What is Consumer Buying Behavior

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  • 7/29/2019 What is Consumer Buying Behavior


    What is Consumer Buying Behavior?

    Definition of Buying Behavior:

    Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using


    Need to understand:

    why consumers make the purchases that they make?

    what factors influence consumer purchases?

    the changing factors in our society.

    Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. A firm

    needs to analyze buying behavior for:

    Buyers reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the firms success. The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create aMarketing Mix(MM) that

    satisfies (gives utility to) customers, therefore need to analyze the what, where, when

    and how consumers buy.

    Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies.

    Return to Contents List

    Stages of the Consumer Buying Process

    Six Stages to the Consumer Buying Decision Process (For complex decisions). Actual

    purchasing is only one stage of the process. Not all decision processes lead to a purchase. All

    consumer decisions do not always include all 6 stages, determined by the degree of

    complexity...discussed next.

    The 6 stages are:

    1. Problem Recognition(awareness of need)--difference between the desired state andthe actual condition. Deficit in assortment of products. Hunger--Food. Hunger

    stimulates your need to eat.

    Can be stimulated by the marketer through product information--did not know you

    were deficient? I.E., see a commercial for a new pair of shoes, stimulates yourrecognition that you need a new pair of shoes.

    2. Information search--o Internal search, memory.

    o External search if you need more information. Friends and relatives (word of

    mouth). Marketer dominated sources; comparison shopping; public sources


    A successful information search leaves a buyer with possible alternatives, the evoked


    Hungry, want to go out and eat, evoked set is

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    o chinese food

    o indian food

    o burger king

    o klondike kates etc

    3. Evaluation of Alternatives--need to establish criteria for evaluation, features the buyer

    wants or does not want. Rank/weight alternatives or resume search. May decide thatyou want to eat something spicy, indian gets highest rank etc.

    If not satisfied with your choice then return to the search phase. Can you think of

    another restaurant? Look in the yellow pages etc. Information from different sources

    may be treated differently. Marketers try to influence by "framing" alternatives.

    4. Purchase decision--Choose buying alternative, includes product, package, store,method of purchase etc.

    5. Purchase--May differ from decision, time lapse between 4 & 5, product availability.6. Post-Purchase Evaluation--outcome: Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction. Cognitive

    Dissonance, have you made the right decision. This can be reduced by warranties,after sales communication etc.

    After eating an indian meal, may think that really you wanted a chinese meal instead.

    Handout...Pillsbury 1-800#s

    1-800 #s gives the consumer a way of communicating with the marketer after purchase. This

    helps reduce cognitive dissonance when a marketer can answer any concerns of a new


    Return to Contents List

    Types of Consumer Buying Behavior

    Types of consumer buying behavior are determined by:

    Level of Involvement in purchase decision. Importance and intensity of interest in a

    product in a particular situation.

    Buyers level of involvement determines why he/she is motivated to seek information

    about a certain products and brands but virtually ignores others.

    High involvement purchases--Honda Motorbike, high priced goods, products visible to

    others, and the higher the risk the higher the involvement. Types of risk:

    Personal risk

    Social risk

    Economic risk

    The four type of consumer buying behavior are:

    Routine Response/Programmed Behavior--buying low involvement frequently

    purchased low cost items; need very little search and decision effort; purchased

    almost automatically. Examples include soft drinks, snack foods, milk etc.

    Limited Decision Making--buying product occasionally. When you need to obtain

    information about unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category, perhaps. Requires

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    a moderate amount of time for information gathering. Examples include Clothes--

    know product class but not the brand.

    Extensive Decision Making/Complex high involvement, unfamiliar, expensive and/or

    infrequently bought products. High degree of economic/performance/psychological

    risk. Examples include cars, homes, computers, education. Spend alot of time seeking

    information and deciding.Information from the companies MM; friends and relatives, store personnel etc. Go

    through all six stages of the buying process.

    Impulse buying, no conscious planning.

    The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same Buying Behavior. Product

    can shift from one category to the next.

    For example:

    Going out for dinner for one person may be extensive decision making (for someone that

    does not go out often at all), but limited decision making for someone else. The reason for the

    dinner, whether it is an anniversary celebration, or a meal with a couple of friends will also

    determine the extent of the decision making.

    Return to Contents List

    Factors affecting consumer buying behavior

    Why do we need to learn about consumer buying behavior? The simple answer is that no

    longer can we take the customers for granted. Consumer buying behavior

    determines how our consumers decide to buy our product and what are the various

    factors responsible for this decision?

    Out of 11000 new products introduced by 77 companies, only 56% are present after 5

    years. Only 8% of new product concepts offered by 112 leading companies reached the

    market. Out of that 83% failed to meet marketing objectives. What we need to

    understand here is why consumers make the purchases that they make, what factors

    influence consumer purchases and changing factors in our society

    The central focus of marketing is the consumer. To devise good marketing plans, it is

    necessary to examine consumer behavioral attributes and needs, lifestyles, and purchase

    processes and then make proper marketing-mix decisions. The study of Consumer

    behavior includes the study of what they buy, why they buy, how they buy, when theybuy, from where they buy, and how often they buy. An open-minded consumer-oriented

    approach is imperative in todays diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and

    serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final

    consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use.

    Major Factors affecting consumer buying behavior

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    Cultural factors affecting consumer buying behaviour: Cultural factors have a

    significant impact on customer behavior.Culture is the most basic cause of a persons

    wants and behavior. Growing up, children learn basic values, perception and wants from

    the family and other important groups. Marketers are always trying to spot cultural

    shifts which might point to new products that might be wanted by customers or to

    increased demand.

    Social factors affecting consumer buying behaviour: A customers buying

    behavior is also influenced by social factors, such as the groups to which the customer

    belongs and social status.

    Each culture contains sub-cultures groups of people with share values. Sub-cultures

    can include nationalities, religions, racial groups, or groups of people sharing the same

    geographical location. Sometimes a sub-culture will create a substantial and distinctive

    market segment of its own. For example, the youth culture or club culture has quite

    distinct values and buying characteristics from the much older gray generation

    Similarly, differences in social class can create customer groups. In fact, the official six

    social classes in the UK are widely used to profile and predict different customer

    behavior. In the UKs socioeconomic classification scheme, social class is not just

    determined by income. It is measured as a combination of occupation,

    income, education, wealth and other variables

    Consumer purchases are influenced strongly by or there are four factors.

    01. Cultural Factor

    02. Social Factor

    03. Personal Factor

    04. Psychological Factor.

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    01. Cultural Factor :-

    Cultural factor divided into three sub factors (i) Culture (ii) Sub Culture (iii)Social Classo Culture:-

    The set of basic values perceptions, wants, and behaviourslearned by a member of society from family and other

    important institutions. Culture is the most basic cause of apersons wants and behaviour. Every group or society has a

    culture, and cultural influences on buying behaviour may varygreatly from country to country.

    o Sub Culture :- A group of people with shared value systems based on common

    life experiences and situations. Each culture contains smaller sub cultures a group of people

    with shared value system based on common life experiencesand situations. Sub culture includes nationalities, religions,

    racial group and geographic regions. Many sub culture make upimportant market segments and marketers often design

    products.o Social Class:-

    Almost every society has some form of social structure, socialclasses are societys relatively permanent and ordered

    divisions whose members share similar values, interests andbehaviour.

    02. Social Factors :-

    A consumers behaviour also is influenced by social factors, such as the (i)Groups (ii) Family (iii) Roles and status

    o Groups :- Two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or

    mutual goals. A persons behavious is influenced by many small groups.

    Groups that have a direct influence and to which a personbelongs are called membership groups.

    Some are primary groups includes family, friends, neighboursand coworkers. Some are secondary groups, which are more

    formal and have less regular interaction. These includesorganizations like religious groups, professional association and

    trade unions.o Family:-

    Family members can strongly influence buyer behaviour. Thefamily is the

    the most important consumer buying organization society andit has been researched extensively. Marketers are interested inthe roles, and influence ofthe husband, wife and children on

    the purchase of different products and services.

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    o Roles and Status :- A person belongs to many groups, family, clubs, organizations. The persons position in each group can be defined in terms of

    both role and status. For example. M & X plays the role of father, in his family he

    plays the role of husband, in his company, he plays the role ofmanager, etc. A Role consists of the activities people are

    expected to perform according to the persons around them.

    03. Personal Factors :-

    It includes i) Age and life cycle stage (ii) Occupation (iii) Economic situation (iv) Life

    Style (v) Personality and self concept.o Age and Life cycle Stage:-

    People changes the goods and services they buy over theirlifetimes. Tastes in food, clothes, furniture, and recreation are

    often age related. Buying is also shaped by the stage of thefamily life cycle.

    o Occupation :- A persons occupation affects the goods and services bought.

    Blue collar workers tend to buy more rugged work clothes,whereas white-collar workers buy more business suits. A Co.can even specialize in making products needed by a given

    occupational group. Thus, computer software companies willdesign different products for brand managers, accountants,

    engineers, lawyers, and doctors.

    o Economic situation :- A persons economic situation will affect product choice

    o Life Style :- Life Style is a persons Pattern of living, understanding these

    forces involves measuring consumers major AIO dimensions. i.e. activities (Work, hobbies, shopping, support etc) interest

    (Food, fashion, family recreation) and opinions (aboutthemselves, Business, Products)

    o Personality and Self concept :- Each persons distinct personality influence his or her buying

    behaviour. Personality refers to the unique psychologicalcharacteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting

    responses to ones own environment.

    04. Psychological Factors :-

    It includes these Factors. i) Motivation (ii) Perception (iii) Learning (iv) Beliefs and attitudes

    Motivation :-

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    o Motive (drive) a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the personto seek satisfaction of the need

    Perception :-o The process by which people select, Organize, and interpret

    information to form a meaningful picture of the world.

    Learning:-o Changes in an individuals behaviour arising from experience.

    Beliefs and attitudes :-o Belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something

    o Attitude, a Persons consistently favourable or unfavourableevaluations, feelings, and tendencies towards an object or idea

    Singaporean consumer buying behavior towardsdetergent powder across hypermarket and

    supermarket retail formats [permalink]Singaporean rapid growth of household consumption in the competitivemarket of hypermarket and supermarket retailer have present the unique pattern ofconsumer buying behavior, since there are few consideration before the buyingdecision is made. Detergent powder buying decision will represent thecharacteristic consumer behavior; including what factors is most affecting thedecision-making. The research identifies non-marketing and marketing variablesas the factors affecting consumer decision making towards buying detergentpowder. Using the multiple regression analysis on SPSS statistic, it is found thatthe marketing and non-marketing factor does affect the consumer buyingbehavior. The most affecting factor in the detergent powder buying decision is the

    promotion of the product, also cultural and personal condition of the consumer.personal-image factors have positive relationship and significant but price havepositive relationship but not significant towards customer satisfaction. from this 3new factors, quality factors have the most dominant contribution towards customersatisfcation


    In the previous lesson you learnt that marketing identifies consumers needs andsupplies

    various goods and services to satisfy those needs most effectively. So thebusinessmanneeds to: (a) produce or manufacture the product according to consumers need; (b)make available it at a price that the consumers find reasonable; (c) supply theproduct tothe consumers at different outlets they can conveniently approach; and (d) inform theconsumers about the product and its characteristics through the media they haveaccessto.So the marketing manager concentrates on four major decision areas while planningthe

    marketing activities, namely, (i) products, (ii) price, (iii) place (distribution) and

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    (iv) promotion. These 4 Ps are called as elements of marketing and together theyconstitutethe marketing mix. All these are inter-related because a decision in one area affectsdecisionsin other areas. In this lesson you will learn about the basic aspects relating to these

    4Psviz., product, price, place and promotion.

    OBJECTIVESAfter studying this lesson, you will be able to :explain the concept of marketing mix and its components;explain the meaning of product and its classification;state the various factors affecting pricing decisions;describe different methods of pricing;state the meaning of channels of distribution;identify the various channels of distribution;

    state the factors affecting choice of a channel of distribution; andexplain the concepts of promotion and promotion mix.Senior SecondaryNotes

    102MODULE -5Marketing

    20.1 CONCEPT AND COMPONENTS OF MARKETING MIXMarketing involves a number of activities. To begin with, an organisation may decideonits target group of customers to be served. Once the target group is decided, theproductis to be placed in the market by providing the appropriate product, price, distributionandpromotional efforts. These are to be combined or mixed in an appropriate proportionsoas to achieve the marketing goal. Such mix of product, price, distribution andpromotionalefforts is known as Marketing Mix.According to Philip Kotler Marketing Mix is the set of controllable variables that thefirmcan use to influence the buyers response. The controllable variables in this context

    referto the 4 Ps [product, price, place (distribution) and promotion]. Each firm strives tobuild up such a composition of 4Ps, which can create highest level of consumersatisfactionand at the same time meet its organisational objectives. Thus, this mix is assembledkeepingin mind the needs of target customers, and it varies from one organisation to anotherdepending upon its available resources and marketing objectives. Let us now have abriefidea about the four components of marketing mix.Product : Product refers to the goods and services offered by the organisation. A

    pair of

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    shoes, a plate of dahi-vada, a lipstick, all are products. All these are purchasedbecausethey satisfy one or more of our needs. We are paying not for the tangible product butforthe benefit it will provide. So, in simple words, product can be described as a bundle

    ofbenefits which a marketeer offers to the consumer for a price. While buying a pair ofshoes, we are actually buying comfort for our feet, while buying a lipstick we areactuallypaying for beauty because lipstick is likely to make us look good. Product can alsotakethe form of a service like an air travel, telecommunication, etc. Thus, the termproductrefers to goods and services offered by the organisation for sale.Price: Price is the amount charged for a product or service. It is the second mostimportant

    element in the marketing mix. Fixing the price of the product is a tricky job. Manyfactorslike demand for a product, cost involved, consumers ability to pay, prices charged bycompetitors for similar products, government restrictions etc. have to be kept in mindwhile fixing the price. In fact, pricing is a very crucial decision area as it has its effectondemand for the product and also on the profitability of the firm.Place: Goods are produced to be sold to the consumers. They must be madeavailable tothe consumers at a place where they can conveniently make purchase. Woollens aremanufactured on a large scale in Ludhiana and you purchase them at a store fromthenearby market in your town. So, it is necessary that the product is available at shopsinyour town. This involves a chain of individuals and institutions like distributors,wholesalersand retailers who constitute firms distribution network (also called a channel ofdistribution).The organisation has to decide whether to sell directly to the retailer or through thedistributors/wholesaler etc. It can even plan to sell it directly to consumers. Thechoice is

    guided by a host of factors about which you will learn later in this chapter.Business Studies 103NotesMODULE-5Marketing

    Promotion: If the product is manufactured keeping the consumer needs in mind, isrightlypriced and made available at outlets convenient to them but the consumer is notmadeaware about its price, features, availability etc, its marketing effort may not besuccessful.Therefore promotion is an important ingredient of marketing mix as it refers to a


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    of informing, persuading and influencing a consumer to make choice of the productto bebought. Promotion is done through means of personal selling, advertising, publicityandsales promotion. It is done mainly with a view to provide information to prospective

    consumers about the availability, characteristics and uses of a product. It arousespotentialconsumers interest in the product, compare it with competitors product and makehischoice. The proliferation of print and electronic media has immensely helped theprocessof promotion.Marketing Mix : A birds eye viewPricePlace(Distribution)

    TargetCustomerProduct PromotionHaving acquainted ourselves with the broad nature of the four components ofmarketing

    mix, let us now learn some important aspects of each one of these in detail in the

    following Surf

    Dominating the washing powders markets in Pakistan for four decades; Surf hascontinued to change according to consumer needs. Being a pioneer, Surf had towork hard to gain acceptance in the early days. To educate housewives about itsuse, house to house demonstration were organized in Lahore and Karachi. Freesample and coupons were also distributed to recruit consumer. There has been nolooking back since the brand has undergone numerous product qualityimprovements to offer best cleaning results. Over the year, there has been a shiftfrom cartons to poly ags and emergence of low unit price packs.

    With continuous technological innovations, the brand has always managed to fightoff competition. Surf Excel, which hit the shops recently, has already gained a

    reputation for the best in the market


    We are the leading consumer products company in Pakistan, a multinational withdeep roots in the country.

    We serve the everyday needs of all consumers everywhere for foods, hygiene andbeauty through branded products and services that deliver the best quality andvalue.

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    Our bands capture the hearts of consumers through outstanding communication

    Through managing a responsive supply chain, we maximize value from suppliers tocustomers

    We are exemplary through our commitment to business ethics, Safety, Health,Environmentalist and involvement in the community.

    Current Market Situation

    Market Description

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    Product Review

    A comparison of cost price with sale price of Products in product line.

    Surf Excel

    Quantity Cost Price in Rupees Sale Price in Rupees

    25 grams 4.7 5

    50 grams 9.5 10

    115 grams 19 20

    500 grams 110.50 115

    1000 grams 199.50 210

    2000 grams 385 405

    Unilever Products B.C.G Matrix


    Ponds skin cream

    Question mark

    Cash cow

    Surf Excel

    Sun silk Shampoo


    Lifebuoy Shampoo

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    Surf Excel:

    Surf Excel is a product of Unilever which is at growth stage as it has large market.

    In Market Surf Excel 50 grams has huge market share with respect to other Sashes.

    While demand of 500 grams is very low.50 grams is facilitating the class B andLower B.

    And 500 grams are facilitating the Class A and Class B+.

    A Review of Competition



    When we talk about P & G then question arises what stands for it, basicallyit stands for Proctor & Gamble. Basically it came into existence in 1837 inqueen city of west.

    William Procter quickly established himself as a candle maker. James Gambleapprenticed himself to a soap maker. Soon they started to work combine in1837, a bold new enterprise was born: Procter & Gamble.On April 12, 1837,William Procter and James Gamble start making and selling their soap andcandles. On August 22, they formalize their business relationship by pledging$3,596.47 apiece. The formal partnership agreement is signed on October 31,


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    They are also in the process to facilitate on the base of providing washingpowder.


    Use for the purpose to wash the cloths

    Customer Benefit

    Ariel is associating the brand with customer on the bases to give them superiorquality and makes the ground for customer to provide a theme which cause to havehappiness.


    Ariel has adopted the strategy of market aggregation. ARIEL target market includes

    Middle Class, Upper Middle Class and Upper Classes of the population of Pakistan.The Ladies of Pakistan who are very conscious about their family.


    Ariel is considered to be a trusted and premium brand of Pakistan. Procter andGamble is positioning their product in the best of their customer satisfaction. Ascharging money they are positioning their product as best use as well as providingquality in response.

    They are focusing on the quality and they are also in a motive to facilitate thecustomer as providing a whole range which they can.

    Price Comparison with differentPlayers

    Brand Name Quantity Price in rupees

    Surf Excel 1000 grams 210

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    Ariel 1000 grams 210

    Brite 1000 grams 170

    Express Power 1000 grams 125

    Bonus 1000 grams 60

    A Review of Distribution


    Distributors are the institution through which availability of products is possible.Unilevers distributors have a very good relationship with them. and the importantthing is that they must integrated into total marketing mix because of time and moneyrequired to setup an efficient channel.

    Unilever has Six distributors in Lahore which are as follow.

    Allied Marketing at Gulberg II

    Shahzad Brothers Enterprises at Murgi Hana

    Sigma at Kotlakhpat

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    Munner & Phips at Sham Nagar

    Munner & Phips at Ravi Road

    Munner & Phips at Johar Town


    Unilever uses the following multiple channel of distribution.










    Unileveruses a lot of distributors and retailers to supply its products in each marketwhere the final customer might reasonably look for it. While appointing a distributor

    for a particular area, management uses its own judgment to select such a personthat has a potential to operate effectively.At present Situation for Surf Excel they are

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    focusing by intensive manners and for new products like Surf Excel Matic they arefocusing the distibution channal by Exclusive manners.

    Effect of Distribution on sales trend

    Designing of channel for Surf Excel

    Unilever has adopted the method of intensive distribution for Surf Excel because thetarget market of this product is segmented for washing cloths using any method.

    The customer want to purchase this product from nearest shop as this isconvenience product.

    Market Potential

    Detergent Market is growing by 16% intensively.

    At present Consumer prefer detergent on the base of quality.

    Pakistani Peoples are moving from rural areas to urban areas as lifestyle is changing.

    Advertising is promoting the detergents by comparing thefunctionality of different detergents and laundry Soaps.

    Increase awareness of usage benefit of detergent.


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    SWOT Analysis


    Enjoying economies of scale

    Good will in the market

    Strong financial position

    Surf has become the generic name in detergents

    Have Strong distribution channel in Pakistan

    Abundant financial resources

    Well-known brand name

    Well brand image

    Committed employees


    Huge inventory stocks of raw material

    Weak spending on R & D

    Internal operating problems

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    Rapid market growth

    Changing customers needs & wants as life style change

    To create relation with society on the social marketing basis

    Pakistan peoples moves from soap to detergent


    There is very tough competition in detergents markets

    Low profit margins

    Smuggled brands of CHINA

    New competition in the market

    Increases in taxes

    Increases in prices due to fuel prices


    The objectives of the Surf Excel is

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    To meet the everyday needs of people everywhere to anticipate the aspirations ofconsumers and customers and to respond creatively and competitively with brandedproducts and services, which raise the quality of life.

    Total commitment to exceptional standards of performance and productivity, to

    working together effectively and to a willingness to embrace new ideas and learncontinuously.

    To maintain highest standards of corporate behavior towards employees, consumersand the societies and world to acquire success.

    The major points are as fallows.

    Sales growth


    Market positioning

    Enhance Market shares

    Customer satisfaction

    Goodwill & reputation

    IssuesLaundry detergent

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to:navigation,search

    Laundry powder

    Laundry detergent, orwashing powder, is a substance that is a type ofdetergent(cleaning

    agent) that is added for cleaninglaundry. In common usage, "detergent" refers to mixtures ofchemical compounds including alkylbenzenesulfonates, which are similar to soap but are less

  • 7/29/2019 What is Consumer Buying Behavior


    affected by "hard water." In most household contexts, the term detergent refers to laundry

    detergentvs hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Most detergent is delivered in

    powdered form.[1]


    1 History

    2 Chemistry of detergents

    3 Components

    o 3.1 Builders

    o 3.2 Bleach

    o 3.3 Enzymes

    o 3.4 Other ingredients

    4 Environmental concerns 5 References

    6 External links

    [edit] History

    From ancient times, chemical additives were recognized for their ability to facilitate the

    mechanical washing with water. The Italians used a mix of sulfur and water with charcoal to

    clean cloth. Egyptians added ashes and silicates to soften water. Soaps were the first



    The detergent effects of certain synthetic surfactants were noted in Germany in1917, in response to shortages of soap duringWorld War I. In the 1930s, commercially viable

    routes tofatty alcoholswere developed, and these new materials were converted to their

    sulfate esters, key ingredients in the commercially important German brand FEWA, produced

    byBASF, andDreft, the US brand produced byProcter and Gamble. Such detergents were

    mainly used in industry until afterWorld War II. By then, new developments and the later

    conversion ofaviation fuelplants to produce tetrapropylene, used inhouseholddetergents,

    caused a fast growth of domestic use in the late 1940s.[3]

    The use of enzymes for laundry was introduced in the early part of the 1900s byOtto Rohm.

    Only in the latter part of the century with the availability of thermally robust bacterial

    enzymes did this technology become mainstream.[4]

    At the present time, soap has largely been displaced as the main cleaning agent in developed

    countries. Soap is, by weight, relatively ineffective, and it is highly sensitive to deactivation

    by hard water. By the 1950s, soap had almost been completely replaced by branched

    alkylbenzenesulfonates, but these detergents were found to be poorly biodegradable.Linear

    alkylbenzenesulfonates (LABs), however, proved to be both highly effective in cleaning and

    more biodegradable than the branched relatives. LABs remain the main detergents used

    domestically. Other detergents that have been developed include the linearalkylsulfonates

    and olefinsulfonates, which also resist deactivation by hard water. Both remain specialty

    products, for example only an estimated 60 million kilograms of the sodium alkylsulfonates

    are produced annually.[5]During the early development of non-soap surfactants as

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    commercial cleaning products, the termsyndet, short forsynthetic detergent, was promoted to

    indicate the distinction from so-called natural soaps.

    [edit] Chemistry of detergents

    Main article:detergent

    Many kinds of molecules and ions can serve as high-efficiencysurfactants. They are oftenclassified according to the charge of the molecule or ion, the three main classes being

    anionic, neutral, and cationic detergents. Anionic detergents are most commonly encountered

    for domestic laundry detergents. Detergents are ions or molecules that contain both polar and

    nonpolar components. The polar component allows the detergent to dissolve in the water,

    whereas the nonpolar portion solubilizes greasy ("hydrophobic") materials that are the usual

    target of the cleaning process. An estimated 6 billion kilograms of detergents are produced

    annually for domestic markets.[5]

    Three kinds of anionic detergents: branch alkylbenzenesulfonates, linear alkylbenzenesulfonates,

    and a soap.

    [edit] Components

    Modern detergent formulations - the entire product vs just the surfactant - contain several

    components. Three main ingredients are builders (50% by weight, approximately), thealkylbenzenesulfonate surfactant(15%), and bleaches (7%).[5]

    [edit] Builders

    Builders arewater softeners. These chemical compounds are agents that remove calcium ions

    by complexation or precipitation. Typical builders aresodium carbonate, complexation

    agents, soap, andzeolites. They function by sequestering or precipitating the problematic

    ions. One of the most common builders issodium triphosphate, which is used on very large

    scale for this application.

    [edit] Bleach

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    Main article:Bleach

    The main targets of bleaches are of vegetable origin includechlorophyll,anthocyanindyes,

    tannins,humic acids, andcarotenoidpigments. Most bleaches in laundry detergents are

    oxidizers, e.g.,sodium perborateorsodium hypochlorite, In addition, other agents are added

    as "bleach activators", to enhance the effectiveness of the bleaching agent; a popular one istetraacetylethylenediamine.

    [edit] Enzymes

    Main article:Biological detergent

    Many laundry detergents containenzymes. The amounts of enzyme can be up to about 2% byweight of the product. These agents are required to degrade recalcitrant stains composed of

    proteins,fats, orcarbohydrates. Each type of stain requires a different type of enzyme, i.e.,

    proteasefor proteins, lipases for greases, andamylasesfor carbohydrates.

    [edit] Other ingredients

    Many other ingredients are added depending on the specific application. Such additives

    modify thefoamingproperties of the product by eitherstabilizingorcounteractingfoam.

    Other ingredients increase or decrease the viscosity of the solution, or solubilize other

    ingredients. Corrosion inhibitors counteract damage to washing equipment. "Dye transfer

    inhibitors" prevent dyes from one article from colouring other items. "Antiredeposition

    agents" are used to prevent fine soil particles from reattaching to the product being cleaned.

    Carboxymethyl celluloseis used for this purpose.[5]

    A number of ingredients affect aesthetic properties of the item to be cleaned or the detergent

    itself before or during use. These agents includeoptical brighteners, fabric softeners, and

    colourants. A variety ofperfumesare also components of modern detergents, provided that

    they are compatible with the other components and do not affect the colour of the cleaned

    item. The perfumes are typically a mixture of many compounds, a popular component being

    cyclohexyl salicylate, which is related tooil of wintergreen.[5]

    [edit] Environmental concerns

    Early in the introduction of sulfonate-based detergents, concerns were voiced over the lowrates ofbiodegradationof the branched alkylbenzenesulfonates. This problem was addressed

    by the introduction of linear alkylbenzenesulfonates.[6]

    A more profound problem arises from the heavy use ofsodium triphosphate, which can

    comprise up to 50% by weight of detergents. The discharge of soluble phosphates into natural

    waters has led to problem witheutrophicationof lakes and streams. The replacement of

    sodium triphosphate byzeolitesoffers some relief to this problem.[5]With respect to the

    phosphate additives, between 1940 and 1970 "the amount ofphosphatesin city wastewater

    increased from 20,000 to 150,000 tons per year."[7]With the increase in phosphates,algal

    bloomsgrew splendidly on the excess phosphorus and consumed most of the oxygen in the

    waters, killing fish and plants.[7]

  • 7/29/2019 What is Consumer Buying Behavior


    In 2004, theEuropean Unionintroduced regulations to require biodegradability in all

    detergents,[8]and intends to ban phosphates in domestic products from 2013.[9]

    Australia began phasing out the use of phosphates in its detergents in 2011, with an all-out

    ban expected to take effect in 2014.[10]

    Pursuant to findings published in 2006 by theShenkar College of Engineering and Design

    indicating that liquid detergents are "much more environment-friendly" than powdered

    detergents, Israel'sMinistry of the Environmentbegan recommending that consumers prefer

    liquid detergent over powdered ones "for laundry which is not heavily stained."[11]