RENA LYSTYA NINGRUMDINA NOVITA WIJAYANTIKHARISMA CLEVERIANHESNY NENO
It promotes the idea that students work together to learn and are responsible for one anothers learning as well as their own (Slavin, 1991)
The students work together in small group on a structured activityCooperative groups work face to face and learn to work as team
Learners actively participateTeachers become learners at timesDiversity is celebratedStudents learn for resolving conflictsStudents draw upon past experience and knowledgeStudents are interested in their own learning
Cooperative learning emphasizes in students role than teachers
The achievement levels were significantly higher when cooperative learning methods were used as compared to individualisticCooperative learning Individual learningVS
DEFINITION OF RECIPROCAL TEACHINGMEANSNature of interactions since one person acts in response to anotherReciprocal teaching is based on the dialogues and discussions between the learners themselves or the students and the teacher (Blakey and Spence (1990))Exchanging roles between the teacher and the learners which make the students responsible for their roles in the teaching learning process and allows students to support each other continuously.
HISTORICALLY PALINSCAR & BROWN 1984To help students who face obstacle in reading comprehension. THEORETICALLYCONSTRUCTIVISMIn getting knowledge learning for understanding and recognizing meaning
Cognitive AppretisceshipTheories of ScaffoldingZone Proximal DevelopmentPropleptic TeachingPrinciples of Reciprocal Teaching
The teaching and learning of specific reading comprehension strategiesThe dialogue between an instructor and students where the instructor models why, when, and where to use these reading comprehension strategiesThe appropriating of the instructor by the students , that is students begin to model the reading comprehension strategies for other students
The Strategies of Reciprocal TeachingPredictingQuestioningClarifyingSummarizing
This strategy gives opportunities for the students to make the use of the main titles and subtitles as well as the questions of the text in predicting the content of the text before reading it. EXAMPLE:The leader may ask what do you expect the next paragraph to be about?
to help his/her learners find the most important information in the text . to direct and answer questions about the text and find the most important information in the text. Give questions which reflect high thinking abilities.
ClarifyingIt supports students in monitoring their own comprehension. It gets them to think about what is confusing to them as they read. Example
SummarizingThe students organize the main idea in order they can understand the relationship between them
The teacher leads the dialogue and applies the sub-strategies to one of the paragraphs.
The teacher explains every activity. It is important to emphasize activities that may promote these processes.The teacher distributes cards containing the tasks in the sub-strategies for the students in their regular setting.The teacher chooses a leader who plays the role of the teacher for every group. Then the leader exchanges his/her role with his/her classmates in the group after every dialogue
The teacher distributes copies of the text for every student in the all groups.The teacher gives enough time for silent reading according to the length and complexity of the text.The leader of each group coordinates the task selection in his/her group and each member outlines his/her task to their group and answers their questions.After ending the dialogues, the teacher distributes questions about the content of the text to assess the students comprehension. CONTINUED
It is type of reading to check whether the students understand and comprehend the text or not
THE GOALS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHINGTo improve students reading comprehension using four comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying and summarizingTo scaffold the four strategies by modeling, guiding and applying the strategies while readingTo guide students to think about their own thinkingTo use the social nature of learning to improve and scaffold reading
Effective in helping students to improve their reading ability Easily understood and mastered by both teachers and studentsCreates the new technique of reading that describes the process of reading as interactiveADVANTAGES OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING
CONCLUSIONReciprocal teaching is a cooperative learning instructional technique which creates natural dialogue models and reveals learners thinking processes about a shared learning.
REFERENCESAbrahams, F., & Abrahams, D. (2010) . The Impact of Reciprocal Teaching on the Development of Musical Understanding in High School Student Members of Performing Ensembles: An Action Research. Research in Music Education, 15(1) ,1-33. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from www-usr.rider.edu/~vrme/v15n1/visions/Impact of Reciprocal Teaching on Musical Understanding. Abrahams and Abrahams.pdf.Ahmadi, M. R. (2012) . Reciprocal Teaching Strategies and Their Impacts on English Reading Comprehension. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(10) , 2053-2060. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/tpls/article/view/tpls021020532060/5538. Ockuz. L. D. (2005) . Reciprocal Teaching Strategies at Work: Improving Reading Comprehension, Grades 26: Videotape Viewing Guide and Lesson Materials. New York : International Reading Association.Tsong, C. (2007) . Learning Reading Strategies Together Through Reciprocal Teaching. Otawa: Wa Ying College.