1036 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 23, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007
Convergence and Consistency Analysis forExtended Kalman Filter Based SLAM
Shoudong Huang, Member, IEEE, and Gamini Dissanayake, Member, IEEE
AbstractThis paper investigates the convergence propertiesand consistency of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based simul-taneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithms. Proofsof convergence are provided for the nonlinear two-dimensionalSLAM problem with point landmarks observed using a range-and-bearing sensor. It is shown that the robot orientation uncertaintyat the instant when landmarks are first observed has a significanteffect on the limit and/or the lower bound of the uncertainties ofthe landmark position estimates. This paper also provides someinsights to the inconsistencies of EKF based SLAM that have beenrecently observed. The fundamental cause of EKF SLAM incon-sistency for two basic scenarios are clearly stated and associatedtheoretical proofs are provided.
Index TermsConvergence, extended information filter, ex-tended Kalman filter, inconsistency, simultaneous localization andmapping (SLAM).
SIMULTANEOUS Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is theprocess of building a map of an environment while concur-rently generating an estimate for the pose of the robot. Manydifferent techniques have been developed to solve the SLAMproblem (see  and the references therein). However, the useof an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to estimate a state vectorcontaining both the robot pose (including position and orienta-tion) and the landmark locations (e.g., ) remains one of themost popular strategies for solving SLAM.
While there have been numerous implementations, only veryfew analytical results on the convergence and essential proper-ties of the EKF SLAM algorithm are available. Dissanayake et al.provided convergence properties of SLAM and lower bound onthepositionuncertainty .These resultswereextendedto multi-robots SLAM in . Kim  provided some further analysis onthe asymptotic behavior for the onedimensional SLAMproblem.All the proofs presented in the literature (), however, onlydeals with simple linear formulations of the SLAM problem.
Almost all practical SLAM implementations need to dealwith nonlinear process and observation models. The results due
Manuscript received April 5, 2006; revised November 12, 2006. This paperwas recommended for publication by Associate Editor W. Burgard and EditorL. Parker upon evaluation of the reviewers comments. This work was supportedby the ARC Centre of Excellence program, funded by the Australian ResearchCouncil (ARC) and the New South Wales State Government. This paper waspresented in part at 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Au-tomation, Orlando, FL, May 1519, 2006.
The authors are with the ARC Centre of Excellence for Autonomous Sys-tems, Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW 2007,Australia (e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available onlineat http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TRO.2007.903811
to  are intuitive and many early experiments and computersimulations appear to confirm that the properties of the linearsolution extends to practical nonlinear problems. In the pastfew years, a number of researchers have demonstrated that thelower bound for the map accuracy presented in  is violatedand the EKF SLAM produces inconsistent estimates due toerrors introduced during the linearization process , , ,, . While some explanation of this phenomena has beenreported, mainly through Monte Carlo simulations, a thoroughtheoretical analysis of the nonlinear SLAM problem is not yetavailable.
This paper provides both the key convergence proper-ties and the explicit formulas for the covariance matricesfor some basic scenarios in the nonlinear two-dimensionalEKF SLAM problem with point landmarks observed using arange-and-bearing sensor. Some insights to, and theoreticalproofs of the EKF SLAM inconsistencies are also given. Theresults in this paper demonstrate that:
Most of the convergence properties in  are still true forthe nonlinear case provided that the Jacobians used in theEKF equations are evaluated at the true states.
The main reasons for inconsistency in EKF SLAM are dueto (i) the violation of some fundamental constraints gov-erning the relationship between various Jacobians whenthey are evaluated at the current state estimate, and (ii)the use of relative location information from robot to land-marks to update the absolute robot and landmark locationestimates.
The robot orientation uncertainty plays an important rolein both the EKF SLAM convergence and the possible in-consistency. In the limit, the inconsistency of EKF SLAMmay cause the variance of the robot orientation estimate tobe incorrectly reduced to zero.
The paper is organized as follows. In Section II, the EKFSLAM algorithm is restated in a form more suitable for theoret-ical analysis. In Section III, some key convergence propertiesare proved. The theoretical explanations of the EKF SLAMinconsistency are given in Section IV. Section V providessome discussions on related work and further research topics.Section VI concludes the paper. Most of the proofs and relevantbackground material are given in the Appendices.1
II. RESTATEMENT OF THE EKF SLAM ALGORITHMIn this section, the EKF SLAM algorithm is restated using
slightly different notations and formulas in order to clearly stateand prove the results in this paper.
1Details of the proofs omitted due to space constraints are available from thefirst author.
1552-3098/$25.00 2007 IEEE
HUANG AND DISSANAYAKE: CONVERGENCE AND CONSISTENCY ANALYSIS FOR EXTENDED KALMAN FILTER BASED SLAM 1037
A. State Vector in 2-D EKF SLAM
The state vector is denoted as2
where is the robot orientation, is the robotposition, are the positionsof the point-landmarks. Note that the robot orientation isseparated from the robot position because it plays a crucial rolein the convergence and consistency analysis.
1) Process Model: The robot process model considered inthis paper is
and is denoted as
where are the controls, are zero-mean Gaussiannoise on . is the time interval of one movement step. Theexplicit formula of function depends on the particular robot.Two examples of this general model are given below.
2) Example 1: A simple discrete-time robot motion model
which can be obtained from a direct discretization of the uni-cycle model (e.g., )
where is the velocity and is the turning rate.3) Example 2: A car-like vehicle model (e.g., )
where is the velocity and is the steering angle, is thewheel-base of the vehicle.
2To simplify the notation, the vector transpose operator is omitted. For ex-ample, X;X ;X ; . . . ; X are all column vectors and the rigorous notationshould be X = (;X ;X ; . . . ;X ) .
The process model of landmarks (assumed stationary) is
Thus, the process model of the whole system is
where is the function combining (2) and (6).4) Prediction: Suppose at time , after the update, the esti-
mate of the state vector is
and the covariance matrix of the estimation error is . Theprediction step is given by
(8)where is the covariance of the control noise , and
are given by3
Here and are Jacobians of in (2) with respect tothe robot pose and the control noise , respec-tively, evaluated at the current estimate .
For the system described by (2), the Jacobian with respect tothe robot pose is
The Jacobian with respect to the controls, , depends onthe detailed formula of function in (2).
1) Measurement Model: At time , the measurement ofth landmark, obtained using sensor on board the robot, is given
by range and bearing
where and are the noise on the measurements.The observation model can be written in the general form
The noise is assumed to be Gaussian with zero-mean andcovariance matrix .
3In this paper, I and 0 always denote the identity matrix and a zero matrixwith an appropriate dimension, respectively.
1038 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 23, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007
2) Update: Equation to update the covariance matrix can bewritten in the information form () as follows:
where is the information matrix, is the new informa-tion obtained from the observation given by
and is the Jacobian of function evaluated at the currentestimate .
The estimate of the state vector can now be updated using
Remark 2.1: Using (13), (14) and the matrix inversion lemma[see (99) in Appendix B]
which is the typical EKF update formula.The Jacobian of the measurement function is
Note that, in the above, all the columns corresponding to land-marks that are not currently being observed have been ignored.
III. CONVERGENCE PROPERTIES OF EKF SLAMThis section proves some convergence results for 2-D non-
linear EKF SLAM. The first result is the monotonically de-creasing property which is the same as Theorem 1 in .
Theorem 3.1: The determinant of any submatrix of the mapcovariance matrix decreases monotonically as successive obser-vations are made.
Proof: This result can be proved in a similar way to that ofTheorem 1 in . The only difference is that the Jacobians in-
stead of the state transition matrix and observation matrices willbe used in the p