Cognition & Meta Cognition

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    COGNITION

    &METACOGNITIONGroup members:

    M . Ali

    M. Kamran Haider

    M.M.Hameed Faizi

    Mazhar Iqbal

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    Cognition

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    Cognition

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    INTRODUCTION TO

    COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

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    1. Cognitive Psychology Defined

    Cognitive Psychology

    The study of how people perceive, learn,

    remember, and think.

    Examples How people perceive various shapes

    Why they remember some facts and forget others

    How they learn language

    Cognition (Ashcraft, 2002) The collection of mental processes and activities

    used in perceiving, learning, remembering,

    thinking, and understanding, and the act of using

    those processes

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    ?

    If you wanted to understand how people

    think which method would you use?What would you focus on?

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    ?

    What can humans do that

    computers can not?

    What can computers do that

    humans can not?

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    3. Research Methods in Cognitive

    Psychology

    How does scientific investigation work? Theory development

    Hypotheses formulation Hypotheses testing

    Data gathering

    Data analysis

    Ecological validity The degree to which particular findings in one

    context may be considered relevant outside of thatcontext

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    3. Research Methods in Cognitive

    Psychology

    1. Controlled laboratory experiments

    Characterization

    An experimenter conducts research in a laboratorysetting in which he controls as many aspects of theexperimental situation as possible

    Advantages

    Enables isolation of causal factors Excellent means of testing hypotheses

    Disadvantages Often lack of ecological validity

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    3. Research Methods in

    Cognitive Psychology

    2. Psychobiological research

    Characterization Studies the relationship between cognitive

    performance and cerebral events and structures Examples: postmortem studies, animal studies,

    studies in vivo (PET, fMRI, EEG)

    Advantages hard evidence of cognitive functions by relating

    them to physiological activity Disadvantages Often very expensive; risk of making inferences

    about normal functions based on abnormal brainfunctioning

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    3. Research Methods in Cognitive

    Psychology

    3. Self-reports

    Characterization Participants reports of own cognition in progress or

    as recollected

    Advantages Introspective insights from participants point of

    view, which may be unavailable via other means

    Disadvantages

    Inability to report on processes occurring outsideconscious awareness

    Data gathering may influence cognitive processbeing reported

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    3. Research Methods in Cognitive

    Psychology

    4. Case studies

    Characterization Intensive study of a single individual

    Advantages Richly detailed information about individuals,

    including information about historical and currentcontexts

    Very good for theory development Disadvantages Small sample; questionable generalization to other

    cases

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    3. Research Methods in Cognitive

    Psychology

    5. Naturalistic observation

    Characterization

    Observing real-life situations, as in classrooms,work settings, or homes

    Advantages

    High ecological validity

    Disadvantages

    Lack of experimental control

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    3. Research Methods in

    Cognitive Psychology

    6. Computer Simulations and ArtificialIntelligence

    Characterization Simulation: Attempt to make computers simulate

    human cognitive performance

    AI: Attempt to make computers demonstrateintelligent cognitive performance (regardless of its

    resemblance to human cognitive processing)Advantages Clear testing of theoretical models and predictions

    Disadvantages

    Limits of hardware and software

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    4. Key Themes in Cognitive

    Psychology

    1.Data without a theory is meaningless, theorywithout data is empty

    Example: observation that peoples ability torecognize faces is better than their ability to recallfaces This is an interesting generalization but it does not

    explain why there is such a difference

    A theory providesAn explanation of data

    Basis for prediction of other data

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    4. Key Themes in Cognitive

    Psychology

    2.Cognitive processes interact with each otherand with noncognitive processes

    Even though cognitive psychologists often try tostudy specific cognitive processes in isolation,they know that cognitive processes work together

    Examples

    Memory processes depend on perceptual processes Thinking depends on memory

    Motivation interacts with learning

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    4. Key Themes in Cognitive

    Psychology

    3. Cognition needs to be studied through a variety

    of scientific methods

    There is no one right way to study cognition

    Cognitive psychologists need to learn a

    variety of different kinds of techniques to studycognition

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    4. Key Themes in Cognitive

    Psychology

    4.Basic research in cognitive psychology maylead to application, applied research may lead

    to basic understanding

    Basic research often leads to immediateapplication Example: finding that learning is superior when it is

    spaced out over time rather than crammed into a shorttime interval

    Applied research often leads to basic findings Example: eyewitness testimony research has enhanced

    our basic understanding of memory systems and of theextent to which humans construct their own memories

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    Cognitive Development:

    Believed that intelligence was not random, but

    was a set of organized cognitive structures

    that the infant actively constructed

    This construction occurs through the

    adaptation to the environment

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    Stages of Development

    The development of qualitatively different

    cognitive structures occurred through the

    processes of assimilation and accommodation.

    When a qualitative change occurs, the

    infant/child enters a new stage of development

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    Stage 1:

    Sensori-Motor (Birth-Age 2)

    Intellectual functioning is organized aroundsensing information and performing actionsaccordingly.

    This is entirely unconscious, self-unaware, andnon-symbolic cognition.

    6 substages of development

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 1:

    Reflexes (0-1 month)

    Reflexes are the behavioural foundation uponwhich more complex behaviours are based

    Development occurs as the reflex behavioursare applied to a wider variety of stimuli andevents (assimilation)

    Example: Sucking

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 1:

    Reflexes (0-1 month)

    With continued experience, the reflexive

    behaviours become modified(accommodation)

    The infant then enters the second substage

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 2:

    Schemes (1-4 months)

    Sensori-Motor Schemes:

    An organized pattern of action (or behaviour) with

    which the infant interacts and comes to know theworld.

    Examples: Sucking and Grasping

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 2:

    Schemes (1-4 months)

    Coordination or integration of previouslyindependent schemes

    For example, the coordination of sensory

    information, such as visual and auditory

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 2:

    Schemes (1-4 months) Walker & Gibson (1983)

    3.5 Months

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 3:

    Procedures (4-8 months)

    According to Piaget, substage 2 schemes are

    directed inward

    That is, grasps for the sake of its grasping than

    on the effect it has on the world

    In this substage, schemes get directed

    outward

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 3:

    Procedures (4-8 months)

    The schemes develop into procedures of

    interesting actions that produce interesting

    effects in the world

    For example, banging on a pot with a wooden

    spoon

    Consequently, the procedure gets repeated Sounds like operant learning - infants do this at 2

    mos.

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 4:

    Intentional Behaviour (8-12 mos) In previous substage, infant accidentallyproduces some outcome then repeats it

    In this substage, infant wants to produce aparticular outcome then figures out the action

    Uses one scheme as a means to obtain its goalor end of exercising another scheme

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 5:

    Experimentation (12-18 mos)

    Trial-and-error exploration of the world to find

    new and different ways of acting on it.

    Before this substage, the infant produces

    known actions that will produce mostly known

    outcomes

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 5:

    Experimentation (12-18 mos) Here the infant produces new actions andobserves the effects

    Example, pulling the rug to get an out-of-reachobject

    Perhaps, the precursor of tool use

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 6:

    Representation (18-24 mos) Before this substage, all actions, objects

    and outcomes occur externally

    In this substage, the infant begins to thinkabout and acting on the world internally

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    Sensori-Motor Substage 6:

    Representation (18-24 mos) Example: Naming an object that is not currently present but is

    just thought of.

    Deferred Imitation Infant witnesses an action but does not reproduce it

    Reproduces the witnessed action at a later time

    Pretend or Symbolic Play

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    Object Permanence

    Understanding that objects exist independent of ourability to perceive them

    In substage 4, infants can search for hidden objects

    Limitations in this ability: A-not-B Task

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    Object Permanence

    Understanding that objects exist independent of ourability to perceive them

    In substage 4, infants can search for hidden objects

    Limitations in this ability: A-not-B Task

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    Object Permanence

    Understanding that objects exist independent of ourability to perceive them

    In substage 4, infants can search for hidden objects

    Limitations in this ability: A-not-B Task

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    Object Permanence

    Understanding that objects exist independent of ourability to perceive them

    In substage 4, infants can search for hidden objects

    Limitations in this ability: A-not-B Task

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    A-not-B Task

    Infant seems to understand the permanenceof the object only in relation to their own

    action

    Can handle this task by substage 5, but only ifthe object is visible when moved

    Waits until substage 6 until infant can handlethis task with invisible displacements

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    Recent Work on Cognition

    during Sensori-Motor Stage Object Permanence

    Baillargeon (1987)

    Found that not until

    4.5 months of age

    (substage 3) did

    infants increaseattention to the

    impossible event

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    Stage 2: Pre-operational

    (2-6 yrs) Limitations

    Egocentrism: All

    representation of the

    world is from onesown perspective

    - Centration: Focuses on

    only one aspect of a

    problem at a time

    - Animism: Thinks that

    inanimate objects have

    qualities of living things

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    Stage 3: Concrete Operational

    (6-12 yrs) Child is more logical and able to complete task not

    able to in Pre-Operation period.

    Thinking is still with real or concrete objects and actions, and

    not yet abstract thinking

    Conservation of Number is mastered by age 6

    Conservation of Length & Weight is mastered by age8 or 9

    Class Inclusion - A subclass cannot be larger than thesuperordinate class that includes it

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    Class Inclusion

    11 circles: 8 white and 3 yellow

    Ask child where there are more circles or more whichitems

    Pre-Operational:

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    Class Inclusion

    11 circles: 8 white and 3 yellow

    Ask child where there are more circles or more which

    items

    Concrete Operational:

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    Stage 3: Concrete Operational

    (6-12 yrs) Relations between

    classes

    Seriation - ordering

    Transitivity - Tell infant, A

    is bigger than B and B is

    bigger than C. Then askwhat is the relation

    between A and C

    A

    B

    B

    C

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    Stage 3: Concrete Operational

    (6-12 yrs) Infants and Children

    may be more

    competent thanproposed

    For example, Number

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    Stage 4: Formal Operational

    The ability to think logically about things thatare only possible and not necessarily real (or

    concrete) -- abstract thinking

    Hypothetical-deductive reasoning

    Not everyone reaches this stage:

    Studies have indictated that science and mathstudents better at this

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    What is Cognitive Psychology?

    Cognitive psychology is the study of mental

    processes

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    What is Cognitive Psychology?

    Cognitive Psychology versus

    Behaviorism

    Behavioral Psych: how S maps onto R

    Cognitive Psych: what happens in the mindBoth can use formulas to map S onto R

    The difference is level of complexity

    Environment MindS

    R

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    What is Cognitive Psychology?

    Cognitive Psychology versus

    Neurobiology

    Neurobiology: how does the brain do it?

    Cognitive Psych: how does the mind do it?Both can use neurons to describe mind

    The difference is behavior (the big picture)

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    What is Cognitive Psychology?

    Metaphor: mind = Windows

    Behaviorists: What happens when I press Alt-Tab? Cool! It switched to

    my last open application!! But how does that work? Neurobiologists:

    Check this out, the harddrive and the RAM are bothconnected to the motherboard! But what does that mean?

    Cognitive Psychologists: Pressing Alt-Tab switches me between applications, and I

    know that Windows uses STM Lets propose a model ofWindows where it stores which apps are open in STM, andwhen a user hits Alt-Tab, it switches between open apps.

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    What is Cognitive Psychology?

    Cognitive Psychology versus

    Artificial Intelligence (AI)

    AI: whats the best way to do this?

    Cognitive Psych: how do humans do this? Both try to model some form of mind

    The difference is fidelity

    Brain is optimal: If AI truly wants to find optimality they

    should study Cognitive Psychology.

    Why study Cognitive

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    Why study Cognitive

    Psychology

    Understanding the mind

    Education

    Medicine

    TherapyArtificial Intelligence

    Tool/Interface Design

    Gaming/Entertainment

    Etc.

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    What is involved in Cognition

    The book lists:

    Perception, Attention, Memory, Problem-Solving,

    Language, Reasoning, & Decision-making

    This is not a comprehensive list of mentalprocesses

    These processes are not independent of one

    another

    E.g. attention may be part of perception; language

    may be part of memory and decision-making, etc.

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    COMPLEXITY OFCOGNITION

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    Figure 1.1 (p. 3) - Complexity of CognitionSarah is walking toward her friend, who is waving in the distance. She is aware

    of her friend, but has little awareness of the stranger who is passing on her right,

    even though he is much closer.

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    What we are aware of

    The complexities of

    cognition are usually

    hidden from our

    consciousness.

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    The Magic of Cognition

    In our lives we are likely to NEVER encounter

    the same retinal input twice!

    EVER!

    We will learn about categorization and invariant

    representation

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    The Magic of Cognition

    The Stroop effect

    We have automatic reading routines

    It is hard to stop well-practiced routines from

    executing This is the difference between experts and

    novices

    Complexity of Perception; Expectations

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    Figure 1.5 (p 8) - Hemholtzs unconcious inferenceThe display in (a) looks like (b) a gray rectangle in front of a light triangle; but itcould be (c) a gray rectangle and a six-sided figure that are lined up appropriately.

    Complexity of Perception; Expectations

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    The Magic of Cognition

    These types of phenomena give us a hint as to

    how cognition works

    E.g. Do you process all of the information that falls onyour retina?

    It may be that we have a perfect representation of the world

    It may be that we make gross estimations based on prior

    experience

    DEMO

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    THINK CRITICALLY

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    Think Critically

    Beware cognitive myths

    We only use 10% of our brain

    Group brainstorming

    Left vs right hemisphere Left is an accountant, right is a hippie

    Phrenology

    C

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    Think Critically

    Beware vacuous Statements

    the Stroop effect shows that some stimuli can

    affect our behavior by forc ing themselves on

    our consc iousn ess, even if we are activelytrying to ignore them.

    Thi k C i i ll

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    Think Critically

    Beware old theories

    E.g. Chomskys Poverty of Stimu lusargument

    has been rebuked recently; Perfors, Tenenbaum,

    & Regier (2006) have shown that with the rightapproach it is possible to retrieve grammar rules

    from the data available to children

    Thi k C iti ll

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    Think Critically

    Correlation does not imply causation

    100% of people who eat pickles die

    Therefore, eating pickles is bad for you

    Thi k C iti ll

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    Think Critically

    Davachi [states that] memory is better if theperirhinal cortex is activated when the word isbeing learned

    Does this mean that Perirhinal cortex is involved in memory?

    Everything is involved in memory Is it involved in associative learning?

    Not necessarily. It could be activated during the place task forany number of reasons

    Maybe Ss found it amusing to place words, and theperirhinal cortex is actually the amusement center;maybe being amused correlates with better memory

    Thi k C iti ll

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    Think Critically

    Cognition is far from being solved

    Ask questions

    Use your intuition

    Do thought experimentsUse multiple sources of information

    Think for yourselves

    How would you design the mind?

    O th b i ht id

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    On the brighter side

    This is a young field, but we understand a lot

    about cognition already

    At this point we are already able to predict

    Learning curves for procedural and declarativememories

    How forgetting works (interference and decay)

    How some memories can prime other memories

    How cognitive mechanisms interactAnd much much more

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    Play with different combinations of these words andyou'll be forming mental pictures of metacognition.

    Thinking about knowing ...

    Learning about thinking ...

    Control of learning ... Knowing about knowing ...

    Thinking about thinking ...

    September 15, 2013Metacognition71

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    September 15, 2013Metacognition72

    Its like arguing with yourself.

    - Scott (11/09)

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    September 15, 2013Metacognition73

    Metacognition = Argumentation turn inward.

    D fi iti

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    Definitions

    September 15, 2013Metacognition

    74

    Metacognition - literally beyond knowing,knowing what one knows and doesnt know -

    promoting a students ability to self-monitor

    levels of understanding and predict how well(s)he will do on a particular task.

    Self-regulation - students monitoring their own

    comprehension and assessing their own

    abilities without teacher help.

    M t iti

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    Metacognition

    Thinking about thinking(Blakely, 1990; Livingston, 1997)

    Flavell (1977)

    Child cognition

    Developmental changes in

    Metamemory

    MetacomprehensionMetacommunication

    M t iti

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    Metacognition

    Knowledge and active control over ones owncognitive processes when engaged in learning

    metacognitive knowledge

    metacognitive regulation

    Metacogniti e Kno ledge

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    Metacognitive Knowledge

    Knowledge about human learning and informationprocessing

    Knowledge about the learning task at hand and

    its corresponding processing demands

    Knowledge about cognitive and metacognitive

    strategies and their appropriate use

    Metacognitive Regulation

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    Metacognitive Regulation

    processes that can be applied in order to controlcognitive activities and achieve cognitive goals

    planning and monitoring cognitive activities and

    further revision depending on the result of these

    activities

    Elements of Metacognition

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    Elements of Metacognition

    Metamemory

    Knowledge about memory systems and memory

    strategies

    Metacomprehension Learners awareness about what he/she knows /

    does not know

    Elements of Metacognition

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    Elements of Metacognition

    Self-regulation

    Learners adjustment to errors

    Covers social interaction

    Schema TrainingHelps learners to develop their own cognitive

    structures from understanding information and

    experiences

    Metacognition

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    Metacognition

    Students perception of themselves has an impactof their performance, achievements and self-

    management of their own learning.

    Metacognition influences the students orientation to

    learning tasks and problem solving.

    Performing the task or solving the problem

    influences their belief in their personal and

    academic abilities, therefore metacognition allowsstudents to believe in themselves.

    Metacognitive Strategies

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    Metacognitive Strategies

    Blakely & Spence (1990)Connecting new information to former knowledge

    Selecting thinking strategies deliberately

    Planning, monitoring and evaluating thinkingprocesses

    Utilising these strategies a learner can identify a problem,research alternative solutions, evaluate and decide on a final

    solution.

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    Metacognitive Explanation

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    Metacognitive Explanation

    Involves the teacher

    Talking through the problem, start to ask the

    student for suggestions

    Thinking aloudObserving the process of solving a problem

    Scaffolded Instruction

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    Scaffolded Instruction

    Exploring problems with little help from theteacher

    Teachers role is to support

    Teacher should intervene if the student isexperiencing difficulties

    What do you think would happen if?

    How can you check to see if you are correct or not?

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    Co operative Learning

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    Co-operative Learning

    Utilises the social aspect of learning

    Breaking the class into pairs or small groups

    Head to Hands

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    Head-to-Hands

    Carry out a practical application

    Manipulate and test learning

    Helps students maintain motivation towards

    their learning

    A Distributed View of Metacognition

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    A Distributed View of Metacognition

    Managing ressources

    Processes involved in internal cognitive

    functioning

    Objects and processes in ones immediateenvironment

    A Distributed View of Metacognition 5

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    tenets

    1. The complexity of deciding what to do next ismade considerably less complex than the

    general problem of rational choice.

    2. Humans lean on environmental structure forcognitive support.

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    A Distributed View of Metacognition

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    A Distributed View of Metacognition

    For students operating in well designedenvironments the activity of maintaining

    coordination, of monitoring, repairing, and

    deciding what to do next may not be a fullyconcious process, and certainly need not

    require attention to ones current internal

    thinking process.

    A Distributed View of Metacognition

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    A Distributed View of Metacognition

    Cognition is distributed between agent andenvironment

    When there is conscious awareness of

    mental activity, the aspect of cognition beingattended to may be the externalisation of that

    thought.

    Cognitively Effective Design

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    Cognitively Effective Design

    Principles of good pedagogyProviding cues, prompts, hints, indicators and

    reminders

    The manner of displaying them has an effect onhow and when students notice them.

    Cognitively Effective Design

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    Cognitively Effective Design

    The effectiveness of a structure or processmeasures the probability that subjects will

    comprehend, perceive, extract the meaning, or use

    the structure correctly.

    a) use the interface, hence not reject it outright as

    being too complex to be useful

    b) use the display to obtain the result the users

    want because the display makes it easier to

    understand the options and their relations better

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    Thank You For Your Attention