Constitucion de Cadiz

  • Published on
    19-Dec-2015

  • View
    15

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

La Constitucin de Cadiz

Transcript

<ul><li><p>Edicin 2012.</p><p>D.R. Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federacin.</p><p>Carlota Armero nm. 5000, colonia CTM Culhuacn, </p><p>Delegacin Coyoacn, Mxico, DF, CP 04480,</p><p>Tels. 5728-2300 y 5728-2400.</p><p>Coordinacin: Centro de Capacitacin Judicial Electoral.</p><p>Edicin: Coordinacin de Comunicacin Social.</p><p>Las opiniones expresadas son responsabilidad exclusiva de los autores.</p><p>ISBN 978-607-708-103-6</p><p>Impreso en Mxico.</p><p>Se agradece la invaluable colaboracin de la biblioteca del Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. Jos </p><p>Mara Luis Mora por proporcionar los archivos digitales de la Constitucin Poltica de la Monarqua </p><p>Espaola usados en la presente edicin.</p><p>Espaa [Constitucin Poltica. 1812]</p><p>Constitucin Poltica de la Monarqua Espaola : Cdiz 1812 / Manuel Gonzlez Oropeza et. al. ; presentacin Jos Alejandro Luna Ramos. -- Mxico: Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federacin, 2012.</p><p>300 pp.Edicin facsimilar.</p><p>ISBN 978-607-708-103-6</p><p>1. Constitucin de Cdiz. 2. Constituciones Espaa. 3. Constitucin Poltica 1812. 4. Historia constitucional. I. Gonzlez Oropeza, Manuel. II. Paoli Bolio, Francisco Jos. III. Barragn Barragn, Jos. IV. Luna Ramos, Jos Alejandro. V. Ttulo</p><p>342.02E6 E578c1812</p></li><li><p>ndice</p><p>', Gi\j\ekXZ`eAfj8c\aXe[ifCleXIXdfj</p><p>(* Gi\j\eZ`X[\:}[`q\e(/)+%feq}c\qFifg\qX</p><p>*. CX:fejk`klZ`e[\:}[`qpjlgifp\ZZ`e\ecX:fejk`klZ`e]\[\iXcp[\cfj\jkX[fj=iXeZ`jZfAfjGXfc`9fc`f</p><p>+, DXj`mXm`^\eZ`X[\cXjc\p\j^X[`kXeXj\eDo`Zf[\jglj[\ZfejldX[Xjl`e[\g\e[\eZ`XAfj9XiiX^}e9XiiX^}e</p><p>-* =XZjd`c%:fejk`klZ`eGfck`ZX[\cXDfeXihlX\e\iXc[\cXEXZ`e</p></li><li><p>Presentacin@ei7b[`WdZheBkdWHWcei </p><p>8c Zldgc`ij\ \c Y`Z\ek\eXi`f [\ cX \og\[`Z`e [\ cX:fejk`klZ`eGfck`ZX[\cXDfeXihlX</p></li><li><p>JWXWiYe"gfijlgifgl\jkX[\Zfejk`kl`icf\eleXel\mXgifm`eZ`X%EffYjkXek\#\j[\efkXij\hl\[\cfj(/*[`glkX[fjZfejk`klp\ek\j#(*'\iXe\jgXfc\jp,*Xd\i`ZXefj#cfhl\`e[`ZXcX[\jgifgfiZ`e\ecXZfe]fidXZ`e[\\jkXdX^eXXjXdYc\X#XjZfdfcf[`]Z`chl\\iXgXiXcfji\gi\j\ekXek\j[\cfji\`efj[\@e[`Xj_XZ\igi\mXc\Z\i\e\ccXjljglekfj[\m`jkX%</p><p>;\jglj[\cXi^fjpXgXj`feX[fj[\YXk\j#\ecfjhl\\eXc^lefjdfd\ekfj]l\ife^XeXe[fk\ii\ef cXj[\dXe[Xji\`m`e[`ZXkfi`Xj[\ cfji\gi\j\ekXek\j[\ cXj @e[`Xj# Xg\jXi[\c ZiZlcf\jki\Z_fp[fd`eXek\[\ cfj_`jgXefj# ]l\aliX[Xjfc\de\d\ek\cX:fejk`klZ`e[\:}[`q#hl\ZfejkX[\('kklcfjp*/+XikZlcfj#\c(0[\dXiqf[\(/()%</p><p>;\\ccXXidX\cZfejk`klZ`feXc`jkX</p></li><li><p>:fej`[\iXe[f\jk\\jZ\eXi`f#ZXiXZk\i`qX[fgfi^iXm\j\e]i\ekXd`\ekfjgf$ck`ZfjpcXgi\j`ehl\\a\iZX\ecXd`jdXj\[\[\cXXjXdYc\X\c\aiZ`kf`emX$jfi#ZfYiXedXpfi[`d\ej`ecfjXcZXeZ\jfYk\e`[fjgfi\jkX:fejk`klZ`e%</p><p>8c^lefj[\\ccfjjfecfjj`^l`\ek\j1j\fkfi^X\c\jkXklj[\Z`l[X[XefXcfjXek`^lfjjY[`kfj[\ci\`efXik%(/ # cXjfY\iXeXi\j`[\\j\eZ`Xcd\ek\\ecXeXZ`eXik%* #cXeXZ`e\jk}fYc`^X[XXgifk\^\icXc`Y\ikX[Z`m`c#cXgifg`\[X[pcfj[\d}j[\i\Z_fjc\^k`dfj[\kf[fjjlj`e[`m`[lfjXik%+ #j\\jkXYc\Z\cX[`m`j`e[\gf[\i\jXikj%(,X(. #cXYXj\gXiXcXi\gi\j\ekXZ`eeXZ`feXc\jcXd`jdX\eXdYfj_\d`j]\i`fjXik%)/ #j\\jkXYc\Z\lej`jk\dX`e[`i\Zkf[\\c\ZZ`fe\j#Xki\je`m\c\j#gXiXi\efmXiZX[X[fjXfjXcfj[`glkX[fj\ecXjZfik\jfi[`eXi`XjXikj%*+X('* #j\Zfejk`klp\led\[`f`dgl^eXk`mfm\iYXcp[`i\ZkfXek\cXd\jX[`i\Zk`mX[\ZXj`ccXZfii\jgfe[`\ek\#gXiXhl\cfjZ`l$[X[Xefj[\eleZ`\e`ek\ekfj[\Xd\eXqXjfZf_\Z_fi\jg\ZkfXcX\d`j`e[\jlj mfkfj Xikj% +0# .) p /. # hl\[X Xj\ekX[f \c j`jk\dX [\ XlkfZXc`ZXZ`e[\\c\ZZ`fe\jXikj%((X((. #`^lXcd\ek\#hl\[XZfe^liX[f\ci^`d\edle`$Z`gXc#hl\`eZclp\cXj\c\ZZ`fe\jXgcliXc`[X[[\mfkfj\eki\cfjm\Z`efj[\ZX[Xcl^Xi Xikj%*'0X*)* # kXdY`ej\\jkXYc\Z\lei^`d\e[\gifm`eZ`Xjp[\[`glkXZ`fe\jgifm`eZ`Xc\j#i\efmXYc\d\[`Xek\\c\ZZ`fe\jZX[X[fjXfjXikj%*)+X**. #j\dfjkigi\fZlgXZ`egficX\[lZXZ`egYc`ZXpj\fi[\ehl\\ekf[fjcfjgl\Ycfjj\\jkXYc\Z`\iXleX\jZl\cX[\gi`d\iXjc\kiXjXik%*-- #(\jkfi\jlckgXik`ZlcXid\ek\`dgfikXek\j`j\kfdX\eZl\ekXhl\gXiX(/('j\ZXcZlcXhl\[\cfj(,d`ccfe\j#\eed\ifi\[fe[fj#[\_XY`kXek\j\ecXEl\mX</p></li><li>Xlehl\cl\^fi\jkXYc\Z`[X\eXc^leXj[\jljgXik\jgfi\cm`ii\p=c`oDXiX:Xcc\aX#ZfeZi\kXd\ek\\e cfhl\_XZ\X cXj\c\ZZ`fe\j[\XplekXd`\ekfj#[\[`glkX[fjX:fik\jfi[`eXi`Xjp[\ i\gi\j\ekXek\j[\ cXj AlekXjGifm`eZ`Xc\j#Xj Zfdf\ecXfi^Xe`qXZ`e[\cfjki`YleXc\j%EffYjkXek\#\c[\Zi\kf[\c+[\dXpf[\(/(+`dgljf[\el\mfcXdfeXihlXXYjfclkXX]Xmfi[\=\ieXe[fM@@#Zfecfhl\hl\[XYif^X[XcX:fejk`klZ`e[\(/()#g\ifgXiXdXiqf[\(/)'pd\[`Xek\\cki`le]f[\cXi\Y\c`e[\8jkli`Xj#\eZXY\qX[XgfiIX]X\c[\I`\^f#]l\e\Z\jXi`fgfe\icX[\el\mf\em`^fi#p\ecXEl\mX</li><li>kXife#[\dXe\iX[`i\ZkX#gi`d\if\ecXEl\mX</li><li><p>gficfhl\\jgi\Z`jfXZl[`i#\e]fidXi\]\i\eZ`Xc#XjlZfek\e`[f\eYjhl\[X[\`[\ek`[X[pildYf%</p><p>Gfi \jX iXqe# \c Ki`YleXc </p></li><li><p>Presencia de Cdiz en 1824.El constitucionalismo mexicano1</p><p>CWdk[b=edp|b[pEhef[pW </p><p>J`\e[fcXjel\m\[\cXdXXeX[\c)+[\j\gk`\dYi\[\(/('#Zfd\eqX$ifecXjj\j`fe\j[\cXj:fik\j\e:}[`qZfecXgi\j\eZ`X[\('+[`glkX$[fj% :fd\eqXYXeleXj:fik\jhl\ Zfejk`klp\e kf[flegXiX[`^dX\ecX_`jkfi`Xle`m\ijXc[\cgXicXd\ekXi`jdf#XcXcY\i^XiXi\gi\j\ekXek\j[\cfjk\ii`kfi`fjhl\Zfe]fidXYXe\cXek`^lf `dg\i`f%lk`ii\q[\K\i}e#Zfdfhl\[Xj\ekX[f\e\c:_Wh_eZ[bWii[i_ed[iZ[b9ed]h[ieZ[bei:_fkjWZeiZ['.''.')%</p></li><li><p>p#gfi\cfkif#legifp\Zkf[\eXZ`eZfe`[\Xc\jd}jXdgc`fjYXjX[fj\e\cdf[\cf]\[\iXc`jkX[\^fY`\ief#[\X_hl\XIXdfj8i`qg\j\c\ccXd\\cGX$[i\[\c]\[\iXc`jdf\eDo`Zf%</p><p>@eiC_]k[bHWcei7h_pf[0gXiX[`^dX[\\c\ZZ`e[\le[`glkX[fefmf_`jgXef</p></li><li><p>Zc`dX[\ ]\[\iXc`jdf[\ ]XZkf ]Xmfi\Z`[f[\j[\ cXj[`]\i\ek\j alekXjgifm`e$Z`Xc\j%8g\jXi[\\ccf#leXZl\i[f^\e\iXcg\id`k`Zfejk`kl`i\e8iXeal\q#\c),[\j\gk`\dYi\[\(/'/#cX[\efd`eX[XAlekXJlgi\dX&gt;lY\ieXk`mXZfe*,d`\dYifjpgi\j`[`[Xgfi\cd`e`jkif[\DliZ`X#AfjDf`efpI\[fe[f#Zfe[\[\=cfi`[XYcXeZX%lY\ieXk`mX[\cI\`ef]l\\ci^Xefhl\XZldlccfjgf[\i\j\a\Zlk`mfpc\^`jcXk`mf[liXek\cXfZlgXZ`eeXgfc\e`ZX[\XiXp#\e\cFheo[YjeZ[:[Yh[jeieXh[h[ijWXb[Y_c_[djeoYedleYWjeh_WZ[9ehj[ieYed#ikbjWWbfWi"[\c(*[\dXpf[\(/'0#j\XcXCXj]fidXj`ej`[`fjXj[\cX:fejk`klZ`e[\9XpfeXefYXjkXeX[`j]iXqXi\c[\jgfk`jdfc\^Xc`qX[fhl\gfikf[X\ccXi\jg`iX2\ecX\jgXfcX#cXmfclekX[gYc`ZXpc\^XcpjlZ`\ek\d\ek\\ogi\jX[Xj\i}cXc\p#c`d`kXe[f\c^fY`\iefjlj]leZ`fe\jXcfjkid`Zfjhl\\e\cfi[\egfck`Zfc\_Xj\XcX[fcXeXkliXc\qX2cXjZfej\Zl\eZ`Xj[\cXleX#[`^eXj\ekf[f[\cX]l\ek\[\`e`hl`[X[[\[fe[\[`dXeXe#_Xej`[f\cifYf#\c\jkiX^f#cXil`eXpcX[\jfcXZ`e[\gcfiXYc\[\cfj_fdYi\jp[\cfjgl\Ycfj#XZlpX]\c`Z`[X[j\[\ZX[\jk`eX[X2cXfkiX#]le[X[X\e\cZ`d`\ekf[\cXm`ikl[pZfdgiX[XXZfjkX[\cfj\j]l\iqfjd}j^\e\ifjfj[\cgXki`fk`jdf#k\e[i}gfii\jlckX[fj`e[l[XYc\jcXc`Y\ikX[p]\c`Z`[X[[l$iX[\iX[\cXeXZ`e\jgXfcX%ye]Xj`jXX[`[f%=l\ek\1_kkg1&amp;&amp;Y`Y%Z\imXek\jm`iklXc%Zfd&amp;j\imc\k&amp;J`im\FYiXj&amp;Z(/()&amp;'(,0*0-*/.0'**/+.++''*,&amp;g''''''(%_kd@V(V:fejlckX[X\c)'[\]\Yi\if[\)'() %</p><p>(,</p><p>&gt;feq}c\qFifg\qX</p><p>:fejk`klZ`eGfck`ZX[\cXDfeXihlX$d\q(00.#)($) 8gXik`i[\\ekfeZ\jZfd\eqXiX\ccXi^fZXd`ef[\cXZ\ejliXhl\\ejfdYi\Z`cXeXZ`\ek\c`Y\ikX[[\`dgi\ekX\eel\jkifgXj#j\XcXe[fcfjXYljfjhl\j\_`Z`\ife[\\jk\^iXeY`\e#Zfem`ik`e[fcf\ele^iXedXc&gt;d\q(00.#)) %(+</p><p>;\cX:fejk`klZ`e[\:}[`qXcX:fejk`klZ`e[\(/)+%</p><p>;\cXi\gi\j\ekXZ`egifm`eZ`XcXcXi\gi\j\ekXZ`eeXZ`feXc</p><p>CX^liX[\IXdfj8i`qg\\jk}m`eZlcX[XXleel\mfZfeZ\gkf#^\e\iX[f\e\cd`jdf:}[`q#g\ifZlpXji\g\iZlj`fe\jk\e[i}edXpfi`dgXZkf\e\c:fe^i\jf:fejk`klp\ek\[\(/)+1\c[\cXh[fh[i[djWY_ddWY_edWb$J`Y`\e\jZ`\ikfhl\cX:fejk`klZ`e[\(/()Xj\^liXYXhl\le[`glkX[fi\gi\j\ekXYXX cXeXZ`e\ek\iX#jlXek\Z\[\ek\gi\m`fef\iXXj2ZlXe[fj\\og`[`cXZfemfZXkfi`XX:fik\j\e(/('#gi\[fd`eXYX\eki\cfjXd\i`ZXefj\ci\^`feXc`jdf#\j[\Z`i#cfj[`glkX[fj\c\ZkfjYljZXYXe\ogfe\icXgifYc\d}k`ZX[\jljgifm`eZ`XjpfYk\$e\icfjd\[`fjgXiXi\jfcm\icfj#pIXdfj8i`qg\\j\cd}jZcXif\a\dgcf[\\ccf%</p></li><li><p>gXi\jg\e`ejlcXi\j#gl\jjlj[\dXe[Xj\iXej`d`cXi\jp\jkXYXele`[fjXek\cfj^iXm\jgifYc\dXjgcXek\X[fj#[\dfjkiXe[fhl\#\e\]\Zkf#i\gi\j\ekXYXeXcfj_XY`kXek\j[\cXjZfcfe`XjXd\i`ZXeXjpc`g`eXj#p#gficfkXekf#\o`^XeleXgXi`[X[i\jg\ZkfXcfji\gi\j\ekXek\j[\cXd\kigfc`#hl\k\eXedXpfii\gi\j\ekXk`m`[X[%</p><p>Effcm`[\dfjhl\Xc^leXj[\cXjgifm`eZ`Xjefgl[`\ifeZ\c\YiXi\c\ZZ`f$e\j# p cf hl\ \iXg\fi# ZXj` e`e^lef[\ cfj [`glkX[fj Xd\i`ZXefj cc\^XiX Xk`\dgfXcXj:fik\j</p></li><li><p>[Xjj\Z`iZlejZi`YXeXc}dY`kfk\ii`kfi`Xc[\jljgifm`eZ`Xj#gifekfj\jlg\iX\jk\fYjk}ZlcfpZfd`\eqXeXXjld`icX`[\X[\hl\jfecfjh[fh[i[djWdj[iZ[ikidWY_ed[i"cfj\c\^`[fjgficfjXplekXd`\ekfji\^`feXc\jXZklXifej\^eleZfeZ\gkf[\i\gi\j\ekXZ`ed}jk\ii`kfi`Xc#\iXe\jg\Z`Xcd\ek\j\ej`Yc\jXcXfg`e`e[\jljgX`jXefj#Zfdfj`klm`\iXehl\i\e[`ic\jZl\ekXXceXc`qXijldXe[Xkf%:X[Xlef_XYcXYX\eefdYi\[\jlgifg`Xgifm`eZ`X#pefj\Zfej`[\$iXYXXlkfi`qX[fXljligXicXmfq[\fkiXgifm`eZ`Xhl\efc\_XYX\c\^`[fe`[X[f`ejkilZZ`fe\jI`\l$D`ccXe (0//#-, %</p><p>GXi\Z`\iXhl\cXj:fik\j[\:}[`q\em\q[\`ek\^iXiXcfjXd\i`ZXefjXjl`[\X[\kf[flei\`ef#c\jg\id`k`i\ZfefZ\ij\\ecXj:fik\jZfdf`ek\^iXek\j[\jljgifg`XjeXZ`fe\j#phl\cfj[`glkX[fj_XYXej`[f\c\^`[fjZfdfjljm\i$[X[\ifji\gi\j\ekXek\j#jlmfqXek\cXd}o`dXXlkfi`[X[[\c`dg\i`f\jgXfc%:fej`[\ifhl\\jXgXik`i[\\ekfeZ\jhl\cfj[`glkX[fjXd\i`ZXefjZfd`\eqXeX`[\ek`ZXij\pXefZfdfcfji\gi\j\ek\j[\leXgifm`eZ`X#lek\ii`kfi`ffleXZXg`kXeX#j`ef[\kf[XleXeXZ`e#ZlpfjgifYc\dXj\iXej`d`cXi\jpi\hl\iXe[\leXi\jgl\jkX\og\[`kX#cXZlXcefcf^iXYXe#p\jfXZi\Z\ekXYXjl`eZfe]fi$d`[X[%8lehl\_lYfXc^leXj`[\Xj\ogl\jkXjgficfjXd\i`ZXefjpXgifYX[Xj\e:fik\j</p></li><li><p>Z[bWDWY_d$GXiX\ccf]l\e\Z\jXi`f`ejkXcXicXJfY\iXeXAlekXGifm`j`feXc&gt;l$Y\ieXk`mX#hl\ klmfgfigi`eZ`gXc\eZfd`\e[Xi\jfcm\i cfjXjlekfjgYc`Zfj`eXgcXqXYc\jpfi^Xe`qXi\cgi`d\i:fe^i\jfK\efi`f)''0#)'( %GXiXd#\o`j$k\e[fjk\dXji\c\mXek\jhl\IXdfj8i`qg\gfe[i}X[`jZlj`e\e\cgijk`ef:fe^i\jfD\o`ZXef1\c]\[\iXc`jdfpcXjlgi\dXZXZfejk`klZ`feXc\ecXel\mXeXZ`e%</p><p>feq}c\qFifg\qX</p><p>:fejk`klZ`eGfck`ZX[\cXDfeXihlXXi]XefpG}iXdf(0/.#00$('' </p><p>8dYfjXikZlcfj#\ed`fg`e`e#jfe`e[`jfclYc\jpe\Z\jXi`fjgXiXleXgc\$eXc`Y\ikX[#gl\jgXiXleXZfdgi\ej`epZXYXcZldgc`d`\ekf[\cX:XikX=le$[Xd\ekXc[\cI\`ef#f[\c</p></li><li><p>Zfii\jgfe[`\ek\jeXZ`fe\j# \ogfe\i cXj[\dXe[Xj pYljZXi i\jgl\jkXjgXiX\jXjel\mXj]leZ`fe\j#Zfdf[`glkX[fj]i\ek\XcXd}o`dXcXYfi[\cXeXZ`e1`ek\^iXek\j[\c:fe^i\jf:fejk`klp\ek\#cfjgX[i\j[\cXgi`d\iX:fejk`klZ`e[\ cX eXZ`ed\o`ZXeX%El\jkif gXj Zfek Zfe lef [\ \jfj \okiXfi[`eXi`fj_fdYi\j#hl\#m\eZ`\e[fcfjfYjk}Zlcfj `dgl\jkfj[\j[\\cm`ii\`eXkf# cf^i\c\mXicXmfq[\cXGifm`eZ`X[\:fX_l`cX\e:}[`q#p[\jglj\c\mcXmfq[\cXeXZ`e\ek\iXXek\\c:fe^i\jf:fejk`klp\ek\hl\\cXYfi cX:fejk`klZ`e]\[\iXc[\(/)+%feq}c\qFifg\qX</p><p>:fejk`klZ`eGfck`ZX[\cXDfeXihlXE# (0()#</p><p>kfdf@@#g#)(.#WfkZ=\ieXe[f&gt;d\q[\CXiX[jWb$(00.%;ijkZ_eiieXh[</p><p>bW b_X[hjWZZ[fh[diW[dCn_Ye$:lX[\iefjZfejk`klZ`feXc\jDo`Zf$:\e$</p><p>kifXdi`ZX)-# (+'g%Do`Zf1LE8D&amp;:\ekif[\lXk\dXcX&amp;GifZl$</p><p>iX[fi[\;\i\Z_fj?ldXefj[\&gt;lXk\dXcX%&gt;feq}c\qFifg\qX#DXel\c% (0//% ?`jkfi`X [\ [fj `el\eZ`Xj% :ffi[% 9\X$</p><p>ki`q9\ieXc%C[ceh_WZ[b?L9ed]h[ieZ[&gt;_ijeh_WZ[b:[h[Y^e'/.,%Do`$Zf1LE8D%</p><p>(00,%;b</p></li><li><p>Hl`ekXeXi# Cl`j% (/)*%H[fXb_YW \[Z[hWb#&gt;lX[XcXaXiX# )([\ ale`f%9`Yc`fk\ZXEXZ`feXc#=fe[fCX]iX^lX().-C8=%</p><p>IXdi\q:c\m\j#&gt;feqXcf8%)''0%CfjXikZlcfjjfYi\c`Y\ikX[[\`dgi\ekX[\9\ek_XdpD`^l\c8ekfe`f:Xif1[`m\i^\eZ`Xjp\m\eklXc\jZfii\jgfe[\e$Z`Xj#\eH[l_ijW:[h[Y^eZ[b;ijWZe))#ale`f (,0$/)%</p><p>IXdfj8i`qg\#AfjD`^l\c%(/(($J[ij_ced_eZ[bfeZ[h[OdijhkYY_ed[igk[i[Z_[hedWbI[eh:eYjeh:edC_]k[bHWceiO7h_pf[YeceWfeZ[hWZe[d9eh#j[i;njhWehZ_dWh_WiZ[bIkfh[ce9edi[`eZ[H[][dY_W"ZWZefeh[b7okdjW#c_[dje9Wf_jkbWhZ[[ijWl_bbWZ[IWbj_bbe"YeceWZ[djhei[[nfh[iW$7eZ['.''"fehZkfb_YWZe$</p><p>%(0//%Fh[i[dY_WZ[HWcei7h_pf[[dbWi9ehj[iZ[9|Z_p'.((#:lX[\iefj[\c8iZ_`mf)+#('.g%Do`Zf1&gt;fY`\ief[\c\e\iXc[\c</p></li><li><p>La Constitucin de Cdiz y su proyeccin en la Constitucin federal y de los estados1</p></li><li>ZXhl\[fd`eXYXekf[XmXcfj\jgXfc\j%</li><li><p>[\i\Zkfi[\c:fc\^`f[\JXeE`Zfc}j#\ecXZ`l[X[[\MXccX[fc`[#_fpDfi\c`X%?XYXc\[f`ek\ejXd\ek\XcfjXlkfi\j]le[Xd\ekXc\j[\cX@cljkiXZ`e]iXe$Z\jX\ `e^c\jX%?XYcXYX[fj `[`fdXj `e[^\eXj#Xpglig\Z_X# cfhl\ c\gfj`Y`c`kXYX\jkXiZ\iZX[\cX^\ek\d}j_ld`c[\#hl\cfXgfp\ecXclZ_X`e[\$g\e[\ek`jkX%8[\d}j#[fd`eXYX`[`fdXj\okiXea\ifjZfdf\ccXke#\c]iXeZjp\c`kXc`Xef#hl\c\g\id`kXeZfdle`ZXij\Zfe\cg\ejXd`\ekfc`Y\ikXi`f%</p></li><li>cfe`Xj[\lckiXdXi#klm`\ifeleX`ek\^iXZ`e\jg\Z`Xchl\c\j[`fleZfek\e`[fZcXif[\i\gi\j\ekXZ`e[\dfZi}k`ZX%J\kiXkXYX[\leXj:fik\jkiXej]fidX[Xj#gfihl\Xek\i`fid\ek\j\_XYXe`ek\^iX[fpi\le`[f\ecfjfXZfek`elXZ`eXc^leXj[\cXj`el\eZ`Xjj`^e`ZXk`mXj[\cX:fejk`klZ`e[\:}[`q\ecfjgXj\j_`jgXefXd\i`ZXefjp\egXik`ZlcXi\e\cel\jkif#kXekf\ecX:fejk`klZ`e]\[\iXcZfdf\ecXj[\cfj\jkX[fj#ZlXe[fjkfjcXj]l\ife\cXYfiXe[f%CXj`el\eZ`Xj[\:}[`qhl\[\jkXZfj\i\\i\e]le[Xd\ekXcd\e$k\XcXfi^Xe`qXZ`e[\c</li><li>mXYX\cd\ejXa\[\cX\c`d`eXZ`e[\cdfeXiZXZfdfk`klcXi[\cXjfY\iXeX%;\aXYXj`ej\ek`[f_XYcXi[\ci\pZfdflejfY\iXef%PZfYiXj`^e`ZXZ`ecX `[\ek`[X[[\leXZfdle`[X[#Zfdfcf\jcXeXZ`e#hl\j\`[\ek`ZXgfi\c\d\ekfjZfdle\j1cXc\e^lX#cXi\$c`^`e#cXg\ik\e\eZ`XXlek\ii`kfi`fpfkifjZlckliXc\jhl\j\mXeZfejkilp\e[fgficXi^fjk`\dgfj%J\_XYcX[\j[\\ekfeZ\j[\leXeXZ`ejfY\iXeX%CX:fejk`klZ`e[\:}[`qkXdY`eefj_`qfXmXeqXi_XZ`X\cj`jk\$dXi\gi\j\ekXk`mf#gfihl\j`cXeXZ`e\jk}]fidX[XgficXjg\ijf$eXjhl\cX` ek\^iXe#\j\e\ccXj#f\ejlji\gi\j\ekXek\j#hl\i\j`[\cXjfY\iXeX%?Xp\e:}[`qle^\id\ehl\gcXek\X\cgi`eZ`g`f[\leX[\dfZiXZ`Xi\gi\j\ekXk`mX%;\_\Z_f#cX:fejk`klZ`e[\:}[`qj\lk`c`qX\ecXel\mXeXZ`ed\o`ZXeX#i\Z`e`e[\g\e[`qX[X#gXiXZfemfZXiZfejljgifZ\[`d`\ekfjXcgi`d\i:fejk`klp\ek\fi`^`eXc[\el\jkiX_`jkfi`X%CXj:fik\j[\:}[`qj\Zfejk`klp\ifeZfdfGf[\iC\^`jcXk`mfXikZl$cf(, #ZfeXdgc`Xj]XZlckX[\j%:lXe[f=\ieXe[fM@@#\e(/)'#j\m\fYc`^X[fXidXicX:XikX^X[`kXeX#cXj:fik\jfi[`eXi`Xjj\Zfe$m`\ik\e\eleX `ejk`klZ`e\a\gXiX\c ]leZ`feXd`\ekf[\c</li><li>dX]\[\iXc%CfjZfejk`klp\ek\jm\e\e\ccXjjcfX^\ek\j[\c^ fY`\i$ef \jgXfc#d`\ekiXj hl\ cfj Zfejk`klp\ek\j Xd\i`ZXefj cXj m\eZfdfZ}dXiXj[\i\gi\j\ekXZ`ek\ii`kfi`Xc%</li><li><p>@kliY`[\#cX:XikX^X[`kXeXj\lk`c`qXgXiXZfemfZXiXcXj\c\ZZ`fe\j[\cgi`d\i:fejk`klp\ek\#ZfdfpX[\ZXXek\j%</p><p>K\e[\eZ`Xjg\ijfeXc`jkXj\e\c\a\iZ`Z`f[\cgf[\i</p><p>?Xphl\XZ\gkXihl\j`Y`\e\eel\jkifgXj cXdfeXihlXefk`\e\le cl^XieXkliXcgXiXjl[\jXiifccfgfck`Zf#e`j`hl`\iX\ejlm\ij`eZfejk`klZ`feXc#_XpXc^leXjZXiXZk\ijk`ZXj[\c^fY`\iefdfe}ihl`Zfhl\gl[`\ifeckiXij\pgi\$j\imXij\cXi^Xd\ek\\ecXgi}Zk`ZXgfck`ZX[\el\jkifgXjp#\e^\e\iXc#\ecfjj`jk\dXjgi\j`[\eZ`Xc`jkXjhl\j\ `dgcXekXife\ekf[X cXi\^`e cXk`efXd\i`$ZXeX%</p></li><li><p>:fdfm\e#efg`\i[f cXfgfikle`[X[gXiX `dglcjXi cX `[\X[\leX c\p[\d\[`fjdXj`mfj[\`e]fidXZ`e#hl\\c:fe^i\jf[\Y\gifZ\jXigfihl\jl\d$Yi`e\jk}kf[XmX`em\ieXe[f\ecXZfe^\cX[fiX#Zfdfj\[`Z\\e\cc\e^lXa\gXicXd\ekXi`f[\el\jkifgXj%:fe\jkXck`dXi\\o`eZfek\dgfi}e\X#hl\[el\mXm`[XXcfgi\m`jkf\e\cXikZlcf*.([\cX:fejk`klZ`e[\:}[`q#)Zfe$Zclpfd``ek\im\eZ`e%</p><p>=l\ek\jZfejlckX[Xj&gt;Xc\XeXGXki`Z`X%)'((%;bYedij_jkY_edWb_icec[n_YWde$?dk[dY_WiYedj_d[djW#</p><p>b[iojhWiWjb|dj_YWi%Do`Zf1J`^cfOO@</p></li><li><p>Masiva vigencia de las leyes gaditanas en Mxico despus de consumada su independencia1 </p><p>@ei8WhhW]|d8WhhW]|d </p><p>@[\X^\e\iXc</p><p>8c\oXd`eXi cX_`jkfi`X[\c[\i\Z_f\eDo`Zf#\jZfdem\iZdfj\_XZ\\c\j]l\iqfgfi\jkl[`Xicfhl\j\jl\c\ccXdXi\c[\i\Z_f[\cfj[`]\i\ek\jgl\YcfjXYfi^\e\jXj\ekX[fjjfYi\cX^\f^iX]X[\el\jkifgXj%;\j[\cl\^f#kXdY`ej\\jkl[`X\cccXdX[f[\i\Z_f`e[`Xef#[`ZkX[f[\j$[\cXd`jdXd\kigfc`[\DX[i`[%</p><p>Cc\mX[fjgfi cXj Zi\\eZ`Xj i\mfclZ`feXi`Xj# Xe cfj XYf^X[fj p cfj \jg\$Z`Xc`jkXjcc\^XeXg\ejXihl\#gfi\]\Zkf[\cc\mXekXd`\ekfXidX[fp#\ekf[fZXjf#gfi\]\Zkf[\cXd`jdX[\ZcXiXZ`e[\`e[\g\e[\eZ`X#j\ifdg\ekf[fjcfjcXqfjZfe\c`dg\i`f\jgXfc#\dg\qXe[fgficfjmeZlcfjali[`Zfj`dgl\j$kfjgficX]l\iqX#\ekid`efjm\i[X[\ifj[\jlj`^e`ZXZ`efi`^`eXccXk`eX[\ZX[\eXj%</p><p>J\\jk}#gfikXekf#\ecXZi\\eZ`X[\hl\\jXkiXmj[\c[\i\Z_ff[\cXjefidXj ali[`ZXjZfdfj\dXk\i`Xc`qX cXfgi\j`e[\cZfehl`jkX[fijfYi\ cfj</p><p>( </p></li><li><p>gl\Ycfjjfd\k`[fjphl\jkfj#leXm\qX[hl`i`[Xjl c`Y\ikX[#^ljkfjXd\ek\i\^i\jXi}eX^fY\ieXij\gfi\c[\i\Z_ffi`^`eXi`fhl\\eZX[XZXjf_XpXek\e`[f%</p><p>Hl \j cf hl\ fZlii\ \e \c ZXjfd\o`ZXef6 :l}c \j \c;\i\Z_fhl\ j\[\ZcXiX\em`^fi#`eZcljfgfifYiX[\cXccXdX[X:fejk`klZ`e[\8gXkq`e^}e#f:fejk`klZ`e[\cX`ejli^\eZ`Xd\o`ZXeX[\(/(+p#[\jgljgfiYfZX[\cXjXl$kfi`[X[\jhl\]l\ifejljk`klp\e[fXcXj\jgXfcXj6@em`kXdfjXcc\ZkfiXj\^l`i\e\cj`^l`\ek\gcXek\Xd`\ekf%</p><p>CXjlgl\jkXilgkliXCXZi\\eZ`X[\leXkfkXcilgkliXXgXik`i[\cdfm`d`\ekfi\mfclZ`feXi`f\o`jk\pj\dXe`\jkX[\[`]\i\ek\j...</p></li></ul>