INFORMATION LITERACY AND CRITICAL THINKING ?· Information Literacy and Critical Thinking: 21 st Century…

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<ul><li><p>1</p><p>Information Literacy and Critical Thinking: 21st Century Skills for Conducting Research</p><p>Indiana High Ability State Conference</p><p>Indianapolis, IN</p><p>January 23, 2012Dr. Kimberley L. Chandler</p><p>Curriculum Director</p><p>Center for Gifted Education</p><p>The College of William and Mary</p><p></p><p>757-221-2588</p><p>Background Information</p><p>and</p><p>Related Research</p></li><li><p>2</p><p>Basic Premises Related to Teaching Research Skills to Primary Gifted Students</p><p> The childs developmental level must be considered.</p><p> The childs existing knowledge and level of understanding </p><p>must be assessed.</p><p> A logical sequence of information literacy skills must be </p><p>included when designing instructional activities which </p><p>relate to the research process. </p><p> Differentiated instruction for gifted learners involves a </p><p>careful consideration of both product and process </p><p>elements.</p><p>Starko and Schack, 1992</p><p> Emphasized that the focus of research should </p><p>be less on on students as consumers of </p><p>information, but more as producers of </p><p>information.</p><p> Thus, the role of the teacher must change. The </p><p>teacher must be comfortable with ambiguity and </p><p>must assist students in posing questions for </p><p>which there are no predetermined answers.</p></li><li><p>3</p><p>Reis and Renzulli, 1992</p><p> They noted the importance of independent </p><p>study for meeting the needs of gifted students.</p><p> The issue for teachers is to design activities for </p><p>gifted students which help them to develop </p><p>appropriate products which challenge them.</p><p>Reis and Renzulli, 1992</p><p>Twelve-step Program Methodology for Research</p><p>1. Assessing student interests</p><p>2. Conducting an interview to determine the strength of the </p><p>interest</p><p>3. Focusing on a problem</p><p>4. Helping students develop a written plan</p><p>5. Helping students locate multiple resources</p><p>6. Providing methodological assistance</p><p>7. Helping students decide which question to answer</p><p>8. Providing managerial assistance</p><p>9. Identifying final products and audiences</p><p>10. Offering encouragement, praise, and assistance</p><p>11. Escalating the process</p><p>12. Evaluating the process</p></li><li><p>4</p><p>A Research Model Utilized in the William and Mary Curriculum Units</p><p>The Integrated Curriculum Model</p><p>Advanced</p><p>Content</p><p>Dimension</p><p>Process-Product </p><p>Dimension</p><p>Issues/Themes </p><p>Dimension</p><p>- VanTassel-Baska, 1986</p></li><li><p>5</p><p>Boyce, 1997Metaphor of Conversation</p><p> Locating source materials allows student researchers to listen to what others have said.</p><p> Students then analyze the information that informs an issue.</p><p> In presenting their findings, the students bring new ideas into the dialogue.</p><p> Another important aspect of the conversation metaphor is the way in which students, teachers, and library media specialists work together in a process which is both independent and interdependent.</p><p>Research Model from Units Developed by the Center for Gifted Education at The College of William and Mary</p><p>1. Identify your issue or problem.</p><p>What is the issue or problem?</p><p>Who are the stakeholders and what are their positions?</p><p>What is my position on this issue?</p><p>2. Read about your issue and identify points of view or arguments </p><p>through information sources.</p><p>What are my print sources?</p><p>What are my media sources?</p><p>What are my people sources?</p><p>What primary and secondary source documents might I use?</p><p>What are my preliminary findings based on a review of existing sources?</p></li><li><p>6</p><p>3. Form a set of questions that can be answered by a specific set of data:</p><p>1) What would be the results of _____________?</p><p>2) Who would benefit and by how much?</p><p>3) Who would be harmed and by how much?</p><p>My research questions:</p><p>4. Gather evidence through research techniques such as </p><p>surveys, interviews, or analysis of primary and secondary source </p><p>documents.</p><p>What survey questions should I ask?</p><p>What interview questions should I ask?</p><p>What generalizations do secondary sources give?</p><p>What data and evidence can I find in primary sources to support different sides </p><p>of the issue?</p><p>5. Manipulate and transform data so that they can be interpreted.</p><p>How can I summarize what I found out?</p><p>Should I develop charts, diagrams, or graphs to represent my data?</p><p>6. Draw conclusions and make inferences.</p><p>What do the data mean? How can I interpret what I found out?</p><p>How do the data support my original point of view?</p><p>How do they support other points of view?</p><p>What conclusions can I make about the issue?</p><p>7. Determine implications and consequences.</p><p>What are the consequences of following the point of view that I support?</p><p>Do I know enough or are there now new questions to be answered?</p><p>8. Communicate your findings. (Prepare an oral presentation for </p><p>Classmates based on note cards and written report.) </p><p>What are my purpose, issue, and point of view, and how will I explain them?</p><p>What data will I use to support my point of view?</p><p>How will I conclude my presentation?</p></li><li><p>7</p><p>Characteristics of an Issue</p><p> Real world</p><p> Multiple points of view</p><p> Researchable and substantial </p><p>information available</p><p> Worthy topic and personal </p><p>involvement</p><p>Issues for Exploration by Elementary Students School uniforms for students</p><p> School uniforms for teachers</p><p> Use of instructional time</p><p> Provision of fine arts classes in school program</p><p> Recess time and its use</p><p> School safety issues</p><p> Physical education/fitness issues for students</p><p> School lunches and nutrition issues</p><p> How days missed due to inclement weather should be made up</p><p> Provision of seatbelts on school buses</p><p> Use of animals for medical/product testing</p><p> Marketing of products to children through commercials</p><p> Cell phone use by students in schools</p><p> Prevention of bullying</p></li><li><p>8</p><p>Elements of Reasoning</p><p>-- Paul, 1992</p><p>Issue/</p><p>Problem</p><p>Evidence/</p><p>Data</p><p>Point of </p><p>View</p><p>Implications/</p><p>Consequences</p><p>InferencesConcepts/</p><p>Ideas</p><p>Purpose/</p><p>Goal</p><p>Assumptions</p><p>Simplifying Reasoning Terms</p><p> Assumption: beliefs, understandings, taking </p><p>for granted</p><p> Concept: ideas, main topics, what the </p><p>assumptions are about</p><p> Evidence: information, details, facts, </p><p>experiences</p><p> Inference: conclusions, reasons to support </p><p>point of view</p><p> Implication: consequences, what might </p><p>happen, what we would have to think about </p><p>if</p></li><li><p>9</p><p>Developing an Issue</p><p>State the issue:</p><p>Identify the stakeholder</p><p>groups:</p><p>Describe each groups</p><p>position:</p><p>State your initial position:</p><p>Reasoning about a Situation or </p><p>Event</p><p>What is the situation?</p><p>Who are the </p><p>stakeholders?</p><p>What is the point</p><p>of view for each</p><p>stakeholder?</p><p>What are the</p><p>assumptions of </p><p>each group?</p><p>What are the</p><p>implications of</p><p>these views?</p></li><li><p>10</p><p>Standards of Reasoning</p><p> Are there enough reasons to make a convincing </p><p>argument?</p><p> Is the evidence correct or right?</p><p> Are the reasons clear?</p><p> Are specific reasons or examples included rather </p><p>than vague generalizations?</p><p> Are the arguments and reasons strong and </p><p>important?</p><p> Is the thinking logical?</p><p>NEED TO KNOW BOARD</p><p>What Do I Know? What Do I Need To Know? How Do I Find Out? </p><p>Center for Gifted Education</p><p>The College of William and Mary</p></li><li><p>11</p><p>Hamburger Model for Persuasive Writing</p><p>Reason</p><p>Introduction</p><p>(State an opinion.)</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Reason Reason</p><p>Elaboration</p><p>Elaboration Elaboration Elaboration</p><p>ElaborationElaboration</p><p>Hamburger Model for Persuasive Writing(primary)</p><p>Introduction (State an opinion.)</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Reason ReasonReason</p></li><li><p>12</p><p>Dagwood Model</p><p>Reason</p><p>Claim/Opinion/Introduction</p><p>Background</p><p>Elaboration Elaboration</p><p>Other Points of View</p><p>Elaboration Elaboration</p><p>Reason Other Points of View</p><p>Elaboration</p><p>Reason Other Points of View</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Details Details</p><p>Elaboration</p><p>PRODUCT ASSIGNMENTS SHOULD DEMONSTRATE THESE CHARACTERISTICS:</p><p> Concept or issue-centered</p><p> Skills of planning taught</p><p> Skills of production taught</p><p> Requires application of all key skills and understandings</p><p> Uses skills of the discipline</p><p> Real problems and audiences</p><p> Multiple modes of expression</p><p>Tomlinson, C. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum </p><p>Development.</p></li><li><p>13</p><p>A New Literacies Perspective</p><p>Literacy through the ages</p></li><li><p>14</p></li><li><p>15</p><p>D</p><p>I</p><p>G</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>A</p><p>L</p><p>D</p><p>I</p><p>V</p><p>I</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>NATIVES</p><p>IMMIGRANT</p><p>S</p></li><li><p>16</p><p>Traditional Texts</p><p>Closed</p><p>Linear</p><p>Finite amount of text</p><p>Online Texts</p><p>Open</p><p>Hypertextual</p><p>Infinite amount of text</p><p></p></li><li><p>17</p><p></p><p>Profile for Technology Literate Students PK-21. Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories </p><p>using digital tools and media-rich resources. 2. Identify, research, and collect data on an </p><p>environmental issue using digital resources and propose a developmentally appropriate solution.</p><p>3. Engage in learning activities with learners from multiple cultures through e-mail and other electronic means.</p><p>4. In a collaborative work group, use a variety of technologies to produce a digital presentation or product in a curriculum area.</p><p>5. Find and evaluate information related to a current or historical person or event using digital resources.</p></li><li><p>18</p><p>Profile for Technology Literate Students PK-26. Use simulations and graphical organizers to explore </p><p>and depict patterns of growth such as the life cycles of plants and animals. </p><p>7. Demonstrate the safe and cooperative use of technology. </p><p>8. Independently apply digital tools and resources to address a variety of tasks and problems. </p><p>9. Communicate about technology using developmentally appropriate and accurate terminology. </p><p>10.Demonstrate the ability to navigate in virtual environments such as electronic books, simulation software, and Web sites.</p><p>New </p><p>LiteraciesIDENTIFY Important Questions</p><p>LOCATE Information</p><p>CRITICALLY EVALUATE</p><p>SYNTHESIZE Information</p><p>COMMUNICATE Answers</p></li><li><p>19</p><p>Websites for Teachers</p><p> Teaching Research Skills to Young </p><p>Children:</p><p></p><p>21/teaching-informationresearch-</p><p>skills-in-elementary-school/</p><p> Ed Week:</p><p></p><p>chnology-in-education/</p></li><li><p>20</p><p>Websites for Student Research</p><p> Great Websites for Kids from the </p><p>American Library Association</p><p></p><p> Museum Box</p><p></p><p> Graphic Organizers:</p><p></p><p>Research Projects in </p><p>William and Mary </p><p>Language Arts Units</p><p> Beyond Words: changes in language</p><p> Journeys and Destinations: point of view on the best way to preserve memories</p><p> Patterns of Change: issue of significance</p></li><li><p>21</p><p>Research Projects in William and Mary Language Arts Units</p><p> Literary Reflections: issue of </p><p>significance</p><p> Autobiographies: issue of </p><p>significance</p><p> Utopia: impact of the quest for </p><p>utopia throughout history</p><p>Research Projects in William and Mary Navigators</p><p> Tuck Everlasting: Recently in the news there has been a lot of coverage of ways in which science might be able to alter the life cycle through cryogenics, genetic re-mapping, cloning, or other methods. Develop a researchable question related to this issue.</p></li><li><p>22</p><p>Research Projects in William and Mary Navigators</p><p> Snow Treasure: Research the German invasion of Norway during World War II. Find out how different Norwegians reacted to the situation some worked to resist the Germans, while others worked with the Germans instead. Think about the decision that Norwegians had to make and write a persuasive essay that takes on point of view or the other. </p><p>If we teach today as we taught yesterday, we rob our children of tomorrow.</p><p>- John Dewey</p></li><li><p>23</p><p>For additional information, please see:</p><p>Boyce, L.N. (1997). A guide to teaching research </p><p>skills and strategies for grades 4 12.</p><p>Williamsburg, VA: The College of William and </p><p>Mary Center for Gifted Education.</p><p>Contact Information</p><p>Dr. Kimberley L. Chandler</p><p>Center for Gifted Education</p><p>The College of William and Mary</p><p>P.O. Box 8795</p><p>Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795</p><p></p><p>757-221-2588</p></li></ul>