Critical Thinking About Media: Media Literacy Skills All Students Need Frank W.Bakermedia firstname.lastname@example.org Media Literacy Clearinghousehttp://www.frankwbaker.com
Media literacy 101 What do we want students to know about the media?
Media literacy 101 It would be a breach of our duties as teachers for us to ignore the rhetorical power of visual forms of media in combination with text and soundthe critical media literacy we need to teach must include evaluation of these media, lest our students fail to see, understand, and learn to harness the persuasive power of visual media. NCTE Resolution on Visual/Media Literacy
IRA/NCTE Standards for the English Language Arts 6. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions, media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts. 8. Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.
Media literacy 101Conventional: Read --------------- Write
Media literacy 101
Media literacy 10187% of U.S. teens between 12 and 17 years of age use the Internet; just 66% of adults do so; 81% of teen Internet users play games online;76% get news online;51% of teen Internet users say they go online on a daily basis; 43% have made purchases online; and 31% use the Internet to get health infoSource: Teens and Technology: Youth Are Leading the Transition to a Fully Wired and Mobile Nation (2005) & "Life Online: Teens and Technology and the World to Come," (2006)
Media literacy 101 Our students are growing up in a world saturated with media messagesyet, they (and their teachers) receive little or no training in the skills of analyzing or re-evaluating these messages, many of which make use of language, moving images, music, sound effects. Source: R.Hobbs, Journal Adult & Adolescent Literacy, February 2004
Media literacy 101American Association of School LibrariesInternational Reading AssociationNatl. Board of Prof. Teaching StandardsNational Council for Teachers of EnglishNational Middle School AssociationPartnership for 21st Century SkillsWhite House Office of National Drug Control Policy
Media literacy 101 What is media literacy?
Why should your students become media literate?
Media literacy is concerned with helping students develop an informed and critical understanding ofthe nature of mass media, the techniques used by them, and the impact of these techniques. More specifically, it is education that aims to increase the students' understanding and enjoyment of howthe media work, how they produce meaning, how they are organized, and how they construct reality.Media literacy also aims to provide students with the ability to create media products. (Source: Media Literacy Resource Guide, Ministry of Education Ontario, 1997)
What media literacy is:Set of skills, knowledge, & abilitiesAwareness of personal media habitsUnderstanding of how media worksAppreciation of medias power/influenceAbility to discern; critically question/viewHow meaning is created in mediaHealthy skepticismAccess to mediaAbility to produce & create media
Media literacy in SC ELA
ElementaryMiddleHigh SchoolRecognize details, setting, characters and cause and effect in material from nonprint sourcesDemonstrate the ability to distinguish between fact and opinion, to compare and contrast info and ideas, and make inferences in regard to what is viewedAnalyze nonprint sources for accuracy, bias, intent and purpose
Media literacy in SC ELADraft of Revised ELA Standards (2006-2007) Standard 1 The student will read and comprehend print and nonprint texts. Standard 7 The student will access and use information for a variety of purposes
Media literacy 101 If video is how we are communicating and persuading in this new century, why aren't more students writing screenplays as part of their schoolwork? Heidi Hayes Jacob Ed Consultant
Media literacy 101 Movies, advertisements, and all other visual media are tools teachers need to use and media we must master if we are to maintain our credibility in the coming years. Jim Burke, from The English Teachers Companion
Core ConceptsAll media are constructedMedia are constructed using unique languages with their own set of rulesMedia convey values and points of viewAudiences negotiate meaningMedia = Power + Profit
Source: Center for Media Literacy www.medialit.org
All media are constructed
What is this?No, this is a PHOTOGRAPH of a horse.
Media are constructed using unique languages with their own set of rulesLanguage of film Camera Lights Sound/Music Sets Editing
Media convey values and points-of-view
Audiences negotiate meaning
Media = Power + Profit Big 6 Media FOX (News Corp) NBC (GE) CBS ABC (Disney) CNN (AOL/Time Warner) VIACOM What are the implications/ramifications if only 6 companies control magazines, newspapers, TV, radio, newspapers, Internet, film, etc.?
Advertiser~AudienceThis programis brought toyou by thesponsor.You are brought to the sponsor by the program.
Critical thinking questionsWho produces/pays for media?For what purpose(s) was it made?For which target audience(s)?What techniques attract attention; increase believability?Who or what is omitted and why?How do we know what it means?Does it contain bias or stereotypes?
Techniqueswell known case of the digital creation of a magazine cover featuring a woman who does not exist
TechniquesThe box of Oreos was not in the original NBC Friends: it was placed there virtually for DVD/syndication exposure
Critical Thinking QuestionsWho produces/pays for media?For what purpose(s) was it made?For which target audience(s)?What techniques attract attention; increase believability?Who or what is omitted and why?How do we know what it means?Does it contain bias or stereotypes?
Applying critical thinking questions to examples
Languages of TV-FilmCameraLightsAudio (including music)Post production (editing, SFX)Set designActors: wardrobe; expression
Deconstructing CommercialsHalf of the room watches the other half closes their eyesMake a list of what you heard/saw
Cell phone commercialScript
The Language of film To Kill A Mockingbird Opening credits (symbolism) The Pocket Watch A Sound In The Night (fear)
Tuck Everlasting woods scene (music)
Frank Bakermedia email@example.com Media Literacy Clearinghouse http://www.frankwbaker.comCritical Thinking About Media: Media Literacy Skills All Students Need