Classical Guitar Duo

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classical guitar for 2 guitars good stuff for undergraduates

Text of Classical Guitar Duo

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    CONTEI\TSPage

    4Introduction

    1. F, Sor:2. W.A. Mozart:3. \f.A. Mozart4. J. Haydn:5. Anon.:6. L.v. Beethoven:7. L.v. BeethoVefl:8. F. Carulli:9. M. Giuliani:

    10" \)7,A. Mozart:11. W.A. Mozart:12. F. Carulli13. F. Sor:14. F. Sor:

    Performance advice

    Study in C, op. 6 no. g.ContredansePolonaiseMinuet and AllegroLittle DanceAllegrettoGerman DanceAliegroPolonaise ConcertataAndante (from pianc; Concerro no. 21Rondo Aiia Turca (from piano Sonara

    r\.40 /)K. 331)

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    Duo in GDuo in A. op. 55Divertis'sement for Two Guitars. op.6z

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    71

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    THE CTASSTCAL PERIOD (L75O - 1830)Classicism was concerned with the virtues of clariqv and proportion and as such can be seen as areaction to the opulence and excessive ornamentation of the Baroque era. The transitional periodbefween the Baroque and Classical periods is known as the Rococo.

    Vienna emerged as the centre for the new ideas which flourished in music in the 177O's.It wasalso the home of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. These three composers developed and expandedthe larger musical forms such as the sonata, the symphony and the set of variations.

    These years also witnessed the growth of new ideas regarding freedom and independence, both ofthe individual and of the nation. Revolutionary movements in France and North America led to theoverthrow of aristocratic and colonial povrers. Beettroven was one of the first cornposers to writemusic not specifically commissioned by wealthy patrons.

    The harpsichord was gradually replaced by the pianoforte, opening up a wider rarrge of dynamicexpression for the perfomer.

    In the following extract from a letter to his father Leopold, M'ozart describes the musical aesthetic_

    of the Classical period:

    "But passions, io ftratter lsow uiolent, sltould neuer be expressed in sucb a Laay as to arouse dis-gust, nor sbould tbe rnusic offind tlse ea6 euen tuben descNbing the m.ost dramcr.tic situation. Itshould alutays be pleasing to tbe listeneq tbat is to say: It'must neuer stop being mwsic|'

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  • THE CL{SSICAL GUTTARAND ITS COMPOSERSThe Classicai period is often described as the guitar's goiden era. A great deal of guitar music waspubiished, largely to meet the demands of the many amateur performers of the time . Guitar tuitionwas said to be one of the essentials of a young lady's education.

    One of the period's most proiific composers was Mauro Giulia.ni (178I-1829). He lived. for atime in Vienna and had over 15O of his compositions published. Giuliani was also an accomplishedviolinist and is said to have taken part in the first performance of Beethoven's 7th symphony.

    But it was Paris that becam the centre of guitar playing. Among many guitarists who lived andworked in the ciry were the Italians Matteo Carca.ssi (1792-1853), Ferdinando Canttlli (1770-1842) and the Spaniards Dionisio Aguado (17541549) arnd.Fermamdo Sor (I778-LB3D. Carcassiand Carulli were both guitar virtuosi and gave frequent performances in private salons and at othersmall venues.

    Sor is known as "the Beethoven of the guitar", largely due to the significance his Nlethode Guitartutor), his small guitar studies and his larger solo compositions had for the instrument"s develop-ment. Musically however he is more ciosely related to Haydn. Among his other works the ballet"Cendrillon" 'was the most popular and was performed over 100 times in Paris. Sor ravelled onconcert tours to England, Germany and Russia, and was received with acclaim everywhere heplayed.

    T,vpical for his compositions is a clear sense of structure, his musical forms building on Classicalvalues. The music is idiomatic (i.e. ideally suited for the instrument) and never empry or superflci-al. Even his most virtuosic works have depth and contrast.

    Sor's friend and compatriot Aguado was a dynamic and inventive composer. His music is virnrosicwith characteristic passages of rapid scales and arpeggios. Aguado also built a special g-uitar stand,the "tripodion", to support the instrurnnt, thereby allowing the performer greater freedom.

    Sor's guitar duet (The Two Friends), op. 41,is dedicated to Aguado. In variationform, it is constructed as a musical contest between rwo talented rivals. Audiences must ha,re mar-velled at the virtuosiry of these lwo Spanish friends when they performed this showpiece .From "Les Deux Amis"

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  • IDionisio Aguadowith his

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    Aguado was also a pioneer of the correct notation of guitar music. A passage would bewritten this way:

    But should be written this way (to give an accurate notation of note-vatues):

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    Fernando Sor

    THE IhTSTRUMEI{]Tn rhis neriod the fiv. e-cor:rse guitar went out of fashioa for good. Both in the home and for mostIII Uusorher purposes it was replaced by the guitar with six single strings we are familiar with today. Thisdevelopmenr may be explained both by the improvements in string quality and the instrument'svolume of sound, and by the desire to meet the Classical period's demands for clarify and puriry.

    The body and string length (mensur) of 19th century guitars were relativeiy small. On the largermodern instrument certain fingerings in the music of the period ar therefore difficult to execute .

    The period's most famous luthiers were Ren6 Lacote in Paris, who worked together with compo-sers like Carulli and Sor, and the Italians Yincenzo and George Louis Panormo, father and son, whowere based in London.

    It is interesting to read the comments of music critic FJ. Ftis after a concert given by Sor in 1828:

    oOn January 16tb I beard some ucr.riations played brilliantly by M. Woetz and. a guitar solo per-formed by M. Sor Tbis piece, infour parts/uoices almost tbrougbout, had clear and elegant bar-nxony and seemed dfficult to play. But it xuas a pity tbat tbe instrument's sound u)asn't fuller.In my opinion Sor bas neglected tbis uital aspect of an instrument tlsat in itself bas too uteak asound.,

    Today there are many performers who have speci altzed,in interpreting the music of the guitar'sogoldeq erar. Their gramophone recordings have brought to life again the period's style of perfor-mance and the instrument's characteristic, intimate sound.

  • SYMBOLSLEFT AND zuGHT HAND

    PIMA is the abreviation for the Spanish names for the fingersP =PULGARI = INDICEM = MEDIOA = ANUIAR

    O = open string

    @ @@ etc. - indicates the stringsI,[,III etc - indicates the positions (The ffet whefe the 1st finger is piaced)

    C - means caPo or barrb2/6-4/6-5/6 C - indicates the number of strings stopped with 1st finger

    - Broken chord or arpeggio (usually starting from the bass)

    - Keep the finger on the string, iust release the pressure while shifting

    - legato or slur. (The B and the G# is pla)'ed with the left hand)

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    Wolfgang .Amadeus Mozart

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  • POLONIAISE

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    Wo lfgang A madeus M ozart(17s6-1791)

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    Joseph Haydn(1732-t809)

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  • ALLEGROJoseph Havdn

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  • ALLEGRETTO

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    Ludtvig van Beelhoven(t770-1827)

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