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    Distance Education Council

    HandbookOnTransformation

    Of PrintMaterialsInto

    Self LearningMaterials

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    Prepared

    By:Manjulika Srivastava

    AcknowledgementsI acknowledge the idea given by Dr. Sanjaya Mishra,Reader, STRIDE and Prof. P K Biswas. Prof. STRIDEto develop this CD-ROM along with the printedhandbook. We have jointly done several workshopson transformation of print materials into SLMs andtherefore a few slides have been borrowed from theirpresentations too.

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    Contents

    Theoretical Base

    Section 1: Defining Self Learning Materials

    Section 2: Student Learning and InstructionalDesign

    Practical Guide

    Section 3: Transformation into SLMs

    Section 4: Transformation of a Lesson/ Chapter into aSLM Unit

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    Section 1

    Defining Self LearningMaterials

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    After goingthroughthis presentation you will beableto:

    Define SelfLearning Materials;

    Differentiate betweenselflearning materials (SLMs)andotherlearning materials;

    DescribethecharacteristicsofSLMs;

    Describeaccessdevicesusedin SLMs;

    DiscussthestagesinthedevelopmentofSLMs.

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    Definition

    Self Learning Materials (SLMs)

    Self-learning materials (SLMs) are basicallylearner-centered materials. Open, distanceand flexible learners usually depend a lot onSLMs because they have to learn on their

    own, at a time, pace and place of their ownchoice.

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    Forms of SLMsBooks

    Workbooks

    WorksheetsAudiotapes

    Videotapes

    Computer basedpackages

    Web basedpackages

    CD-ROMs

    Etc

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    SLMsare different from otherlearning materials

    because

    can they make a learner

    think, write and do

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    SLM s

    Think - through questionsWrite - setting exercisesDo - throughpractical exercises / activities

    Retention+Practice

    +

    Thinking+Application

    = Learning

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    Special features of self learning materialsDerek Rowntree (1994)

    Clearly stated objectives

    Advice about how to study the material

    User-friendly, You to study the material

    Shortish, manageable chunks of learning

    Fewer words than usual per page (or screen)

    Plenty of helpful examples

    Reference to the learners experience

    Illustrations used where they are better than words

    Headings to help learners find their way around

    Links to other media where appropriate

    Obvious awareness of different learners to use the materials

    Space for learners to write down their own ideas

    Feedback to help learners check their own progress

    Suggestions about getting help from other people

    Summary and Glossary at the end of every unit.

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    CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-LEARNING

    MATERIALS

    Self -Explanatory

    Learner can understand without external support.

    Self-Contained

    Learner may not need additional materials

    Self-Directed

    Learner is given necessary guidance, hints,

    suggestions at each stage of learning

    Self-Motivating

    Materials arouse curiosity and are related to familiar

    situations

    Self-Evaluating

    Self assessment questions/ exercises, activities, unit-

    end questions, etc. for providing feedback on

    performance

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    Relationship between Access Devices and

    Interactive Instructional Steps

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    Production of SLMs

    Stage 1 Course planning

    Stage 2 Course development

    Stage 3 Course production

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    Stage 1 Course planning

    Need assessment

    Defining objectives

    Analyzing resourcesSelection of media

    Evaluation methods

    Delivery mechanism

    Stage 2 Course developmentArranging the topics

    Preparing unit outlines

    Writing the text

    Stage 3 Course production

    Editing

    Layout

    Printing

    Media production

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    ACCESS DEVICES USED IN SLMs

    OPENING SECTIONTitle

    Unit Structure

    Objectives

    Introduction

    Study guidance

    MAIN BODYThematic Content

    Illustrations/ Photos

    Diagrams/Tables

    Graphics/Charts

    Activities

    References

    ENDING SECTION

    Summary

    Possible Answers

    List of References

    Bibliography

    Glossary

    Further ReadingsModel Questions

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    SUMMARY

    SLMsareacombinationofinteractiveinstructionalstepsandaccessdevices,whichhelpalearnerto easilyaccess

    andassimilatethecontents. Accessdeviceshelpthelearnersfindtheirwayintothetext. Theinteractiveinstructionalsteps performthetaskof

    tutoring byprovidingsubjectmatterinsectionsandsub-sections,followed byin-textquestions,activitiesandsoon.

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    Concept of Learning

    SLMs are developed on the principles ofInstructional Design

    The termlearning denotes the acquisition ofknowledge, skills and attitudes to dosomething. Generally speaking there are twoimportant statements about learning and

    instruction:

    One learns by doing somethingOne learns by pursuing an instructional goal

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    DomainsofLearning

    CognitiveDomain

    Affective Domain

    PsychomotorDomain

    Measurestheknowledge

    acquired Demonstratesthe

    desiredfeelingsandattitudes

    Relatestoskilldevelopmentthroughpracticesessions/ training

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    Blooms Taxonomy

    Basic Principle: Simple to Complex

    Sequencing in Cognitive Domain

    C

    O

    G

    N

    I

    TI

    V

    E

    Evaluation

    Analysis

    Synthesis

    Application

    Comprehension

    Knowledge

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    Levels of Learning

    C

    OG

    N

    I

    T

    IV

    E

    Evaluation

    Analysis

    Synthesis

    Application

    Comprehension

    Knowledge

    Evaluate or judge the value of thecontent, compare and contrast,reason out, logically argue, etc.

    Form new structures and patterns,

    generalize, arrive at conclusions,etc.

    Able of determine the relationshipbetween parts, identify variouscomponents, etc.

    Apply the knowledge gained in newsituations, solve problems, etc.

    Grasp or comprehend the content or beable to summarize it, interpretfacts, infer causes and visualizeconsequences, etc.

    Recall previously acquired knowledgei.e.- facts, concepts, dates, events,places, ideas, etc.

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    How Adult Learners Learn

    Problem-centered: seek educational solutions to where they are

    compared to where they want to be in life.

    Results-oriented: have specific results in mind for education-will

    drop out if education does not lead to those results because their

    participation is usually voluntary.

    Self-directed: typically not dependent on others for direction.

    Often skeptical about new information: prefer to try it out before

    accepting it.

    Seek education that relates or applies directly to their perceived

    needs: that is timely and appropriate for their current lives. Accept responsibility for their own learning: i.e learning is

    perceived as timely and appropriate.

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    How Young Learners Learn

    Subject-oriented: seek to Successfully complete each course,regardless of how course relates to their own goals.

    Future-oriented:Youth education is often a mandatory and

    expected activity in a youths life and design for the youths

    future.

    Often depend on adults for direction.

    Likely to accept new information without trying it out or seriously

    questioning it.

    Seek education that prepares them for an often unclear future:

    accept postponed application of what is being learned.

    Depend on others to design their learning: reluctant to accept

    responsibility for their own learning.

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    Instruction

    alD

    esignA

    Science

    Rooted

    in learn

    ing t

    heor

    ies w

    hich

    are drawn frompsychology, sociology, philosophy and education.

    An

    Art

    Designing ofinstructional materials is a highly creative

    process. A process used to create instructional materials.

    Tested, well researched mechanism of enhancing humanlearning.

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    What is Instructional Design?

    Thoroughpre-planningofdeliveryofinstructioninapropersequenceof

    eventsisknownasinstructionaldesign.Asyouknowtheliteralmeaningofinstructionisasetofeventsthat

    facilitatecreativepattern. Thepurposeofinstructionaldesignistoplanandcreatesituationsthat enhancelearningopportunityofindividuallearners.

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    Instruction

    alD

    esign - Description of the target group.

    - Programme/course specifications (syllabus)

    - Selection of the media to be utilized - Design of the courses/lessons (units)

    - Specification of objectives

    - Development of test items

    - Development of draft lessons

    - Pre-testing of the materials

    - Revision of the materials before their launch

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    Models ofI

    nstructiona

    lD

    esign

    Addie

    Gagne-Briggs Model

    David Merrill

    Dickand Carey

    Hannafin

    and

    Pack

    Gerlach and Ely

    More than hundred models exist.

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    Systems Approa

    ch toID

    Analyze: define the needs and constraints

    Design: specify learning activities, assessmentand choose methods and media

    Develop: begin production, formativeevaluation, and revise

    Implement: put the plan into action

    Evaluate: evaluate the plan from all levels fornext implementation

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    Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism Experiential

    According toBehaviorists learningis a process similarto habit formation

    through conditioningwhich links desiredresponses to stimuli

    Synthesis The cognitivist

    approach takes intoconsideration

    activities such asperception, conceptformation, language

    use, thinking,understanding

    problem solving,attention and memory

    The term refers to

    the idea that learnersconstruct knowledgefor themselves, eachlearner individually(and socially)constructs meaningas he or she learns,based on his/her ownexperiences

    Adult learners

    construct their ownknowledge /

    perspective throughtheir own individual

    experience andschema

    WatsonThorndike

    Pavlov

    Watson

    Skinner

    Gagne Piaget,Vygotsky,

    Bandura

    Jerome

    Ausubel

    Bruner

    MeadJonassen

    Merrill

    Perkins

    KolbKnowles

    yProgrammed

    instruction teachingmachinesyMatter in smallstepsyLearning objectivesyActivities, SAQs,etcyAssignments

    ySequencing of

    contentyDiagrams, charts

    etc.yChoice of mediayGuidance

    yStructuring of

    knowledgeySequencing of

    contentyMotivatingexperienceyProblem orientedlearning

    yLearner profile

    based objectivesyLearner centered

    approachyQuestioning, criticalanalysis, applicationand reflection

    yTask oriented

    learningyShort and

    progressive stepsyLearningcommensurate withpast experiencesyContinual feedbackof progress,motivation and

    stimulation

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    Watson, Thorndike, Pavlov, Watson, Skinner

    Behaviourism:

    Learning happens when a correctresponse is demonstrated following the

    presentation ofa specific environmentalstimulus

    Learning can be detected by observing anorganism over a period of time

    Emphasis is on observable andmeasurable behaviours

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    Behaviourism:

    Instruction is to elicit the desired response

    from the learner who is presented with a

    stimulus

    Instruction utilizes consequences and

    reinforcement of learned behaviour

    Learner must know how to execute the

    proper response as well as the conditions

    under which the response is made

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    Piaget, Vygotsky, Bandura, Jerome, Ausubel,

    Bruner

    Cognitivism:

    Learning is change of knowledge state

    Learner is viewed as an active participant in

    the learning process

    Focus is on how learners remember,

    retrieve and store information in memory

    Examine the mental structure and processes

    related to learning

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    Cognitivism:

    The outcome of learning is not onlydependent on what the teacher presents butalso on what the learner does to process this

    information Focus of instruction is to create learning or

    change by encouraging the learner to usea

    ppropria

    te lea

    rning stra

    tegies Teachers/designers are responsible forassisting learners in organizing informationin an optimal way so that it can be readily

    assimilated

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    Mead, Jonassen, Merrill, Perkins

    Constructivism:

    Learners build personal interpretation ofthe world based on experiences andinteractions

    Knowledge is embedded in the context inwhich it is used (meaningful realisticsettings)

    Believe that there

    are m

    any w

    ays (multipleperspectives) of structuring the world and

    its entities

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    Constructivism:

    Instruction is a process of supportingknowledge construction rather than

    communicating knowledge

    E

    ngage le

    arners in the

    actu

    al use of the

    tools in real world situations

    Learning activities should be authentic and

    should centred around the problem as

    perceived the learners

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    Impact ofTheories of Learning on

    Instruction

    alD

    esignBehaviourism:

    Watson, Thorndike, Pavlov,Watson, Skinner

    Cognitivism:

    Piaget, Vygotsky, Bandura,Jerome, Ausubel,Bruner

    Constructivism:

    Mead, Jonassen, Merrill& Perkins

    Programmed instruction teachingmachines

    Matterin small steps Learning objectives Activities, SAQs, etc

    Assignments

    Sequencing of content Structuring of knowledge Motivating experience Problem oriented learning

    Learner prof

    ile based object

    ives Learner centered approach

    Questioning, critical analysis,application and reflection

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    How to Foster a Learning Culture

    Motivate learners

    Make learning problem-centered

    Help learners assume control of their

    learning

    Provide meaningful practice

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    Designing for Instructional Events

    Gaining attention Show a variety of examples

    related to the issues to be covered

    Informing learners of the objectives Specify the

    objectives

    Stimulating recall of prior learning review

    introductions, summaries and issues covered

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    Presenting the stimulus - Adopt a framework for

    learning/understanding

    Providing learning guidance Show case studies

    and best practices

    Eliciting performance- Outputs based on issues

    learnt

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    P

    roviding feedbackC

    heck all examples arecorrect/incorrect

    Assessing performance Provide self-

    assessment questions, including scores and

    remedies

    Enhancing retention and transfer Show

    examples and statements and ask learners to

    identify issues learnt

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    Summary

    Theobjectiveofinstructionaldesignisto ensurethatthedistancelearnerlearnsandacquiresthenecessaryknowledgeandskills,andto enhancehis/ herperformanceinhis/ herownworldasastudentandultimatelyintheworldofwork.

    Thatlearningtheoryisthe essentialingredientininstructionaldesign. Thereisnosingletheorywhichinstructionaldesignerskeepinmindwhiledesigningtheinstructionalstrategiesandcontent.

    Behaviouralapproachcan effectivelyfacilitatemasteryofcontents;Cognitivestrategiesareusefulinteachingproblemsolving;Constructiviststrategiesaresuitedfordealingwithilldefinedproblems.