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  • Developing metacognitive interaction between tutor and student in PBL-tutorial

    Tri Hanggono Achmad

    Medical Education Research and Development Unit (MERDU) School of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung-Indonesia

    Tutoring is a teaching skill central to problem-based learning. To facilitate student independence and foster student’s critical thinking and self-directed continued learning, the tutor should guide the students at metacognitive level. Interaction with the student at the metacognitive level is the basic function of the tutor. Metacognitive thinking skill provides the key to the positive and active role of the tutor. Structure of tutorial process is a road map for sequence of metacognitive thinking, to shape student to become a self directed learner. The desired end point of the tutorial process is when each student employs his own metacognitive skills automatically and easily with every task, situation or problem, which could mean that the tutorial group will eventually run on its own. For this purpose, tutors as well as students should understand properly the structure of tutorial process and metacognitive thinking. This could be achieved by continually monitoring and evaluating the tutorial process, and giving feedback to the tutors as well as to the students. Data from our monitoring tools shows that the longer the students taking part in tutorial process, the better their understanding in metacognitive thinking, which is showed by their increase ability in running a proper tutorial process, such as developing the learning issues, synthesizing biomedical science and correlating information necessary for clarification of concepts relevant to the case. On the tutor’s side, even after a continue tutor development program, data from last year student’s evaluation form on tutor activity showed that only 55.3 % of tutor can facilitate effective tutorial group process, and only 58.2 % of them are excellent in facilitating group’s ability to think critically. This phenomena show that it is easier to develop interaction in metacognitive level in student’s mind than in tutor, which is in part could be due to the influence of traditional teaching method that has been embedded in traditional teacher’s mind.

  • Faculty of Medicine - Universitas Padjadjaran

    Tri Hanggono Achmad

    Developing Developing MetacognitiveMetacognitive Interaction Interaction between Tutor and Student between Tutor and Student

    in PBLin PBL--TutorialTutorial

    MEDICAL EDUCATION RESEACH & DEVELOPMENT UNIT (MERDU)

  • Faculty of Medicine - Universitas Padjadjaran

    Tri H. Achmad

    • TUTORIAL IS CENTRAL IN PBL  IT IS THE HEART OF PBL

    • THROUGH TUTORIAL STUDENTS ARE DRIVE TO DEVELOP REASONING SKILLS AND BECOME AN INDEPENDENT, SELF DIRECTED LEARNER

  • TUTORIAL ROOM

  • METACOGNITIVE THINKINGMETACOGNITIVE THINKING

    METACOGNITIVE THINKING VS IMPULSIVE THINKING

     THINKING ABOUT THINKING  CONVERSATION WITH A PROBLEM

  • POSITIVE-ACTIVE ROLE OF THE TUTOR

     Qs, CHALLENGES  STUDENT AWARENESS WHAT SHOULD BE

    THOUGHT-SOUGHT  FACILITATE STUDENT’S INDEPENDENT,

    SELF DIRECTED LEARNING AND CRITICAL THINKING

    METACOGNITIVE THINKINGMETACOGNITIVE THINKING

  • PROBLEM 

    INVESTIGATE (OBS, Qs, TESTING, PROBING)

     REVIEW, REFLECTION, THOUGHT, DELIBERATION

    METACOGNITIVE THINKINGMETACOGNITIVE THINKING

    INTERNAL SOURCES EXTERNAL SOURCES

  • THE PBL CYCLETHE PBL CYCLE

    THE PROBLEM WHAT WE DO NOT KNOW

    APPLY LEARN WHAT WE DO THE KNOWLEDGE NOT KNOW

  • STRUCTURE OF STRUCTURE OF PROBLEM SOLVINGPROBLEM SOLVING

    STEPS IN THE TUTORIAL PROCESS

    4.

    3.

    a. b. c.

    2.

    i. ii.

    i. ii.

    a. b. c.

    1.

    Learning Issues

    I don’t knowMore Info ?Mechanism ?Hypotheses ?Problem

  • 2019201818131818

    P.Sila (2)

    Civics (2)

    Agama (2)

    BH VIII (1)

    BH VII (1)

    BH VI (1)

    BH V (1)

    BH IV (1)

    BH III (2)

    BH II (2)

    BH I (2)

    CRP IV - (4)

    CRP III - (2)

    CRP II - (1)

    CRP I - (3)

    FBS X (2)

    FBS V (2)

    CHOP IV - (2)

    CHOP III - (3)

    CHOP II - (1)

    CHOP I - (3)

    FBS IX (3)

    FBS IV (2)

    CSP (1)

    CSP (1)

    CSP (1)

    CSP (1)

    CSP (1)

    CSP (1)

    FBS VIII (2)

    FBS III (2)

    Incl. Lec/Lab

    Incl. Lec/Lab

    Incl. Lec/Lab

    Incl. Lec/Lab

    Incl. Lec/Lab

    Incl. Lec/Lab

    FBS VII (4)

    FBS II (3)

    RSS(6) TMS (6)

    GIS (6) EMS (6)

    HIS (8) CVS (8)

    DMS (10)NBS (10) GUS (6)

    RPS (10)

    FBS VI (3)

    FBS I (3)

    87654321

    4/8/04

  • 1. Learning issues that discuss in 1st day are:………. 2. Learning issues that discuss in 2nd day are:………. 3. Learning issues that discuss in 3rd day are:………. 4. Learning issues that discuss in 4th day are:………. 5. According to tutor how does the learning issues appear?

    a. by themselves b. by guiding c. difficult 6. According to tutor how did the time provide for the case?

    a. need more time b. enough c. more than enough 7. Did the tutor in this case change?

    a. Yes, why? B. No 8. On the last day did all the learning issues discuss by students?

    a. Yes B. No, why? 9. According to tutor’s opinion what is lack from or what learning

    issues should be added?

    Case evaluationCase evaluation

  • Case evaluationCase evaluation

    7.192.916.080.04.0031.268.87RSS

    0100092.37.7031.268.88EMS

    13.286.8065.035.03.746.350.011GIS

    10.090.08.771.320.0067.532.510HIS

    18.781.32.273.923.93.152.144.812DMS

    24.175.91.971.726.4062.537.58NBSS

    82.117.9082.317.7957.733.311RPS

    8b8a6c6b6a5c5b5aCase No.System

  • 0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    5a 5b 5c 6a 6b 6c 8a 8b

    RPS NBSS DMS HIS GIS EMS RSS

    10

    12

    8

    11

    No. of Case

    RSS

    EMS

    GIS

    System

    7

    8

    11

    No. of CaseSystem

    HIS

    DMS

    NBS

    RPS

  • Faculty of Medicine - Universitas Padjadjaran

    Student evaluation on tutor performance

    Firman F. Wirakusumah & Tri H. Achmad

    31236492113948184150>3

    0832601132660126732

    4183147215364721131561

    In.Mi.Sa.Ex.In.Mi.Sa.Ex.In.Mi.Sa.Ex.

    Critical thinkEffective processT. preparednessNo. Tut.

  • Pitfalls in tutorial process Systematic vs jumping process

    Metacognitive vs impulsive More structured, integrated & better contents

    Challenge to a deeper knowledge Reflection

    Role model vs information resource Student’s discipline

  • METACOGNITIVE THINKINGMETACOGNITIVE THINKING

    USING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE, EXPERIENCES

    TO UNDERSTAND A PROBLEM AND

    FORMULATE A SOLUTION

     “CONVERSATION WITH A PROBLEM”

  • Reference :Reference :

    Barrows HS, The Tutorial Process, revised edition, Springfield, Illinois, Southern Illinois University, School of Medicine, 1988

    Kiley M, Mullins G, Peterson R, Rogers T, in Leap, Problem Based Learning,

    http://www.acue.adelaide.edu.ayu/leap/leapinto/pbl/index.html

  • Faculty of Medicine - Universitas Padjadjaran – www.fk.unpad.ac.id

    Medical Education Research &Development Unit (MERDU)