in which the presence of small quantities of addi- tives in a carrier fluid can reduce turbulent friction greatly compared with the pure fluid at the same flow rate. There are several kinds of drag reducers including surfactants, polymers, bubbles, and fibers, which are promising for saving pumping energy in fluid transportation of pipelines. The key issues related to the drag-reducing flow by additives are the complicated microstructure, rheological properties, turbu- lence structure, drag reduction and heat transfer character- istics, and heat transfer enhancement. The purpose of this special issue is to collect a series of papers to show the recent advancement of these aspects. We received active submis- sions from America, Australia, China, Japan, and Russia, and finally 10 papers were accepted to publish in the special issue after peer reviews.

    The first two papers of this special issue review the ad- vancement of turbulent drag reduction by additives from two different respects. The first paper gives a full review on the main advancements of drag reduction of fibers, polymers, and surfactants during these 60 years, including background, application, development, theory, and research methods of the three different drag reducers and discusses future direc- tions of development. The second paper summarizes the turbulence drag reduction methods by joint use of compliant coatings with other drag reduction means and shows fine outlooks of turbulence management by joint use of compli- ant coatings, riblets, polymer additives, and microbubbles.

    Drag reduction and heat transfer characteristics of drag- reducing flow are investigated experimentally by four papers in this issue. The third paper investigates the drag reduction performance of bacterial cellulose suspensions and observes a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11%. Suspensions of nata

    de coco, which is a layered form of bacterial cellulose, show a higher drag reduction at lower concentrations. The fourth paper studies the combined effects of temperature and Reyn- olds number on heat transfer characteristics of a cationic surfactant solution with different concentrations. The results show that the heat transfer performance of cationic surfac- tant solution is largely deteriorated and is greatly affected by concentration, temperature, and Reynolds number. It is supposed that temperature and shear stress are two kinds of energy applied on the surfactant microstructure, which can be helpful to the surfactant network formation or dissoci- ation depending on their values. The fifth paper describes the flow drag and heat transfer reduction characteristics of organic (potassium acetate) and inorganic (calcium chlo- ride) brine solutions. The nonionic surfactant oleyl dihy- droxyethyl amine oxide (ODEAO) is used as a drag-reducing additive. It is found that the formation of rod-like micelles in a non-ionic surfactant is related to the ionic strength of the brine solution. The sixth paper uses two methods, high- efficiency vortex (HEV) static mixer, and Helix static mixer, to enhance heat transfer performance of drag-reducing flow of Ethoquad O/12 with sodium salicylate. It is found that the Nusselt numbers by using the HEV are three to five times those of normal drag-reducing flow without mixer with only modest energy penalty.

    The microstructure and rheology, and turbulence char- acteristics of drag-reducing fluid flow are investigated by three papers to reveal drag reduction mechanisms. The sev- enth paper aims at gaining insights of interrelationships among turbulent drag reduction rate, rheological properties and micelle microstructures of drag-reducing surfactant solution by measuring the aggregation number, turbulent drag reduction and shear-rate-dependent shear viscosity of

  • 2 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

    sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and CTAC aided with sodium salicylate. The eighth paper investigates zonal structures in surfactant drag reducing flow. It is found that there appears an area where the root mean square of streamwise velocity fluctuation and the vorticity fluctuation sharply decrease toward the center of the channel, indicating that two layers with different turbulent structure coexist on the boundary of this area. The layer in the near-wall region has a striped structure, and the layer in the center of the channel has a grained structure. The ninth paper mainly analyzes the Reyn- olds shear stress in drag-reducing flow. The results sho