Developing Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Young 30027481/bird-developingself...Developing Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Young Students by ... and self-reflection. ... strategies into their teaching in order to develop students’ self-regulating

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  • Developing Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Young Students

    by

    Lyn Bird,

    BA, Dip Tch, MEd (Hons)

    Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    Deakin University

    September, 2009

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    I certify that the thesis entitled

    Developing Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Young students

    submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    is the result of my own work and that where reference is made to the work of others, due acknowledgment is given.

    I also certify that any material in the thesis which has been accepted for a degree or diploma by any university or institution is identified in the text.

    Full Name..................................................

    Signed ...................................................................................

    Date.......................................................................................

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    Acknowledgments There are a number of people deserving of my acknowledgment. I will always be indebted to my excellent supervisor Andrea Allard. Her

    knowledge, skills, and patience were invaluable, as was her measured advice and

    critique.

    I would like to acknowledge the contribution of the participating schools,

    students, and the teachers, who willingly gave their expertise and allowed me to

    use their work.

    My wonderful husband Graham Browne has supported and encouraged me

    throughout the PhD journey lifting my spirits when the going got tough and

    selflessly accepted the many sacrifices.

    Lastly, I would like to thank my parents, Isobel and Michael Bird, my two

    brothers, Michael and Chris Bird, and my son Tim Fluitsma, for their love,

    generous support, and their belief in me.

  • Developing Self-Regulated Learning Skills in

    Young Students

    Abstract

    In 2007 the New Zealand Ministry of Education released a revised national

    curriculum statement which was underpinned by five key competency groups.

    One of the competency groups, Managing Self, encompasses key features of self-

    regulated learning. Setting and achieving goals, time management, planning, self-

    monitoring, self-evaluating and taking control of ones learning are all self-

    regulatory processes regarded as essential for lifelong learning. My study aimed to

    explore how teachers introduce and develop particular self-regulating learning

    strategies and tools in primary classrooms to improve students skills in self

    management of learning. Specifically it aimed to find out: how teachers integrated

    self-regulated learning strategies; how could self-regulated learning strategies be

    introduced during the learning cycle; and how different groups of students

    develop these learning strategies.

    Although theories of self-regulated learning differ, they all broadly define self-

    regulated learning as a blend of cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, and social

    factors which effect how a learner approaches academic tasks.

    This research is situated within the social-cognitive perspective which views self-

    regulated learning as an open-ended process and a combination of self

    observation, self-judgment, and self-reaction. Self-regulation theorists view

    learning as a cyclical activity that occurs in three major phases: forethought,

    performance or volitional control, and self-reflection. The model adopted, for

    trialing, based on Zimmermans Self-Regulated Learning Cycle, incorporated

    these phases and emphasized their dynamic interaction. The teachers trialed the

    use of specific self-regulated learning strategies and tools within the learning

    cycle, integrating them within an inquiry approach to learning.

    Action research methodology was employed as it is a cyclic, participative,

    reflective, flexible and responsive approach which ensures its compatibility with

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    the studys social cognitive perspective. Teacher interviews and video stimulated

    recall sessions were means to develop a complex and complete picture of how

    teachers worked with self-regulated learning processes, and the context in which

    these occurred. The data generated multiple voices and multiple perspectives on

    how to develop self-regulated learning skills in young students.

    By participating in an action research study the teacher participants had the

    opportunity to develop content knowledge, and undertake an inquiry cycle trialing

    an intervention, testing solutions to problems and refining their practice core

    features of high quality professional development. In effect, the teachers

    participated in a community of learners deriving meaning from their own

    classroom experience, critically reflecting and actively collaborating with their

    colleagues. The teachers practical ideas and advice offers other teachers a

    stimulus for critical reflection and collegial discussion regarding self-regulated

    learning across primary school year levels. For example, the teacher participants

    identified key elements of formative assessment as important classroom practice

    when developing self-regulated learners.

    This folio consists of a dissertation and an informed discussion of my professional

    writing and practice. The study will provide schools with an effective professional

    development model built around action research that has a meaningful effect on

    teacher learning and fosters improvements in classroom practice.

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    Table of Contents

    Contents Section 1: Introduction to the Folio ..................................................................... 9

    1.1: Introduction .................................................................................................. 9 1.2: The Dissertation ......................................................................................... 16 1.3: Professional Writing and Practice .............................................................. 17 1.4: Conclusion .................................................................................................. 20

    Section 2: Dissertation ......................................................................................... 23 CHAPTER 1: Introduction ................................................................................ 23

    1.1: Contextualising the Study .......................................................................... 23 1.2: A New Zealand Primary School Classroom .............................................. 26 1.3: Research Questions .................................................................................... 28 1.4: The Setting and the Participants ................................................................. 29 1.5: Social Constructivist Learning Environments ............................................ 30 1.6: Describing a Self-Regulated Learner and How They Learn ...................... 32 1.7: Self-Regulated Learning and Enhanced Learning ..................................... 33 1.8: Self-Regulated Learning Strategies: Why Are They Important? ............... 34 1.9: What Are Self-Regulated Learning Strategies? ......................................... 36 1.10: Specific Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Tools Used in this Study ........................................................................................................................... 36 1.11: Significance of the Study ......................................................................... 37 1.12: Summary of the Chapters ......................................................................... 38

    CHAPTER 2: Literature Review ....................................................................... 40 2.1: Introduction ................................................................................................ 40 2.2: Behaviourism and How It Applies to Learning ......................................... 40 2.3: Cognitivism ................................................................................................ 41 2.4: Constructivism and How it Applies to Learning ........................................ 42 2.5: Self-Regulated Learning an Overview .................................................... 45 2.6: Social Cognitive Theory ............................................................................. 46 2.7: Self-Regulated Learning Models: a Comparison ....................................... 48 2.8: Zimmermans Self-Regulated Cycle of Learning ...................................... 50 2.9: Self-Regulated Learning Strategies ............................................................ 52 2.10: The Cycle of Learning and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Tools ........................................................................................................................... 53 2.11: A Detailed Description of the Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Tools Used in the Study .................................................................................... 55

    2.11.1: Formative Assessment Strategies ...................................................... 55 2.11.2: Planning and Monitoring Strategies ................................................. 58 2.11.3: Reflecting Strategies: ........................................................................ 61 2.11.4: On Task Tools ................................................................................... 66

    2.12: Self-Regulated Learning and Research on Teaching ............................... 69 2.13: Conclusion ................................................................................................ 71

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    CHAPTER 3: Research Methodology, Design and Ethical Considerations ................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    3.1: Introduction ................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.2: Quantitative and Qualitative Paradigms ..... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.3: Situating Action Research in a Qualitative ParadigmError! Bookmark not defined. 3.4: The Development of Action Research ....... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.5: Action Research in Practice ....................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.6: Elements of Good Action Research ........... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.7: Research Design ......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.8: The Simultaneous Action Research Cycles Employed .... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    3.8.1: The Teacher Participant Macro Action Research Cycle ............. Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.8.2: The Researcher Macro Action Research Cycle ... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    3.9: Data Collection...85 3.9.1: Phase One: Initial Questionnaire and Professional Development Sessions ........................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.9.2: Phase Two: Video Stimulated Recall Sessions .... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.9.3: Phase Three: Mid-Study Focus Group Discussion .... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.9.4: Phase Four: Final Questionnaire ......... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    3.10: Data Analysis ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.10.1: Content Analysis ................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.10.2: Constant Comparative Method ........... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.10.3: Researcher Bias .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.11: Ethical Considerations ........................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    3.12: My Roles as the Researcher ..................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.13: Conclusion ................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

    CHAPTER 4: Data Presentation and Emergent Themes: Questions One and Two ........................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    4.1: Research Question One: How do teachers integrate self-regulated learning strategies into their teaching in order to develop students self-regulating behaviours? ........................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.2: Data Analysis Related to the Integration of Specific Strategies and Tools: timing, modeling, age suitability, providing trialing and reflecting opportunities ........................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    4.2.1: Goal-Setting and Monitoring ............................................................ 113 4.2.2: Sharing the Learning Intentions and Developing Success Criteria ......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.2.3: Using Learning Models and Exemplars Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.2.4: Self-Regulated Tools Identified by the Teachers .. Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.2.5: Performance/Sharing Time ................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.2.6: Reflecting Strategies ............................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.2.7: Discussion of Processes Used by Teachers ......... Error! Bookmark not defined.

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    4.3: Summary of the Main Themes Emerging from Research Question One ........................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.4: Research Question Two: How can self-regulated learning strategies be introduced to the learner at particular phases of Zimmermans Cycle of Learning? ........................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.5: Summary of the Main Themes Emerging from Research Question Two ........................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    CHAPTER 5: Data Presentation and Emergent Themes: Question Three ................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    5.1: Research Question Three: How do different groups of children develop self-regulated learning strategies? ..................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.2 Data Related to Gender ............................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.3: Data Related to Other Groups of Students . Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.4: Data Related to Particular Year Levels Two Case Studies .............. Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.5: Case Study One a Year Seven/Eight Classroom Teacher (Male) .... Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.6: Case Study Two a Year Zero to One Classroom Teacher (Female) Error! Bookmark not defined.

    5.6.1: Setting and Monitoring Goals ............... Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.6.2: Sharing the Learning Intentions and Success Criteria ................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.6.3: Providing Models/Exemplars for Students to Refer to and Self-Evaluate Against .............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.6.4: Providing Performance/Sharing Sessions so that Students Were Involved in Reflection, Self-Assessment and Peer-Assessment Opportunities ......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    5.7: Summary of...

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