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    DESIGN OF MICRO-HYDROPOWER SYSTEM FOR A STAND-

     ALONE RURAL VILLAGE ELECTRIFICATION 

     ALPHONSUS SONG HUA BING

    Bachelor of Engineering with Honours

    (Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering)

    2010

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    UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK

    R13a

    BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS THESIS

    Judul: DESIGN OF MICRO-HYDROPOWER SYSTEM FOR A STAND-ALONE RURAL VILLAGE ELECTRIFICATION

    SESI PENGAJIAN: 2009/2010

    Saya ALPHONSUS SONG HUA BING

    (HURUF BESAR)

    Mengaku membenarkan tesis * ini disimpan di Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti

    Malaysia Sarawak dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

    1. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

    2. Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak dibenarkan membuat salinan

    untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.

    3. Membuat pendigitan untuk membangunkan Pangkalan Data kandungan Tempatan.4. Pusat khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak dibenarkan membuat salinan

    tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi.

    5. ** Sila tandakan ( √  ) di kota yang berkenaan

    SULIT (Mengandungi maklumat uang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan

    Malaysia seperti uang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972).

    TERHAD (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/

    Badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan).

    TIDAK

    TERHAD

    Disahkan oleh

    (TANDATANGAN PENULIS) (TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

    Alamat tetap:

     No.1C LANE 10 LADA ROAD Dr. ANDREW R.H RIGIT

     Nama Penyelia

    96000 SIBU SARAWAK

    Tarikh: Tarikh:

    CATATAN * Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah, Sarjana dan Sarjana Muda. ** Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/organisasi berkenaan dengan

    menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT dan TERHAD.

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    APPROVAL SHEET

    This project report which entitled “DESIGN OF MICRO-HYDROPOWER SYSTEM FOR A

    STAND-ALONE RURAL VILLAGE ELECTRIFICATION” was prepared by Alphonsus Song

    Hua Bing (15935) is hereby read and approved by:

    Dr.Andrew R.H Rigit Date

    Project Supervisor

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    DESIGN OF MICRO-HYDROPOWER SYSTEM

    FOR A STAND-ALONE RURAL VILLAGE

    ELECTRIFICATION

    ALPHONSUS SONG HUA BING

    Thesis is submitted to

    Faculty of Engineering, University Malaysia Sarawak

    In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

    For the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering

    With Honours (Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering) 2010

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    i

    To my beloved family and friends

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    ii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I would like to express my appreciation to those who had given assistance and

    help throughout this entire project. First of all, I would like to thanks my

    supervisor, Dr. Andrew R.H Rigit for all the guidance and advices that had been

    given in order to ensure the project can be complete in time. Secondly, thanks are

    also given to author ’s friends and other members of Mechanical Engineering

    Department, Unimas. Last but not least, special thanks to author’s parents for

    financial support during studies in Unimas.

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    iii

    ABSTRACT

    Micro-hydropower system is a system that used to produce electricity. Its main

    concept is transfer the kinetic energy of water flowing to electric energy by a

    generator. When water flows from a head, the water flowing contains kinetic and

     potential energy. Thus, when water flows knocked the turbine bucket, the turbine

    will rotate and turning the generator. Generator can produce electric energy

    through rotation of dynamo that will cut through electromagnetic field. These all

    mechanisms are the main features of a complete micro hydropower system. The

    main objective of this study is to identify the equations used to do calculation

    regarding the system and main output is the parameter such as size of nozzle and

    turbine that need to use to produce desired power output. A program is created

    using Matlab7 software that includes the combination of equations to do

    calculation on deciding size and parameter of components that will be used

    during installation of the system. There are also a few limitations in this study

    such as the flexibility of the equation used in program created, system efficiency

    and limitation of materials selection for designing penstock system which the

    thickness can be calculated in the program. Recommendations are given to make

    the entire process more accurate and some problem can be solved.

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    iv

    ABSTRAK

    Sistem mini tenaga hydro merupakan satu sistem yang digunakan untuk menjana

    tenaga elektrik. Konsep utama sistem ini adalah menukar tenaga kinetic aliran air

    kepada tenaga elektrik dengan menggunakan generator. Apabila air mengalir dari

    satu ketinggian, pengaliran air mengandungi tenaga kinetic dan tenaga yang

     berpotensi. Oleh itu, semasa air mengalir memukul baldi turbine, turbine akan

     berpusing dan memutar generator. Generator dapat menghasilkan tenaga elektrik

    melalui putaran dynamo yang memotong medan electromagnet. Semua

    mekanisme ini merupakan sifat-sifat utama sistem mini tenaga hydro yang

    lengkap. Tujuan utama penyelidikan ini adalah mengenal pasti persamaan-

     persamaan yang digunakan untuk membuat pengiraan tentang output utama

    seperti saiz nozzle dan turbine yang digunakan untuk menjana tenaga elektrik

    yang diperlukan. Dalam penyelidikan ini, beberapa had yang tidak dapat

    diselesaikan juga akan dibincangkan. Satu program juga direka dengan

    menggunakan perisian Matlab7. 

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    v

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    Page

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii

    ABSTRACT iii

    ABSTRAK iv

    LIST OF TABLE viii

    LIST OF FIGURE ix

    CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Energy Market Tendencies 1

    1.1.1 What is Mini-Hydro? 5

    1.2 Background of Micro-Hydropower System 6

    1.3 Problem statements 7

    1.3.1 Is Micro-Hydropower for you? 8

    1.4 Objective of the study 9

    1.5 Summary 9

    CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 Introduction 10

    2.2 Micro-Hydropower definition and components 11

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    vi

    2.3 How to Identify a Potential Site 13

    2.4 Planning for a System 18

    2.4.1 How to Measure Potential Power and Energy 18

    2.5 Basic Components of a Micro-Hydropower System 25

    2.5.1 Civil Works Components 25 2.5.2 Powerhouse Components 31

    2.5.3 Transmission/Distribution Network 38

    2.6 How to Choose a System 39

    2.6.1 Case Study 1 39

    CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

    3.1 Introduction 42

    3.2 Method of identification problem 42

    3.2.1 Methods of identification to measure water flow rate 43

    3.2.1.1 Container Method 44 3.2.1.2 Float Method 45

    3.2.1.3 Weir Method 45

    3.2.1.4 Salt and Conductivity Meter Method 47

    3.2.1.5 Current Meter Method 48 3.2.1.6 Summary 49

    3.2.2 Method of identification to determine and measure head 49

    3.2.2.1 Sighting Meters 49 3.2.2.2 Dumpy Levels and Theodolites 50

    3.2.2.3 Water-Filled Tube and Rod Method 51

    3.2.2.4 Altimeters 52

    3.2.3 Method of identification of penstock system 52

    3.2.3.1 Method of identification constraints in deciding 53 diameter of penstock

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    vii

    3.2.3.2 Method of identification constraints in deciding 54

    wall thickness

    3.2.4 Method of identification of turbine system 55

    3.3 Conclusion 58

    CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

    4.1 Introduction 59

    4.2 Equation analysis 60

    4.2.1 Penstock analysis 60

    4.2.2 Turbine analysis 65 4.2.2.1 Operation of Pelton turbine 66

    4.2.3 Nozzle analysis 69

    4.3 Operation of Program created using Matlab7 69

    CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    5.1 Colclusion 78

    5.1.1 Colebrook-white equation (Haaland equation) 78

      5.1.2 System efficiency 79

      5.1.3 Thickness of penstock 80

    5.2 Recommendation 80

    REFERENCES 81

    APPENDIX 83

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    viii

    LIST OF TABLES 

    Table Page

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