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  • Consumer buying behavior of wagonR car of maruti Suzuki.

    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 1

    Index page



    TOPIC Page


    College certificate



    1. Industry profile 1.1 HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE


    1.3 HISTORY



    1.6 EXPORT








    2. Company profile 2.1 PROFILE











    3. Theoretical framework 3.1.CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR





















    4. Research methodology 4.1 RESEARCH DEFINITION












  • Consumer buying behavior of wagonR car of maruti Suzuki.

    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 2
























    5. Analysis & Finding


    5.2 FINDINGS



    6. Conclusion & recommendation. I. CONCLUSION





    7. Bibliography




  • Consumer buying behavior of wagonR car of maruti Suzuki.

    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 3



  • Consumer buying behavior of wagonR car of maruti Suzuki.

    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 4

    Automobile Industry

    1 . 1 H i s t o r y o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e

    The design of the Cugnot Steam Trolley (Jonathan Holgunisburg) (1769)

    The history of the automobile begins as early as 1769, with the creation

    of steam engine automobiles capable of human transport. In 1806, the first

    cars powered by an internal combustion engine running on fuel

    gas appeared, which led to the introduction in 1885 of the ubiquitous

    modern gasoline- or petrol-fueled internal combustion engine. Cars

    powered by power briefly appeared at the turn of the 20th century, but

    largely disappeared from use until the turn of the 21st century. The early

    history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the

    prevalent means of propulsion during that time. Later periods were defined

    by trends in exterior styling, and size and utility preferences.

  • Consumer buying behavior of wagonR car of maruti Suzuki.

    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 5

    17th century:

    Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built the

    first steam-powered vehicle around 1672, designed as a toy for the Chinese

    Emperor, it being of small scale and unable to carry a driver or passenger but,

    quite possibly, the first working steam-powered vehicle ('auto-mobile').

    18th century:

    Steam-powered self-propelled vehicles large enough to transport people and

    cargo were first devised in the late 18th century. Nicolas-Joseph

    Cugnotdemonstrated his fardier vapeur ("steam dray"), an experimental

    steam-driven artillery tractor, in 1770 and 1771. As Cugnot's design proved to

    be impractical, his invention was not developed in his native France. The

    centre of innovation shifted to Great Britain. By 1784, William Murdoch had

    built a working model of a steam carriage in Redruth, and in 1801 Richard

    Trevithick was running a full-sized vehicle on the road in Camborne.[4]


    vehicles were in vogue for a time, and over the next decades such innovations

    as hand brakes, multi-speed transmissions, and better steering developed.

    Some were commercially successful in providing mass transit, until a backlash

    against these large speedy vehicles resulted in the passage of the Locomotive

    Act(1865), which required self-propelled vehicles on public roads in the

    United Kingdom to be preceded by a man on foot waving a red flag and

    blowing a horn. This effectively killed road auto development in the UK for

    most of the rest of the 19th century; inventors and engineers shifted their

    efforts to improvements in railway locomotives. (The law was not repealed

    until 1896, although the need for the red flag was removed in 1878.)

    The first automobile patent in the United States was granted to Oliver Evans in


    19th century:

    Among other efforts, in 1815, a professor at Prague Polytechnic, Josef Bozek,

    built an oil-fired steam car. Walter Hancock, builder and operator of

    London steam buses, in 1838 built a four-seat steam phaeton.

  • Consumer buying behavior of wagonR car of maruti Suzuki.

    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 6

    What some people define as the first "real" automobile was produced

    by Amde Bolle in 1873, who built self-propelled steam road vehicles to

    transport groups of passengers.

    The American George B. Selden filed for a patent on May 8, 1879. His

    application included not only the engine but its use in a 4-wheeled car. Selden

    filed a series of amendments to his application which stretched out the legal

    process, resulting in a delay of 16 years before the US 549160was granted on

    November 5, 1895.

    Karl Benz, the inventor of numerous car-related technologies, received a

    German patent in 1886.

    The four-stroke petrol (gasoline) internal combustion engine that constitutes

    the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion is a creation of

    Nikolaus Otto. The similar four-stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf

    Diesel. The hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies hailed as a replacement

    for gasoline as an energy source for cars, was discovered in principle

    by Christian Friedrich Schonbein in 1838. The battery electric car owes its

    beginnings to nyos Jedlik, one of the inventors of the electric motor,

    and Gaston Plant, who invented the lead-acid battery in 1859.

    The first carriage sized automobile suitable for use on existing wagon roads in

    the United States was a steam powered vehicle invented in 1871, by Dr. J.W.

    Car hart, a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in Racine, Wisconsin.

    It induced the State of Wisconsin in 1875, to offer a $10,000 award to the first

    to produce a practical substitute for the use of horses and other animals. They

    stipulated that the vehicle would have to maintain an average speed of more

    than five miles per hour over a 200 mile course. The offer led to the first city

    to city automobile race in the United States, starting on July 16, 1878, in

    Green Bay, Wisconsin, and ending in Madison, via Appleton, Oshkosh,

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 7

    Waupun, Watertown, Fort Atkinson, and Janesville. While seven vehicles

    were registered, only two started to compete: the entries from Green Bay and

    Oshkosh. The vehicle from Green Bay was faster, but broke down before

    completing the race. The Oshkosh finished the 201 mile course in 33 hours

    and 27 minutes, and posted an average speed of six miles per hour. In 1879,

    the legislature awarded half the prize.

    Steam-powered automobiles continued development all the way into the early

    20th century, but the dissemination of petrol engines as the motive power of

    choice in the late 19th century marked the end of steam automobiles except as

    curiosities. Whether they will ever be reborn in later technological eras

    remains to be seen. The 1950s saw interest in steam-turbine cars powered by

    small nuclear reactors (this was also true of aircraft), but the dangers inherent

    in nuclear fission technology soon killed these ideas. The need for global

    changes in energy sources and consumption to bring about sustainability

    and energy independence has led 21st century engineers to think once more

    about possibilities for steam use, if powered by modern energy sources

    controlled with computerized controls, such as advanced electric batteries, fuel

    cells, photovoltaic, biofuels, or others.

    Electric automobiles:

    IN 1828, nyos Jedlik, a Hungarian who invented an early type of electric

    motor, created a tiny model car powered by his new motor.[] In 1834,

    Vermont blacksmith Thomas Davenport, the inventor of the first American

    DC electrical motor, installed his motor in a small model car, which he

    operated on a short circular electrified track. In 1835, Professor Sibrandus

    Starting of Groningen, the Netherlands and his assistant Christopher Becker

    created a small-scale electrical car, powered by non-rechargeable primary


    In 1838, Scotsman Robert Davidson built an electric locomotive that

    attained a speed of 4 miles per hour (6 km/h). In England, a patent was granted

    in 1840 for the use of rail tracks as conductors of electric current, and similar

    American patents were issued to Lilley and Colton in 1847. Between 1832 and

    1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the

    first crude electric carriage, powered by non-rechargeable primary cells.

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 8

    Internal combustion engines

    1885-built Benz Patent Motorwagen, the first car to go into production with an

    internal combustion engine

    Early attempts at making and using internal combustion engines were

    hampered by the lack of suitable fuels, particularly liquids, and the earliest

    engines used gas mixtures.

    Early experimenters using gases. In 1806, Swiss engineer Franois Isaac de

    Rivaz who built an engine powered by internal combustion of a hydrogen

    and oxygen mixture. In 1826, Englishman Samuel Brown who tested his

    hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion engine by using it to propel a vehicle

    up Shooter's Hill in south-east London. Belgian-born Etienne Lenoir's Hippo

    mobile with a hydrogen-gas-fuelled one-cylinder internal combustion engine

    made a test drive from Paris to Joinville-le-Pont in 1860, covering some nine

    kilometers in about three hours A later version was propelled by coal gas.

    A Delamare-Deboutteville vehicle was patented and trialed in 1884.

    About 1870, in Vienna, Austria (then the Austro-Hungarian Empire),

    inventor Siegfried Marcus put a liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine on a

    simple handcart which made him the first man to propel a vehicle by means of

    gasoline. Today, this car is known as "the first Marcus car". In 1883, Marcus

    secured a German patent for a low-voltage ignition system of the magneto

    type; this was his only automotive patent. This design was used for all further

    engines, and the four-seat "second Marcus car" of 1888/89. This ignition, in

    conjunction with the "rotating-brush carburetor", made the second car's design

    very innovative.

    It is generally acknowledged that the first really practical automobiles

    with petrol/gasoline-powered internal combustion engines were completed

    almost simultaneously by several German inventors working independently:

    Karl Benz built his first automobile in 1885 in Mannheim. Benz was granted a

    patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first production

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 9

    of automobiles in 1888, after Bertha Benz, his wife, had proved - with the first

    long-distance trip in August 1888, from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back -

    that the horseless coach was absolutely suitable for daily use. Since 2008

    a Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event.

    Soon after, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart in 1889

    designed a vehicle from scratch to be an automobile, rather than a horse-drawn

    carriage fitted with an engine. They also are usually credited with invention of

    the first motorcycle in 1886, but Italy's Enrico Bernardi of the University of

    Padua, in 1882, patented a 0.024 horsepower (17.9 W) 122 cc (7.4 cu in) one-

    cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into his son's tricycle, making it at least a

    candidate for the first automobile, and first motorcycle, Bernardi enlarged the

    tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.

    One of the first four-wheeled petrol-driven automobiles in Britain was built

    in Birmingham in 1895 by Frederick William Lanchester, who also patented

    the disc brake; and the first electric starter was installed on an Arnold, an

    adaptation of the Benz Velo, built between 1895 and 1898.

    In all the turmoil, many early pioneers are nearly forgotten. In 1891, John

    William Lambert built a three-wheeler in Ohio City, Ohio, which was

    destroyed in a fire the same year, while Henry Nadigconstructed a four-

    wheeler in Allentown, Pennsylvania. It is likely they were not the only one

    Brass Era car:


    Named for the wide spread use of brass in the United

    States,the Brass (or Edwardian) Era lasted from roughly 1905 through to the

    beginning of World War I in 1914.

    Within the 15 years that make up this era, the various experimental designs

    and alternate power systems would be marginalized. Although the modern

    touring had been invented earlier, it was not until Leasers Systems Pan

    hard was widely licensed and adopted that recognizable and standardized

    automobiles were created. This system specified front-engine, rear-wheel

    drive internal combustion engine cars with a sliding gear transmission.

    Traditional coach-style vehicles were rapidly abandoned, and buckboard,_Pennsylvania

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 10

    runabouts lost favor with the introduction of tonneaus and other less-

    expensive touring bodies.

    By 1906, steam car development had advanced, and they were among the

    fastest road vehicles in that period

    By 1906, steam car development had advanced, and they were among the

    fastest road vehicles in that period. Throughout this era, development

    of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to hundreds of small

    manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. Key developments

    included the electric ignition system (by dynamotor on the Arnold in

    1898, though Robert Bosch, 1903, tends to get the credit),independent

    suspension (actually conceived by Bolle in 1873), and four-wheel brakes (by

    the Arrol-Johnston Company of Scotland in 1909) Leaf springs were widely

    used for suspension, though many other systems were still in use, with angle

    steel taking over from armored wood as the frame material of

    choice. Transmissions and throttle controls were widely adopted, allowing a

    variety of cruising speeds, though vehicles generally still had discrete speed

    settings, rather than the infinitely variable system familiar in cars of later eras.

    Safety glass also made its debut, patented by John Wood in England in

    1905.] (It would not become standard equipment until 1926, on

    a Rickenbacker.)

    Between 1907 and 1912 in the United States, the high-wheel motor

    buggy (resembling the horse buggy of before 1900) was in its heyday, with

    over seventy-five makers including Holsman (Chicago), IHC (Chicago),

    and Sears (which sold via catalog); the high-wheeler would be killed by the

    Model In 1912,Hupp (in the U.S., supplied by Hale & Irwin) and BSA (in the

    UK) pioneered the use of all-steel bodies, joined in 1914 by Dodge (who

    produced Model T bodies).[While it would be another two decades before all-

    steel bodies would be standard, the change would mean improved supplies of

    superior-quality wood for furniture makers.

    Some examples of cars of the period included:

    19081927 Ford Model T the most widely produced and available car of

    the era. It used a planetary transmission, and had a pedal-based control system.

    Ford T was proclaimed as the most influential car of the 20th century in the

    international Car of the Century awards.

    1910 Mercer Race about regarded as one of the first sports cars, the Race

    about expressed the exuberance of the driving public, as did the similarly

    conceived American Under slung and Hispano-Suiza Alphorns.

    19101920 Bugatti Type 13 a notable racing and touring model with

    advanced engineering and design. Similar models were the Types 15, 17, 22,

    and 23.

  • Consumer buying behavior of wagonR car of maruti Suzuki.

    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 11

    Vintage era

    The vintage era lasted from the end of World War I (1919), through the Wall Street

    Crash at the end of 1929. During this period, the front-engine car came to dominate,

    with closed bodies and standardized controls becoming the norm. In 1919, 90% of

    cars sold were open; by 1929, 90% were closed. Development of the internal

    combustion engine continued at a rapid pace, with multi-valve and overhead

    camshaft engines produced at the high end, and V8,V12, and even V16

    engines conceived for the ultra-rich. Also in 1919, hydraulic brakes were invented

    by Malcolm Longhead (co-founder of Lockheed); they were adopted

    by Duisenberg for their 1921 Model A. Three years later, Hermann

    Rieseler of Vulcan Motor invented the first automatic transmission, which had two-

    speed planetary gearbox, torque converter, and lockup clutch; it never entered

    production. (Its like would only become an available option in 1940.) Just at the end

    of the vintage era, tempered glass (now standard equipment in side windows) was

    invented in France. In this era the revolutionary pontoon design of cars without fully

    articulated fenders, running boards and other non-compact ledge elements was

    introduced in small series but a mass production of such cars was started much late

  • Consumer buying behavior of wagonR car of maruti Suzuki.

    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 12

    Pre-WWII era

    The pre-war part of the classic era began with the Great Depression in 1930,

    and ended with the recovery after World War II, commonly placed at 1948. It

    was in this period that integrated fenders and fully closed bodies began to

    dominate sales, with the new saloon/sedan body style even incorporating

    a trunk or boot at the rear for storage. The old open-top runabouts, phaetons,

    and touring cars were phased out by the end of the classic era as wings,

    running boards, and headlights were gradually integrated with the body of the

    car.By the 1930s, most of the mechanical technology used in today's

    automobiles had been invented, although some things were later "re-invented",

    and credited to someone else. For example, front-wheel drive was re-

    introduced by Andr Citron with the launch of the Traction Avant in 1934,

    though it had appeared several years earlier in road cars made

    by Avis and Cord, and in racing cars by Miller (and may have appeared as

    early as 1897). In the same vein, independent suspension was originally

    conceived by Amde Bolle in 1873, but not put in production until

    appearing on the low-volume Mercedes-Benz 380 in 1933, which prodded

    American makers to use it more widely. In 1930, the number of auto

    manufacturers declined sharply as the industry consolidated and matured,

    thanks in part to the effects of the Great Depression.

    Exemplary pre-war automobiles:

    19321939 Alvis Speed 20 and Speed 25 the first cars with all-

    synchromesh gearbox.

    19321948 Ford V-8 (Model B) introduction of the powerful flathead

    V8 in mainstream vehicles, setting new performance and efficiency standards.

    19341940 Bugatti Type 57 a singular refined automobile for the wealthy.

    19341956 Citron Traction Avant the first mass-produced front-wheel

    drive car, built with monocoque chassis.

    19361955 MG T series sports cars with youth appeal at an affordable


  • Consumer buying behavior of wagonR car of maruti Suzuki.

    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 13

    19382003 Volkswagen Beetle a design for efficiency and low price,

    which was produced for over 60 years with minimal basic change; it has the

    largest production in history with over 20 million units produced in several

    counties. The car was awarded the fourth place in the international Century

    competition. A new car echoing the styling of the original has been produced

    in the 21st century.

    19361939 Rolls-Royce Phantom III V12 engine pinnacle of pre-war

    engineering, with technological advances not seen in most other manufacturers

    until the 1960s. Superior performance and quality.

    19461958 GAZ-M20 Pobeda Soviet mass car with full ponton

    design.19471958 Standard Vanguard British mass car with full ponton

    design some and

    19481971 Morris Minor a popular and typical early post-war car exported

    around the world

    19531971 Chevrolet Bel Air and 19532002 Cadillac Eldorado Brougham

    in its first generations were a bright representatives of golden epoch of

    American tailfin car design

    19551976 Citron DS bright and non-often representative of unusual

    bogie (hydro pneumatic) design (one of the most mind), due to what became

    a movie star; car was awarded the third place on international Car of the XX

    Century competition.

    19592000 Mini this quintessential small car lasted for four decades, and is

    one of the most famous cars of all time; car was awarded the second place on

    international Car of the XX Century competition; car has a re-styled new

    variant in XXI century.

    19611975 Jaguar E-type the E-type saved Jaguar on the track and in the

    showroom, and was a standard for design and innovation in the 1960s.

    19631989 Porsche 911 wanted non-cheap but mass sport car, famous its

    company; car was awarded the fifth place on international Car of the XX

    Century competition; car has a successors with similar design.

    1964present Ford Mustang the pony car that became one of the best-

    selling and most-collected cars of the era.

    1966end of 20th century FIAT 124 an Italian car that was license

    produced in many other counties including the Soviet Union where as

    the VAZ-2101 it launched mass automobilisation.

    1967 NSU Ro 80 the basic wedge profile of this design was much emulated

    in subsequent decades. unlike that its other technical innovation - rotor engine.

    19672002 Chevrolet Camaro The pony car that General Motors introduced

    to compete with Ford's mustang which featured the relatively new Coke bottle


    1969 Datsun 240Z one of the first Japanese sports cars to be a smash hit

    with the North American public, it paved the way for future decades of

    Japanese strength in the automotive industry. It was affordable and well

    built] and had great success both on the track and in the showroom.

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 14

    Modern era

    The modern era is normally defined as the 25 years preceding the current

    year. However, there are some technical and design aspects that differentiate

    modern cars from antiques. Without considering the future of the car, the

    modern era has been one of increasing standardization, platform sharing,

    and computer-aided design.

    Some particularly notable advances in modern times are the widespread

    of front-wheel drive and all-wheel drive, the adoption of the diesel engine, and

    the ubiquity of fuel injection. While all of these advances were first attempted

    in earlier eras, they so dominate the market today that it is easy to overlook

    their significance. Nearly all modern passenger cars are front-wheel

    drivemonocoque/unibody designs, with transversely mounted engines, but this

    design was considered radical as late as the 1960s.

    Body styles have changed as well in the modern era. Three types,

    the hatchback, sedan, and sport utility vehicle, dominate today's market, yet

    are relatively recent concepts. All originally emphasised practicality, but have

    mutated into today's high-powered luxury crossover SUV, sports wagon, two-

    volume Large MPV. The rise of pickup trucks in the United States, and SUVs

    worldwide has changed the face of motoring, with these "trucks" coming to

    command more than half of the world automobile market. There was also the

    appearance of new one-volumeMPV class (smaller non-commercial

    passenger minivans), among the first of which were the French Renault

    Espace and US Pontiac Trans Sport.

    The modern era has also seen rapidly rising fuel efficiency and engine output.

    Once the automobile emissions concerns of the 1970s were conquered with

    computerised engine management systems, power began to rise rapidly. In the

    1980s, a powerful sports car might

    have produced 200 horsepower (150 kW) just 20 years later, average

    passenger cars have engines that powerful, and some performance models

    offer three times as much power.

    Since 2009 China becamed the new world's absolute car manufacturer leader

    with production more than US, Japan or all Europe. Besides of large growth of

    car production in Asian and other countries, the junctions (and breaks) of

    producents into transnational corporate groups and the transnational

    "platforms" of a cars becamed as wide practice.

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 15

    Since the end of the 20th century, several award competitions of cars and

    trucks have become widely known, such as European Car of the Year Car of

    the Year Japan, Year, World, Truck of the Year, and International Car of the

    Year, so that vehicles of different classes, producers, and countries win

    alternately. Also, Car of the Century awards were held, in which in the US

    the Ford Model T was named as most influential car of the 20th century.

    Exemplary modern cars:

    1966present Toyota Corolla a simple small Japanese saloon/sedan that has come

    to be the best-selling car of all time.

    1970present Range Rover the first take on the combination of luxury and four-

    wheel drive utility, the original 'SUV'. Such was the popularity of the original Range

    Rover Classic that a new model was not brought out until 1994.

    1973present Mercedes-Benz S-Class electronic Anti-lock Braking System,

    supplemental restraint airbags, seat belt pretensioners, and electronic traction control

    systems all made their debut on the S-Class. These features would later become

    standard throughout the car industry.

    1975present BMW 3 Series the 3 Series has been on Car and Driver magazine's

    annual Ten Best list 17 times, making it the longest running entry in the list.

    1977present Honda Accord saloon/sedan this Japanese sedan became the most

    popular car in the United States in the 1990s, pushing the Ford Taurus aside, and

    setting the stage for today's upscale Asian sedans.

    19811989 Dodge Aries and Plymouth Reliant the "K-cars" that saved Chrysler as

    a major manufacturer. These models were some of the first successful

    American front-wheel drive, fuel-efficient compact.

    1983present Chrysler minivans the two-box minivan design nearly pushed

    the station wagon out of the market, and presaged today's crossover SUVs.

    1984present Renault Escape first mass one-volume car of non-commercial MPV


    1986present Ford Taurus this mid-sized front-wheel drive sedan with modern

    computer-assisted design dominated the American market in the late 1980s, and

    created a design revolution in North America.

    19891999 Pontiac Trans Sport was one the first of the one box cars.

    1997present Toyota Prius launched in the Japanese market, in September 2010

    reached worldwide cumulative sales of 2.0 million units, becoming the most

    iconic hybrid electric vehicle in the world.

    1998present Ford Focus one of the most popular hatchbacks across the globe, that

    is also one of Ford's best selling world cars.

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 16

    2008present Tata Nano The Tata Nano is an inexpensive( 100,000 ~

    $2200), rear-engined, four-passenger city car built by the Indian company Tata

    Motors and is aimed primarily at the Indian domestic market.

    2010present, Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt an all-electric car and

    a plug-in hybrid correspondingly, were launched in the U.S. and Japanese

    markets in December 2010, becoming the first mass vehicles of their kind.

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 17



    The Indian Automobile Industry manufactures over 11 million vehicles and

    exports about 1.5 million each year. The dominant products of the industry are

    two-wheelers with a market share of over 75% and passenger cars with a

    market share of about 16%.Commercial vehicles and three-wheelers share

    about 9% of the market between them. About 91% of the vehicles sold are

    used by households and only about 9% for commercial purposes. The industry

    has a turnover of more than USD $35 billion and provides direct and indirect

    employment to over 13 million people.

    The supply chain is similar to the supply chain of the automotive industry in

    Europe and America.

    Interestingly, the level of trade exports in this sector in India has been medium

    and imports have been low. However, this is rapidly changing and both

    exports and imports are increasing. The demand determinants of the industry

    are factors like affordability, product innovation, infrastructure and price of

    fuel. Also, the basis of competition in the sector is high and increasing, and its

    life cycle stage is growth. With a rapidly growing middle class, all the

    advantages of this sector in India are yet to be leveraged.

    With a high cost of developing production facilities, limited accessibility to

    new technology, and increasing competition, the barriers to enter the Indian

    Automotive sector are high. On the other hand, India has a well-developed tax

    structure. The power to levy taxes and duties is distributed among the three

    tiers of Government. The cost structure of the industry is fairly traditional, but

    the profitability of motor vehicle manufacturers has been rising over the past

    five years. Major players, like Tata Motors and Maruti Suzuki have material

    cost of about 80% but are recording profits after tax of about 6% to 11%.

    The level of technology change in the Motor vehicle Industry has been high

    but, the rate of change in technology has been medium. Investment in the

    technology by the producers has been high. System-suppliers of integrated

    components and sub-systems have become the order of the day. However,

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 18

    further investment in new technologies will help the industry be more

    competitive. Over the past few years, the industry has been volatile. Currently,

    India's increasing per capita disposable income which is expected to rise by

    106% by 2015 and growth in exports is playing a major role in the rise and

    competitiveness of the industry.

    Tata Motors is leading the commercial vehicle segment with a market share of

    about 64%.Maruti Suzuki is leading the passenger vehicle segment with a

    market share of 46%. Hyundai Motor India and Mahindra and Mahindra are

    focusing expanding their footprint in the overseas market. Hero Honda

    Motors is occupying over 41% and sharing 26% of the two-wheeler market in

    India with Bajaj. Bajaj Auto in itself is occupying about 58% of the three-

    wheeler market.

    Consumers are very important of the survival of the Motor

    Vehicle manufacturing industry. In 2008-09, customer sentiment dropped,

    which burned on the augmentation in demand of cars. Steel is the major input

    used by manufacturers and the rise in price of steel is putting a cost pressure

    on manufacturers and cost is getting transferred to the end consumer. The

    price of oil and petrol affect the driving habits of consumers and the type of

    car they buy.

    The key to success in the industry is to improve labour productivity, labour

    flexibility, and capital efficiency. Having quality

    manpower, infrastructure improvements, and raw material availability also

    play a major role. Access to latest and most efficient technology and

    techniques will bring competitive advantage to the major players. Utilising

    manufacturing plants to optimum level and understanding implications from

    the government policies are the essentials in the Automotive Industry of India.

    Both, Industry and Indian Government are obligated to intervene the Indian

    Automotive industry. The Indian government should facilitate infrastructure

    creation, create favorable and predictable business environment, attract

    investment and promote research and development. The role of Industry will

    primarily be in designing and manufacturing products of world-class quality

    establishing cost competitiveness and improving productivity in labour and in

    capital. With a combined effort, the Indian Automotive industry will emerge

    as the destination of choice in the world for design and manufacturing of


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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 19

    1.3 History:

    The first car ran on India's roads in 1897. Until the 1930s, cars were imported

    directly, but in very small numbers.

    Embryonic automotive industry emerged in India in the 1940s. Mahindra &

    Mahindra was established by two brothers as a trading company in 1945, and

    began assembly of Jeep CJ-3A utility vehicles under license from Willys. The

    company soon branched out into the manufacture of light commercial

    vehicles (LCVs) and agricultural tractors.

    Following the independence, in 1947, the Government of India and the private

    sector launched efforts to create an automotive component manufacturing

    industry to supply to the automobile industry. However, the growth was

    relatively slow in the 1950s and 1960s due to nationalisation and the license

    raj which hampered the Indian private sector. After 1970, the automotive

    industry started to grow, but the growth was mainly driven by tractors,

    commercial vehicles and scooters. Cars were still a major

    luxury. Japanese manufacturers entered the Indian market ultimately leading

    to the establishment of Maruti Udyog. A number of foreign firms initiated

    joint ventures with Indian companies.

    In the 1980s, a number of Japanese manufacturers launched joint-ventures for

    building motorcycles and light commercial-vehicles. It was at this time that

    the Indian government chose Suzuki for its joint-venture to manufacture small

    cars. Following the economic liberalization in 1991 and the gradual

    weakening of the license raj, a number of Indian and multi-national car

    companies launched operations. Since then, automotive component and

    automobile manufacturing growth has accelerated to meet domestic and export


    Following economic liberalization in India in 1991, the Indian automotive

    industry has demonstrated sustained growth as a result of increased

    competitiveness and relaxed restrictions. Several Indian automobile

    manufacturers such as Tata Motors, Maruti Suzuki and Mahindra and

    Mahindra, expanded their domestic and international operations. India's

    robust economic growth led to the further expansion of its domestic

    automobile market which has attracted significant India-specific investment by

    multinational automobile manufacturers. In February 2009, monthly sales of

    passenger cars in India exceeded 100,000 units and has since grown rapidly to

    a record monthly high of 182,992 units in October 2009.[ From 2003 to 2010,

    car sales in India have progressed at a CAGR of 13.7%, and with only 10% of

    Indian households owning a car in 2009 (whereas this figure reaches 80% in

    Switzerland for example)[this progression is unlikely to stop in the coming

    decade.Congestion of Indian roads, more than market demand, will likely be

    the limiting factor.

    SIAM is the apex industry body representing all the vehicle manufacturers,

    home-grown and international, in India

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 20

    1.4 Industry Definition

    This class consists of units mainly engaged in manufacturing motor vehicles

    or motor vehicle engines.

    Products and Services

    The primary activities of this industry are:

    Motor cars manufacturing Motor vehicle engine manufacturing

    The major products and services in this industry are:

    Passenger motor vehicle manufacturing segment (Passenger Cars, Utility

    Vehicles & Multi Purpose Vehicles) Commercial Vehicles (Medium & Heavy

    and Light Commercial Vehicles) Two Wheelers Three Wheelers.

    1.5 Supply Chain of Automobile Industry:

    The supply chain of automotive industry in India is very similar to the supply

    chain of the automotive industry in Europe and America. The orders of the

    industry arise from the bottom of the supply chain i. e., from the consumers

    and go through the automakers and climbs up until the third tier suppliers.

    However the products, as channeled in every traditional automotive industry,

    flow from the top of the supply chain to reach the consumers. Automakers in

    India are the key to the supply chain and are responsible for the products and

    innovation in the industry.

    The description and the role of each of the contributors to the supply chain are

    discussed below.

    Third Tier Suppliers: These companies provide basic products like rubber,

    glass, steel, plastic and aluminum to the second tier suppliers.

    Second Tier Suppliers: These companies design vehicle systems or bodies for

    First Tier Suppliers and OEMs. They work on designs provided by the first

    tier suppliers or OEMs. They also provide engineering resources for detailed

    designs. Some of their services may

    include welding, fabrication, shearing, bending etc.

    First Tier Suppliers: These companies provide major systems directly to

    assemblers. These companies have global coverage to follow their customers

    to various locations around the world. They design and innovate to provide

    "black-box" solutions for the requirements of their customers. Black-box

    solutions are solutions created by suppliers using their own technology to meet

    the performance and interface requirements set by assemblers.

    First tier suppliers are responsible not only for the assembly of parts into

    complete units like dashboard, breaks-axle-suspension, seats, or cockpit but

    also for the management of second-tier suppliers.

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 21

    Automakers/Vehicle Manufacturers/Original Equipment Manufacturers

    (OEMs): After researching consumers' wants and needs, automakers begin

    designing models which are tailored to consumers' demands. The design

    process normally takes five years. These companies have manufacturing units

    where engines are manufactured and parts supplied by first tier suppliers and

    second tier suppliers are assembled. Automakers are the key to the supply

    chain of the automotive industry. Examples of these companies are Tata

    Motors, Maruti Suzuki, Toyota, and Honda. Innovation, capability

    and branding are the main focus of these companies.

    Dealers: Once the vehicles are ready they are shipped to the regional branch

    and from there, to the authorized dealers of the companies. The dealers then

    sell the vehicles to the end customers.

    Parts and Accessory: These companies provide products

    like tires, windshields, and air bags etc. to automakers and dealers or directly

    to customers.

    Service Providers: Some of the services to the customers include servicing of

    vehicles, repairing parts, or financing of vehicles. Many dealers provide these

    services but, customers can also choose to go to independent service


    1.6 Exports:

    Mahindra Scorpio Jeep in service with the Italy's CNSAS.

    India's automobile exports have grown consistently and reached $4.5 billion in

    2009, with United Kingdom being India's largest export market followed

    byItaly, Germany, Netherlands and South Africa. India's automobile exports

    are expected to cross $12 billion by 2014.

    According to New York Times, India's strong engineering base and expertise

    in the manufacturing of low-cost, fuel-efficient cars has resulted in the

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 22

    expansion of manufacturing facilities of several automobile companies

    like Hyundai Motors, Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen and Suzuki.

    In 2008, Hyundai Motors alone exported 240,000 cars made in India. Nissan

    Motors plans to export 250,000 vehicles manufactured in its India plant by

    2011. Similarly, General Motors announced its plans to export about 50,000

    cars manufactured in India by 2011.

    In September 2009, Ford Motors announced its plans to set up a plant in India

    with an annual capacity of 250,000 cars for US$500 million. The cars will be

    manufactured both for the Indian market and for export. The company said

    that the plant was a part of its plan to make India the hub for its global

    production business. Fiat Motors also announced that it would source more

    than US$1 billion worth auto components from India.

    In July 2010, The Economic Times reported that PSA Peugeot Citron was

    planning to re-enter the Indian market and open a production plant in Andhra

    Pradesh with an annual capacity of 100,000 vehicles, investing EUR 700M in

    the operation. PSA's intention to utilise this production facility for export

    purposes however remains unclear as of December 2010.

    In 2009 India (0.23m) surpassed China (0.16m) as Asia's fourth largest

    exporter of cars after Japan (1.77m), Korea (1.12m) and Thailand (0.26m) by

    allowing foreign carmakers 100% ownership of factories in India, which

    China does not allow.

    In recent years, India has emerged as a leading center for the manufacture of

    small cars. Hyundai, the biggest exporter from the country, now ships more

    than 250,000 cars annually from India. Apart from shipments to its parent

    Suzuki, Maruti Suzuki also manufactures small cars for Nissan, which sells

    them in Europe. Nissan will also export small cars from its new Indian

    assembly line. Tata Motors exports its passenger vehicles to Asian and African

    markets, and is in preparation to launch electric vehicles in Europe in 2010.

    The firm is also planning to launch an electric version of its low-cost

    car Nano in Europe and the U.S. Mahindra & Mahindra is preparing to

    introduce its pickup trucks and small SUV models in the U.S. market. Bajaj

    Auto is designing a low-cost car for the Renault Nissan Automotive India,

    which will market the product worldwide. Renault Nissan may also join

    domestic commercial vehicle manufacturer Ashok Leyland in another small

    car project While the possibilities are impressive, there are challenges that

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 23

    could thwart future growth of the Indian automobile industry. Since the

    demand for automobiles in recent years is directly linked to overall economic

    expansion and rising personal incomes, industry growth will slow if the

    economy weakens.

    Passenger vehicles in India

    This list is of cars that are officially available and serviced in India. While

    other cars can be imported to the country at a steep 105% import duty, car

    makers such as AlfaRomeo, McLaren,Pagani,] Cadillac, Chrysler, SSCZenvo,

    SEAT Smart, Daihatsu, Lexus, Infiniti, Acura, Saab-Spyker,

    Lotus, Ariel Cater ham,]Peugeot-Citron, Mazda Jeep, SsangYong, Kia,


    GAZ and Proton are in varying stages of official introduction to the Indian

    automobile market.

    Indian automotive companies

    Chinkara Motors: Beachster, Hammer, Roadster 1.8S, Rockster, Jeepster, Sailster

    Hindustan Motors:] Ambassador

    ICML: Rhino Rx

    Mahindra: Major, Xylo, Scorpio, Bolero, Thar, Verito,

    Genio, XUV500.

    Premier Automobiles Limited: Sigma, RiO

    San Motors: Storm

    TataMotors: Nano, Indica, Vista, Indigo, Manza, Indigo

    CS, Sumo, Grande, Venture, Safari, Xenon, Aria

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 24




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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 25

    Type Public

    Traded as BSE: 532500


    BSE SENSEX Constituent

    Industry Automotive

    Predecessor(s) Maruti Udyog Limited

    Founded 1981

    Headquarters New Delhi, India[1]

    Key people Shinzo Nakanishi

    (CEO & MD)

    Products Automobiles

    Revenue 37,522 crore (US$8.25


    Net income 2,288 crore (US$503.36


    Employees 6,903 (2011)[3]

    Parent Suzuki Motor Corporation,_India,_India

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 26

    2.1 Profile:

    The old logo of Maruti Suzuki India Limited. Later the logo of Suzuki Motor

    Corp. was also added to it

    Joint venture related issues

    Maruti Suzuki's A-Star vehicle during its unveiling in Pragati Maidan,

    Delhi. A-Star, Suzuki's fifth global car model, was designed and is made only

    in India. Maruti Suzuki is also Suzuki's leading research and development arm

    outside Japan

    Relationship between the Government of India, under the United Front

    (India) coalition and Suzuki Motor Corporation over the joint venture was a

    point of heated debate in the Indian media till Suzuki Motor Corporation

    gained the controlling stake. This highly profitable joint venture that had a

    near monopolistic trade in the Indian automobile market and the nature of the,_Uttarakhand.jpg,_Uttarakhand.jpg,_Uttarakhand.jpg

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    NAVNIRMAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT | 1.1History of the automobile 27

    partnership built up till then was the underlying reason for most issues. The

    success of the joint venture led Suzuki to increase its equity from 26% to 40%

    in 1987, and further to 50% in 1992. In 1982 both the venture partners had

    entered into an agreement to nominate their candidate for the post of

    Managing Director and every Managing Director will have a tenure of five


    R.C. Bhargava was the initial managing director of the company since the

    inception of the joint venture. Till today he is regarded as instrumental for the

    success of Maruti Suzuki. Joining in 1982 he held several key positions in the

    company before heading the company as Managing Director. Currently he is

    on the Board of Directors. After completing his five year tenure, Mr. Bhargava

    later assumed the office of Part-Time Chairman. The Government nominated

    Mr. S.S.L.N. Bhaskarudu as the Managing Director on 27 August 1997. Mr.

    Bhaskarudu had joined Maruti Suzuki in 1983 after spending 21 years in the

    Public sector undertaking Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited as General

    Manager. In 1987 he was promoted as Chief General Manager. In 1988 he was

    named Director, Productions and Projects. The next year (1989) he was named

    Director of Materials, and in 1993 he became Joint Managing Director.

    Suzuki Motor Corporation didn't attend the Annual General Meeting of the

    Board with the reason of it being called on a short notice. Later Suzuki Motor

    Corporation went on record to state that Bhaskarudu was "incompetent" and

    wanted someone else. However, the Ministry of Industries, Government of

    India refuted the charges. Media stated from the Maruti Suzuki sources that

    Bhaskarudu was interested to indigenise most of components for the models

    including gear boxes especially for Maruti 800. Suzuki also felt that

    Bhaskarudu was a proxy for the Government and would not let it increase its

    stake in the venture. If Maruti Suzuki would have been able to indigenise gear

    boxes then Maruti Suzuki would have been able to manufacture all the models

    without the technical assistance from Suzuki. Till today the issue of

    localization of gear boxes is highlighted in the press.

    The relations strained when Suzuki Motor Corporation moved to Delhi High

    Court to bring a stay order against Bhaskarudu's appointment. The issue was

    resolved in an out-of-court settlement and both the parties agreed that R S S L

    N Bhaskarudu would serve up to 31 December 1999, and from 1 January

    2000, Jagdish Khattar, Executive Director of Maruti Udyog Limited would

    assume charges as the Managing Director. Many politicians stated in

    parliament that the Suzuki Motor Corporation is unwilling to localize

    manufacturing and reduce imports. As of 2011 Gear boxes are still imported

    from Japan and are assembled at the Gurgaon facility

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    Maruti Suzuki is India and Nepal's number one leading automobile

    manufacturer and the market leader in the car segment, both in terms of

    volume of vehicles sold and revenue earned. Until recently, 18.28% of the

    company was owned by the Indian government, and 54.2%

    by Suzuki of Japan. The BJP-led government held an initial public offering of

    25% of the company in June 2003. As of 10 May 2007, the government of

    India sold its complete share to Indian financial institutions and no longer has

    any stake in Maruti Udyog

    Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL) :

    was established in February 1981, though the actual production commenced in

    1983 with the Maruti 800, based on the Suzuki Alto kei car which at the time

    was the only modern car available in India, its only competitors-

    the Hindustan Ambassador and Premier Padmini were both around 25 years

    out of date at that point. Through 2004, Maruti Suzuki has produced over 5

    Million vehicles. Maruti Suzukis are sold in India and various several other

    countries, depending upon export orders. Models similar to Maruti Suzukis

    (but not manufactured by Maruti Udyog) are sold by Suzuki Motor

    Corporation and manufactured in Pakistan and other Asian countries.

    The company exports more than 50,000 cars annually and has an extremely

    large domestic market in India selling over 730,000 cars annually. Maruti 800,

    till 2004, was the India's largest selling compact car ever since it was launched

    in 1983. More than a million units of this car have been sold worldwide so far.

    Currently, Maruti Suzuki Alto tops the sales charts.

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    Due to the large number of Maruti 800s sold in the Indian market, the term

    "Maruti" is commonly used to refer to this compact car model. Its

    manufacturing facilities are located at two

    facilities Gurgaon and Manesar south of Delhi. Maruti Suzukis Gurgaon

    facility has an installed capacity of 350,000 units per annum. The Manesar

    facilities, launched in February 2007 comprise a vehicle assembly plant with a

    capacity of 100,000 units per year and a Diesel Engine plant with an annual

    capacity of 100,000 engines and transmissions. Manesar and Gurgaon

    facilities have a combined capability to produce over 700,000 units annually.

    More than half the cars sold in India are Maruti Suzuki cars. The company is a

    subsidiary of Suzuki Motor Corporation, Japan, which owns 54.2 per cent of

    Maruti Suzuki. The rest is owned by public and financial institutions. It is

    listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange in India.

    During 2007-08, Maruti Suzuki sold 764,842 cars, of which 53,024 were

    exported. In all, over six million Maruti Suzuki cars are on Indian roads since

    the first car was rolled out on 14 December 1983. Maruti Suzuki offers 14

    models, Maruti 800, Alto, WagonR, Estilo, A-star, Ritz, Swift, Swift

    DZire, SX4, Omni,Eeco, Gypsy, Grand Vitara, Kizashi. Swift, Swift DZire,

    A-star and SX4 are manufactured in Manesar, Grand Vitara and Kizashi are

    imported from Japan as completely built units(CBU), remaining all models are

    manufactured in Maruti Suzuki's Gurgaon Plant.

    Suzuki Motor Corporation, the parent company, is a global leader in mini and

    compact cars for three decades. Suzukis technical superiority lies in its ability

    to pack power and performance into a compact, lightweight engine that is

    clean and fuel efficient. Nearly 75,000 people are employed directly by Maruti

    Suzuki and its partners. It has been rated first in customer satisfaction among

    all car makers in India from 1999 to 2009 by J D Power Asia Pacific.

    2.2 Industrial relations:

    For most of its history, Maruti Udyog Limited had relatively few problems

    with its labour force. Its emphasis of a Japanese work culture and the modern

    manufacturing process, first instituted in Japan in the 1970s, was accepted by

    the workforce of the company without any difficulty. But with the change in

    management in 1997, when it became predominantly government controlled

    for a while, and the conflict between the United Front Government and Suzuki

    may have been the cause of unrest among employees. A major row broke out

    in September 2000 when employees of Maruti Udyog Ltd (MUL) went on an

    indefinite strike, demanding among other things, revision of the incentive

    scheme offered and implementation of a pension scheme.

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    Employees struck work for six hours in October 2000, irked over the

    suspension of nine employees, going on a six-hour tools-down strike at its

    Gurgaon plant, demanding revision of the incentive-linked pay and threatened

    to fast to death if the suspended employees were not reinstated. About this

    time, the NDA government, following a disinvestments policy, proposed to

    sell part of its stake in Maruti Suzuki in a public offering. The Staff union

    opposed this sell-off plan on the grounds that the company will lose a major

    business advantage of being subsidized by the Government.

    The standoff with the management continued to December with a proposal by

    the management to end the two-month long agitation rejected with a demand

    for reinstatement of 92 dismissed workers, with four MUL employees going

    on a fast-unto-death. In December the company's shareholders met in New

    Delhi in an AGM that lasted 30 minutes. At the same time around 1500 plant

    workers from the MUL's Gurgaon facility were agitating outside the

    company's corporate office demanding commencement of production linked

    incentives, a better pension scheme and other benefits. The management has

    refused to pass on the benefits citing increased competition and lower margins

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    2.3 Services offered

    Current sales of automobiles

    Red Bull Maruti Suzuki Swift

    Maruti Omni

    India's Corps of Military Police personnel patrolling the Wagah border crossing in

    thePunjab in a Maruti Gypsy.

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    Maruti Alt