Click here to load reader

Digital Watersheds

  • View
    39

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Digital Watersheds. David R. Maidment Center for Research in Water Resources University of Texas at Austin. Waters Network Meeting Baltimore, Oct 23, 2007. Collaborators. San Diego Supercomputer Center Ilya Zaslavsky , David Valentine, Tom Whitenack Utah State University - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Digital Watersheds

  • Digital WatershedsDavid R. MaidmentCenter for Research in Water ResourcesUniversity of Texas at AustinWaters Network MeetingBaltimore, Oct 23, 2007

  • CollaboratorsSan Diego Supercomputer CenterIlya Zaslavsky, David Valentine, Tom WhitenackUtah State UniversityDavid Tarboton, Jeff Horsburgh, Kim SchreudersDrexel UniversityMichael Piasecki, Bora Beran, Yoori ChoiUniversity of South CarolinaJon Goodall

  • Additional CollaboratorsEnvironmental Systems Research InstituteDean Djokic, Zhumei Qian, Zichuan Ye, Christine Dartiguenave, Clint Brown, Steve KoppNational Center for Atmospheric ResearchDavid Gochis, Larry WinterUnidata, Boulder, COJon Caron, Ben DomenicoUniversity of Texas at AustinTim Whiteaker, Cedric David, Ernest To, Nishesh Mehta

  • Formal Publication of DataCollin Bode: Right now we dont have a mechanism for someone to publish a dataset: how do you give credit for a well groomed dataset?

    Johnnie Moore: Where is the archiving process? Where is the common data held and how will it be accessed? HIS is not pulling their data into one place do we need a centralized location/server for all data?

    Academic science is project based. What happens when the project ends?Need a peer review process for data

  • Digital WatershedHow can hydrologists integrate observed and modeled data from various sources into a single description of the environment?

  • Digital WatershedsRequirementsPrinciplesArc HydroNHDPlusModeling

  • Digital WatershedsRequirementsPrinciplesArc HydroNHDPlusModeling

  • RequirementsHydrologic synthesis: (Gnther Blschl, WRR 2006) is needed acrossProcesses: interacting dynamic systems including feedbacks between components Places: plethora of case studies around the world in past decadesScales: general characteristics of processes as a function of space and time scales for the same site or an ensemble of sites

  • Digital Watershed FrameworkMust be independent of process, place and scale so thatIt can be implemented for any process at any place at any scale;It can be used to link processes, compare places, and integrate across scalesHydrology of a dynamic earthHuman impact on landscapeNeed to think of evolution of critical zone in geologic time

  • Ilya Zaslavsky

  • Robust DW representation: formal requirementsStandard platform- and software-independent templateboth computer and human-readableCan materialize DW into common open or vendor-specific documents or services (e.g. geodatabases, map services, SOAP services) from both local and remote data and modelsExpresses how DW integrates different types of data objects from lower levels (data layers, services, real time streams, etc., processes and models, regulatory framework): various spatio-temporal or attribute join models (integration models)Support DW analsys for completeness (data gaps), consistency (projections, formats, temporal reference), availability of integration models ease of integration with other emerging digital representations (digital estuary, etc.)compatibility with CI: ontology support, SOA-reliance, XML representation of sources. evolving and flexible: ease of update as new knowledge or data sources become available

  • Hydrologic Information ServerMicrosoft SQLServer Relational DatabaseObservations DataGeospatial DataDASH data access system for hydrologyWaterOneFlow servicesArcGIS Server

  • Synthesis models in DWCo-location in space: boundaries of most data layers are defined by watershed boundariesOther types: based on functional relationships between watershed parameters (atmospheric, groundwater flows, underlying geology, as well as demographic and economic variables and processes that dont necessarily coincide with natural boundaries). For example: pointing to conditions upstream and downstream

    DW representation must explicitly include the types of joins between different watershed elements, to make automatic instantiation and update of digital watersheds possible. DW as a system of integrated views.

  • Some thoughts from yesterdayYong Liu: A digital watershed should include spatial, temporal and thematic content and be a platform for collaborationJohnnie Moore: A digital watershed is like a telescope that helps us to observe physical settingsPat Reed: A digital watershed should help with predicting responses to change

  • More thoughts from yesterdayCollin Bode: A desktop (digital) watershed is used to make predictions of salmon population habitat that can be tested with field studiesPaul Montagna: A way to integrate data from various places and interface with a policy frameworkIlya Zaslavsky: Need a common information model and a common way to share this information

  • Data ContinuityPaul Montagna: Where is all the data that the previous student compiled?Roger Bales: Digital Watershed provides for continuity in data collection and the ability to build on existing databases

  • Roger Bales

  • Digital EnvironmentsDigital watershed is one of several constructs that describe particular water environmentsOthers are digital atmosphere, digital lake, digital river, digital reach, digital snowpack, digital soil, digital aquifer, digital estuary, digital bayWe need a set of principles for design of digital environments and ways to trace the movement of water among them

  • Digital WatershedsRequirementsPrinciplesArc HydroNHDPlusModeling

  • Linking GIS and Water ResourcesGISWaterResources

  • Hydrologic Information SystemGIS the water environment Water Resources the water itself

  • What Have We Learned?Network : Site -- Sites have meaning within an observation network and are indexedwith Site Codes.Vocabulary : Variable -- Variables have meaning within a vocabulary and are indexedwith Variable Codes.SiteVariableValue (Time)

    Variable CodeVariable NameUnitsLBR:USU10Temperaturedegree celciusLBR:USU11Gage heightinternational footLBR:USU15Relative humiditypercentLBR:USU16PrecipitationmillimeterLBR:USU18Wind speedmeters per secondLBR:USU19Wind directiondegree

    Site CodeSite NameLatitudeLongitudeLittleBearRiver:USU-LBR-MendonLittle Bear River at Mendon Road near Mendon, Utah41.718473-111.946402LittleBearRiver:USU-LBR-ParadiseLittle Bear River at McMurdy Hollow near Paradise, Utah41.575552-111.855217LittleBearRiver:USU-LBR-ExpFarmUtah State University Experimental Farm near Wellsville, Utah41.666993-111.890567

  • Generalize the observations information modelLocationVariableValue (Time)An environment is described by a set of spatial featuresIndexed by Hydro CodeA process is described by a set of variablesIndexed by Variable CodeSite CodeVariable Code

  • Data CubeSpace, LTime, TVariables, VDWhatWhereWhenA simple data model: what, where, when

  • Continuous Space-Time Model NetCDF (Unidata)Space, LTime, TVariables, VDCoordinate dimensions{X}Variable dimensions{Y}http://www.daymet.orgGridded climate data daily time step, 1 km cellsStructured Grids

  • Discrete Space-Time Data ModelArcHydroSpace, FeatureIDTime, TSDateTimeVariables, TSTypeIDTSValueUnstructured Grids

  • 11CouplingTableSiteIDHydroIDSitesSiteIDSiteCodeSiteNameLatitudeLongitude11ORDefinition: A Digital Watershed is the electronic representation of the watershed representing the synthesis of both the data and the spatial representation of the dataODMDigital Watershed Geography Model

  • 11CouplingTableSiteIDHydroIDSitesSiteIDSiteCodeSiteNameLatitudeLongitude11ORProviding a Geographic RepresentationODMDigital Watershed Geography Model

  • Digital WatershedsRequirementsPrinciplesArc HydroNHDPlusModeling

  • Arc Hydro ComponentsHydroIDHydroID

  • Arc Hydro: GIS for Water ResourcesPublished by ESRI Press

    The Arc Hydro data model andapplication tools are in the publicdomain

  • Arc Hydro Hydrography

  • Arc Hydro Hydrology

  • Hydrologic Cycle ComponentsNetCDF in the AtmosphereArc Hydro for Surface WaterArc Hydro for Groundwater

  • Data Integration based on synthesis of data layers

  • Data Integration Based on BehaviorFollow a drop of water from where it falls on the land, to the stream, and all the way to the ocean.R.M. Hirsch, USGS

  • Integrating Data Inventory using a Behavioral ModelRelationships betweenobjects linked by tracing pathof water movement

  • Arc Hydro II one water modelSurface water featuresGroundwater featuresTime Series

  • Linking surface water and groundwater dataHydro networkAquifersIn the future go to 3D...Hydrovolumes and Geovolumes

  • Digital WatershedsRequirementsPrinciplesArc HydroNHDPlusModeling

  • Scales of Representation of Drainage SystemsNHDPlusBasins: Administratively chosendrainage areas

    Watersheds: A tesselation ofa basin for a particular purpose

    Catchments: A tesselation ofa basin using physical rules

    Digital Elevation Model: a representation of the land surface as a spatial continuum

  • 3-D detail of the Tongue river at the WY/Mont border from LIDAR. Roberto GutierrezUniversity of Texas at Austin

  • Water Resource Regions and HUCs

  • NHDPlus for Region 17E

  • NHDPlus Reach Catchments ~ 3km2About 1000 reach catchments in each 8-digit HUCAverage reach length = 2km2.6 million reaches for continental US

  • Reach AttributesSlopeElevationMean annual flowCorresponding velocityDrainage area% of upstream drainage area in different land usesStream order

  • Mean Annual Flow on NHDPlusMean Annual Flow and Velocityfor each reach is estimatedPercentile distributionsof flow are given forstream gage locations

  • BaseFlow Index on NHDPlusBaseFlow Index estimatesthe proportion of the meanannual flow that comes fromgroundwater

  • NHDPlus and National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD)NLCD is a classification of land cover by USGS into 21 classesNHDPlus Catchments have attributes of the % of each land cover class in their local areaNHDPlus Flowlines are attributed with their % land cover class from their total upstream watershed

  • NLCD Land Change1992 Land Cover2001 Land CoverUSGS is putting out in December 2007 a new Land Change productwhich consistently classifies 30m Landsat imagery from 1992and 2001 and produces a pixel by pixel accounting of land cover change in 7 land cover categories

  • NHDPlus has elevation attributes on streamsLongitudonal Stream Bed Profile

  • Arc Hydro connects geospatial and temporal water resources dataArc HydroNHDPlusWeatherStreamflow

  • Digital WatershedsRequirementsPrinciplesArc HydroNHDPlusModeling

  • Hydrologic SimulationHow do we enable a community approach to models? A framework, concept with open source tools?The NCAR approach very large computing resources operating over a complex modeling framework (CCMP)The OpenMI approach making existing models interoperable and creating model services

  • Hydrologic SimulationHow do we enable a community approach to models? A framework, concept with open source tools?The NCAR approach very large computing resources operating over a complex modeling framework (CCMP)The OpenMI approach making existing models interoperable and creating model services

  • Climate Model Hydrology Linkage

    Atmospheric Data (NARR+NEXRAD)Stream and River Flow ModelLand Surface - Atmosphere Model (NOAH)Cedric David, David Gochis (NCAR)

  • NOAH Land Surface ModelLand atmosphere processes First version in 1999Noah is fully coupled with WRF (North American Model)900 m resolution in our study

  • NOAH-Distributed adds Land Surface Routing processesOverland flow routing: fully unsteady, explicit, finite difference, 2-dimensional diffusive wave flowing over the land surface Subsurface runoff: 'Shallow' groundwater flow (down to 2m depth) explicitly modeled using a quasi-steady state saturated flow model 30 m resolution in our study

  • Sphere-spheroid conversionLatitude is differentEarth is a SphereEarth is a SpheroidHydrologyAtmospheric sciences

  • Running NOAH-D over NHDPlus at NCARNARRDownward radiationsTemperatureWindPressureHumidityNHDPlusElevationIdeal precipitationSoil moistureRunoffUpward radiationsEvapotranspirationetc.30 m land surface routing900 m land/atmosphere interactionConclusion is that thereis greater granularity in thelandscape than in the atmosphereand land atmosphere modelneeds to be adapted to NHDPlusnot the reverse

  • Hydrologic SimulationHow do we enable a community approach to models? A framework, concept with open source tools?The NCAR approach very large computing resources operating over a complex modeling framework (CCMP)The OpenMI approach making existing models interoperable and creating model services

  • Project sponsored by the European Commission to promote integration of water models within the Water Framework DirectiveSoftware standards for model linkingUses model core as an enginehttp://www.openMI.org

  • OpenMI Conceptual FrameworkVALUESAll values are referenced in a what-where-when framework, allowing different data resources or models to communicate dataAn application of the data cube to integrate simulation modelsJon Goodall, University of South Carolina

  • Typical model architectureApplicationUser interface + engineEngineSimulates a process flow in a channelAccepts inputProvides outputModelAn engine set up to represent a particular location e.g. a reach of the ThamesEngineOutput dataInput dataModel applicationRunWriteWriteRead

  • Linking modelled quantities

    AcceptsProvidesUpstream Inflow(m3/s)Outflow(m3/s)Lateral inflow(m3/s)Abstractions(m3/s)Discharges(m3/s)

  • Data transfer at run time

  • Models for the processesRiver(InfoWorks RS)Rainfall (database)Sewer(Mouse)RR(Sobek-Rainfall-Runoff)

  • Data exchangeRiver(InfoWorks-RS)Rainfall (database)Sewer(Mouse)2 RR.GetValuesRR(Sobek-Rainfall-Runoff)1 Trigger.GetValuescalldata4589

  • Coupling the HIS with Hydrologic Simulation Models using OpenMIODMObservationsData ModelWaterOneFlow Web ServicesWater Markup LanguageWOFWaterMLMODFLOWHEC-RASOthersSWATHSPFacademic models...The Open Modelling Interface (OpenMI)

  • OpenMIComponent-based modeling frameworkDefines a standard for interfacing models, databases, and web services.

    WaterOneFlow Web ServicesWOFOpenMILinkable ComponentOpenMIModel Configuration(1)(2)(3)

  • Web Services for ModelsHEC-RASUSGSNWISWSDLWSDLWeb Services for Simulation ModelsWaterOneFlow Web Services for DataOpenMI WorkflowIn an effort to build cyberinfrastructure for the hydrologic sciences, we are extending OpenMI to utilize models as web services.

  • Extending OpenMI for Distributed ComputingConnects to remote database via web servicesConnects to remote model via web servicesGoal: To allow a modeler to create a workflow from OpenMI components that wrap web services.Model linkage designed on client machine

  • Digital WatershedHow can hydrologists integrate observed and modeled data from various sources into a single description of the environment?

  • Digital WatershedsRequirementsPrinciplesArc HydroNHDPlusModeling

    A Digital Watershed is the electronic representation of the watershed representing the synthesis of both the data and the spatial representation of the dataNotes:

    Industrial partners: ESRI, Danish Hydraulic Institute, Camp,Dresser and McKee, Dodson and AssociatesGovernment partners: Federal: EPA, USGS, Corps of Engineers (Hydrologic Engineering Center)State: Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Texas Water Development BoardLocal: Lower Colorado River Authority, City of Austin, Dept of Watershed ProtectionAcademic Partners: University of Texas, Brigham Young University, Utah State University

    An engine simulates a process water flowing in a channelAn engine +data is a model of a particular process the Rhine****