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  • 1. EDEXCEL GCSE 2010Decision Making Pre-Release Analysis of the the resource booklet

2. The Issue: Housing demandin the UK (Unit A2) 3. What does it mean for the main paper?30 mark questions on: Coping with Environmental Change: Coasts, River and Tectonic hazards Providing for population change20 mark questions on: Use and abuse of the environment : water Use and abuse of the environment : Recreation and tourism 4. Do not revise: Urbanisation in Sao Paulo London waste/transport management TNCs Primark/ Nike Child labour Reading/ M4 corridor 5. The DME Paper TIMING: Paper is 1 hours long. Your will need to plan your timing carefully there will be lots of questions to answer. Some will be short worth only 1 or 2 marks, some paragraph length - for 4 or 5, and the last question will be of one to 1 sides and worth a lot e.g. 12 marks. Clearly it is important to get the short answers right, (the marks all add up to make your brilliant final mark!), but it is not worth spending a long time on them at the expense of the long answer. The paper is worth 60 marks (+ 3 for English etc.). So work out how much time you should spend on the last question, for 12/60 marks. How?- allow, say, 10 mins. to look through q. paper and organise resources, and at the end to check through. This leaves you 65 minutes to earn 60 marks, i.e. just over 1 minute per mark therefore for a 12 mark last question, you should leave about 15 minutes. (Obviously if its worth, say 10, adjust time) This is very important! 6. Affordable housing Houses which are provided below the market price. Developers are now under obligation to build a certain number on large estates. Housing associations also offer homes on a part purchase and part rent basis for people unable to afford mortgages. Brownfield siteA site which has been used for buildings or other development andhas been left to run down/become derelict. It will need to beimproved or cleared before it can be used again. Greenfield siteLand which has not been built on but which has been designated for development. Green belt An area of open land around a city, which is protected from development. This is to stop the city spreading further. Urban sprawl Urban growth, usually weakly controlled, into surrounding rural and semi-rural areas. New townsThe targeted and rapid expansion of a settlement (although they may also be built from scratch) to alleviate the pressure of overly high demand for housing in a region, especially on existing cities. Households An individual or a collection of individuals, living in a housing unit.Social housing Housing owned either by the local authority or housing associations, which is rented out, usually to people on low incomes. 7. Other key words Eco towns New towns which are exemplar green developments of a minimum of 5000 homes. They will be designed to meet the highest standards of sustainability, including low and zero carbon technologies and good public transport.Property ladder The term used to describe an individual or family's lifetime progress from cheaper to more expensive housing DwellingA house in which someone lives CommerceThe buying and selling of goods and services University of the 3rd an organisation providing educational, creative and leisure age activities for older people, including some vocational education and training programs. 8. e.g figure 3, page 4 Which of the resources in the booklet relate to each of the bullet points above? Annotate your paper to show the links between these issues and the resources on the following pages. 9. Why affordable, and why the urgency? 1.2 Million1.8 millionDense urban housingEcotowns are seen as a balance between the need for new houses andenvironmental sustainability 10. Why is urban sprawlneeding to beprevented? e.g. Basildon. This should warn us that ecotowns may not be successful if they are built too close to existing large urban areas. They are aiming to be as self sufficient as possible. 11. Middle Quinton, WarwickshireShipton, Oxfordshire Micheldever, Hampshire 12. The two pieces of data are linked. The higher the population, the higher the density of population. 500 70 Population density (People per squ km) 60450 50 Population (millions) 40400 3020 35010 0 3002009 2014 2019 2024 202920092014 20192024 2029 Year YearDescribe the pattern of predicted Describe the pattern of predictedpopulation increase population density increase 13. Be careful reading this divided bar chart- there is bound to be a data response question on it! Can you work out the figures for each group for 2016? Using data from the graph, give as many reasons as possible why there the number of households has increased and is predicted to increase. 14. Why is the quality of social housing lower than private? What is the change over time?Why?Where might many ofthese homes be located? 15. Market slows asaffordability becomesa big issue, especiallyamongst first timebuyers. Post- war boom in social housing e.g Dagenham Young people find it difficult to get on the housing ladder soMargaret Thatcher sells off a lot of the they start renting.social (council) housing in the UK Many landlords take advantage of this by purchasing apartments/ houses for rent (buy to let) 16. Will any of the three options help reduce the number of homeless households? 17. Why does London have the highest % homeless households? 18. Be able to compare the two sets of information using data. What impact has this had on low earners and the young wanting to buy homes? 19. Why is the property ladder so difficult to get on to? Increase due to demand from second home owners. Note: Ecotowns will be built in rural areas 20. Be able to identify trends in the data. Suggest reasons for these trends 21. Brownfield site Land which has been developed previously and is or has been occupied by a permanent structure. It may be in an urban or rural setting. It does not include agricultural land, forest or parks.Greenfield site Land which has not been occupied by a permanent structure. It usually applies to land in the countryside but can be undeveloped land within an urban setting. 22. Inadequate Clean uncontaminated services. land.Appealingenvironment. Reduced Fewer job development opportunities cost. for residents. Demand forhousing. Settlements become dormitories. May encourage rural development. Difficult to getWide-rangingplanningopposition. Clean permission. sheet forDamages No planningenvironment and infrastructure design. habitats. in place. 23. ImprovedIncrease the Quality of life and environmental economic value of thehousing stock can and human land and increases improve in health as areas the citys tax base. neighbouring areas. get cleaned up.Urban Fears of liability revitalisationif land not and the cleaned snowballadequately. effect. Developers find it Makes efficient hard to get use of existing financial backing infrastructure. because of the liability issue. Developing a Uncertain market brownfield site is more Lack of informationvalue stigma costly and more timeabout available sites. attached to consuming. brownfield sites. 24. To reduce homelessness?Especially in cities Sources of domestic Carbon emmisions? 25. Fill in the table to work out how sustainable each of the three options is. 26. Read http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/feb/10/communities.planning Why do many people think that eco-towns will be eco-disasters? What conflict can you foresee in each of the three options? 27. What issues does this cartoon raise? 28. Which of the three options do these views support or oppose? 29. Not in my back yard 30. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v37f5odx6ZM 31. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uJylaGk4gf4 32. Identify different viewpoints held by the players/stakeholders indicated in these Figs. Are they in favour of eco-towns or not? What aspect is their particular concern? - briefly summarise their viewpoint in the correct box(es)Aspect ofIn Favour of Eco-towns Vs Eco-towns concern Housing Need Energy Use Transport issuesProtection of wildlife & countrysideBrown vs Greenfield IssuesCommunityAspects 33. Using each mapFactor + - Road Rail AirportsFlood Risk Proximity to environmental ly sensitive areas Layout Location in relation to other settlements Existing use 34. Site A: Micheldever Station, Hampshire Micheldever Largest site (520 hectares) Greenfield site (High quality farmland) 28,000 population with 12,500 dwellings of which 5,000 affordable homes. 16,000 jobs (many working from home) Quick build Nucleated pattern Built around existing settlement 35. The Agricultural Land Classification (ALC) provides a method for assessing the quality of farmland to enable informed choices to be made about its future use within the planning system. It helps underpin the principles of sustainable development. The ALC system classifies land into five grades, with Grade 3 subdivided into Subgrades 3a and 3b. The best and most versatile land is defined as Grades 1, 2 and 3a This is the land which is most flexible, productive and efficient. Affected?Rare birds 36. Site B: Shipton, OxfordshireShipton Smallest site (180 hectares) Flood risk Brownfield site (Quarry and cement works) Extremely important for wildlife although lake will remain in plans. Fossils found here too 11, 400 population with 5,000 dwellings (1,500 affordable homes) 500 + 2000 jobs Layout split into small areas 37. Site C: Middle Quinton,Warwickshire Middle Quinton 240 hectares Flood risk Brownfield site (MOD) 15,000 population with 6,000 dwellings (2,000 affordable homes) 3,000 new jobs Quick build Housing built amongst woodland and lakes Improved access to M40 38. How sustainable is each option? Use the resources to rank each factor -3 to +3 Factor Option A Option B Option C GovernanceTransport & connectivityServicesEnvironmental Equity Eco

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