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CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia Masaomi Nangaku Division of Nephrology and Endocrinology the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Japan

CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

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Page 1: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia

Masaomi Nangaku Division of Nephrology and Endocrinology the University of Tokyo Graduate School of

Medicine, Japan

Page 2: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

CKD-MBD

Page 3: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

● Renal osteodystrophy is an alteration of bone morphology in patients with CKD. ● It is one measure of the skeletal component of the systemic disorder of CKD–MBD that is quantifiable by histomorphometry of bone biopsy.

Definition of renal osteodystrophy : KDIGO 2009

Page 4: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

A systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD manifested by either one or a combination of the following: ● Abnormalities of calcium, phosphorus, PTH, or vitamin D metabolism. ● Abnormalities in bone turnover, mineralization, volume, linear growth, or strength. ● Vascular or other soft-tissue calcification.

Definition of CKD–MBD: KDIGO 2009

Page 5: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

4.1.1. In patients with CKD stages 3–5, we suggest maintaining serum phosphorus in the normal range. In patients with CKD stage 5D, we suggest lowering elevated phosphorus levels toward the normal range. 4.1.2. In patients with CKD stages 3–5D, we suggest maintaining serum calcium in the normal range.

Treatment of CKD–MBD: KDIGO 2009 Lowering high serum phosphorus and maintaining serum calcium

Page 6: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

In patients with CKD stages 3–5 not on dialysis, the optimal PTH level is not known.

Treatment of CKD–MBD: KDIGO 2009 Treatment of abnormal PTH levels

Page 7: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

It is reasonable that calcium or non-calcium-based phosphate binder dosage be adjusted so that treatments to control PTH do not compromise levels of phosphorus and calcium. We suggest that, if the intact PTH levels fall below two times the upper limit of normal for the assay, calcitriol, vitamin D analogs, and/or calcimimetics be reduced or stopped.

Treatment of CKD–MBD: KDIGO 2009 Treatment of abnormal PTH levels

Page 8: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Kidney Int 2015

Calcium load may be a risk factor for progression of calcification in adult CKD patients. In CKD stages 1 to 3, in the absence of abnormalities of mineral metabolism, one can use therapies that are approved for osteoporosis.

Page 9: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

3-y mortality predictabilities and the serum phosphorus concentration

Shinaberger et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2008

30,152 HD patients

Page 10: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

3-y death risk ratios of the 4 combinations of the changes in serum phosphorus (PO4) concentration and dietary protein intake

Shinaberger et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2008

Page 11: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

3-y death risk ratios of the 4 combinations of the changes in serum phosphorus (PO4) concentration and dietary protein intake

Shinaberger et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2008

The risk of controlling serum phosphorus by restricting dietary protein intake may outweigh the benefit of controlled phosphorus and may lead to greater mortality.

Page 12: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

HR of all-cause mortality: DOPPS

Lopes et al. Am J Kidney Dis 2012

Longer survival and better nutritional status for maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

▲Without phosphate binder ●With phosphate binder

▲Without phosphate binder ●With phosphate binder

Page 13: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Shoji et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004

Association of use of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 and reduced risk of cardiovascular death

242 HD patients

Page 14: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Forty-eight week therapy with paricalcitol did not alter left ventricular mass index or improve certain measures of diastolic dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease

Vitamin D therapy and cardiac structure and function in CKD patients

Thadhani et al. JAMA 2012

the PRIMO randomized controlled trial

Page 15: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

52 weeks of treatment with oral paricalcitol (1 mg one time daily) significantly improved secondary hyperparathyroidism but did not alter measures of LV structure and function in patients with severe CKD

2014

Page 16: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

2012

In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not significantly reduce the risk of death or major cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism who were undergoing dialysis.

EVOLVE trial

Page 17: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Anemia in CKD

Page 18: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Heart, kidney, and intestine have different tolerances for anemia

cardiac μPO2 (40 ± 6 mm Hg at baseline) decreased only in the ultimate stage of the experiment at Ht of 8.7 ± 3.5%

van Bommel et al. Transl Res 2008

Page 19: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Heart, kidney, and intestine have different tolerances for anemia

intestinal μPO2 (59 ± 6 mm Hg at baseline) did not start to decrease until Ht reached 17.4 ± 7.1%

van Bommel et al. Transl Res 2008

Page 20: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Heart, kidney, and intestine have different tolerances for anemia

renal μPO2 (56 ± 10 mm Hg at baseline) started to decrease at a Ht of 38.5 ± 8.6%

van Bommel et al. Transl Res 2008

Page 21: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Oriental Asians tend to develop renal anemia compared with other races

Barbour et al. Kidney Int 2008

Observational cross-sectional study (n=5,322)

Page 22: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

The longitudinal relationship between eGFR and hematocrit was steeper when baseline eGFR was <45 mL/min/1.73 m2:

AASK

Chen et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2015

Page 23: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

male sex, younger age, and higher baseline proteinuria were associated with greater hematocrit declines per

unit decrease in longitudinal eGFR

Chen et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2015

Page 24: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Artunc & Risler. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007

This case

EPO 27.7 mIU/ml

Log10 27.7 = 1.44

Hb 5.7g/dl

Serum EPO concentrations and responses to anemia in patients with or without CKD

Page 25: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

EPO 27.7 mU/ml (8.0-36.0) vitamin B12 218 pg/ml (233-914) folate 2.5 pg/ml (3.6-12.9)

Bone marrow aspiration Normoplastic marrow NCC 93000/μl, MgK 60/μl micromegakaryocyte, a decrease in erythroblasts, abnormal nuclear division => Diagnosis: MDS RCMD (refractory cytopenia with multi-lineage dysplasia)

Page 26: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Mechanisms of EPO production disturbance

Page 27: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

1 2 3 4 5 6

EPO

mR

NA

leve

ls N

orm

aliz

ed b

y co

ntro

l gr

oup

CoCL2 (100μM) - + + + + +

Indoxyl sulfate (mM) - - 0.5 1.0 2.5 5.0

*

§

§ §

§

Suppression of EPO expression by indoxyl sulfate: in vitro

EPO

mR

NA

expr

essi

on le

vels

Chiang, Nangaku, Inagi et al. Lab Invest 2011

Page 28: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Oral adsorbent AST-120 potentiated the effect of ESA on Stage 5 CKD patients

Wu et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014

control group AST-120 group

% o

f pat

ient

s w

ith H

b >

11 g

/dL

Page 29: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

add-on AST-120 resulted in a positive change of eGFR

Wu et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014

Page 30: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

mortality and event rates did not differ between patients treated at facilities predominantly

using DPO versus EPO in incident HD patients

Winkelmayer et al. Am J Kidney Dis 2015

Quasi-experimental Cohort Study (Observational, registry-based, retrospective cohort study)

Page 31: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Biosimilar recombinant EPO induces the production of neutralizing antibodies

Praditpornsilpa et al. Kidney Int 2011

n = 30 patients with CKD treated with biosimilar Epo and who developed a sudden loss of efficacy

Page 32: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Praditpornsilpa et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009

association of HLA-DRB1*09-DQB1*0309 and anti-r-HuEpo associated PRCA cases

Page 33: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders
Page 34: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders
Page 35: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

IRON

Page 36: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

People receiving ESA maintenance therapy should be given iron supplements to keep their: serum ferritin levels between 200 and 500 µg/l in both HD and non-HD patients, and either – TSAT above 20% (unless ferritin is greater than 800 µg/l) or – percentage hypochromic red cells (%HRC) less than 6% (unless ferritin is greater than 800 µg/l).

NICE Anaemia Management in CKD 2011

Page 37: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

For adult CKD patients with anemia not on iron or ESA therapy we suggest a trial of iron therapy if an increase in Hb concentration without starting ESA treatment is desired and TSAT is ≤30% and ferritin is ≤500 ng/ml (≤500 mg/l)

KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Anemia in CKD 2012

Page 38: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Multivariable adjusted log-hazards of all-cause mortality associated with levels of natural-log-

transformed serum ferritin concentration

Kovesdy et al. CJASN 2009

non-HD

250 ng/mL

Page 39: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Association between serum ferritin and all-cause mortality

Kalantar-Zadeh et al. JASN 2005

800 ng/mL

HD

Page 40: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Association between high risk of death with high serum ferritin levels

Hasuike et al. Clin Exp Nephrol 2010

HD

cut-off 100 ng/mL

92.9 ng/mL

the Nishinomiya Study

Page 41: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Association between adverse events with high serum ferritin levels (>100 ng/mL) and with high-amplitude

ferritin fluctuations

Kuragano et al. Kidney Int 2014

HD Treatment for Renal Anemia on Prognosis (TRAP) study

Page 42: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

REVOKE trial

Page 43: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders
Page 44: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Target Hb

Page 45: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Kidney Int 2007

Renoprotection by EPO: AKI

Page 46: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Kidney Int 2007

Renoprotection by EPO: CKD

Page 47: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Kidney Int 2007

Page 48: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Low-dose EPO protects the kidney in a model of chronic tubulointerstitial injury

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

control DS-vehicle DS-EPO

Upr

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

control DS-vehicle DS-EPO

TI damage

Katavetin et al. BBRC 2007

Page 49: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

H2O2 H2O2+EPO H2O2+EPO+SnPP

Cel

l lys

is (%

)

*

#

EPO EPO+SnPP

Control

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

Control EPO5 EPO20

Rel

ativ

e H

O1

mR

NA

exp

ress

ion

*#

A B

C D

Actin

HO-1

Control EPO20

EPO ameliorates oxidative stress via up-regulation of HO-1

Katavetin et al. BBRC 2007

Page 50: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Glutaraldehyde EPO protects kidney in ischemia/reperfusion injury without increasing

red blood cell production

Chattong et al. Br J Pharmacol 2013

Page 51: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Epidemiological studies showed correlation between high Hb and

good prognosis

Page 52: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Anemia and prognosis of CKD patients meta-analysis

Volkova & Arab. AJKD 2006

Page 53: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Prospective trials showed that high Hb does not necessarily improve

cardiovascular outcome

Page 54: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Cardiovascular Risk Reduction by Early Anemia Treatment with Epoetin Beta (CREATE)

Drueke et al. N Engl J Med 2006

Group 1: target Hb 13.0-15.0 Group 2: target Hb 10.5-11.5

HR 0.78 [95%CI, 0.53-1.14]

CREATE: primary endpoint

Page 55: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

TREAT: Composite and Component End Points

Pfeffer et al. N Engl J Med 2009

Page 56: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Difference of cardiovascular events between Japan and Western countries

Past history AMI (%) CABG (%) PAD (%)

High Hb group 5.6 0.6 6.2

Low Hb group 3.1 0.6 3.8

秋澤忠男 et al. 腎と透析. 2014 A21 trial

Past history AMI (%) CABG (%) PAD (%)

High Hb group 16.4 17.4 16.4

Low Hb group 15.0 13.5 16.4

CHOIR

Page 57: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Cardiovascular events (/1000 person・year)

apoplexy (/1000 person・year)

CHOIR 51.7 5.4 CREATE 58.0 7.2 TREAT 76.4 9.5 A21 15.6 2.1 Gonryo (G3-5) 21.8 8.6

Difference of cardiovascular events between Japan and Western countries

Page 58: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Renal outcome in prospective trials

Page 59: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

CREATE: secondary endpoint

Cardiovascular Risk Reduction by Early Anemia Treatment with Epoetin Beta (CREATE)

Drueke et al. N Engl J Med 2006

Page 60: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

TREAT: secondary endpoint of renal outcomes

Pfeffer et al. N Engl J Med 2009

Page 61: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

秋澤 忠男 et al. 腎と透析. 2014

Difference of kidney outcomes between Japan and Western countries

eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) reason

A21 5.16 uremia

CREATE 12 heart failure/ volume overload

USRDS 11.1 heart failure/ volume overload

Incident dialysis

Page 62: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

✓ Time to doubling of serum Cr, incident dialysis,

kidney transplantation, or death

Primary endponit

Tsubakihara et al. Ther Apher Dial 2012

Design Multi-center, prospective, randomized, open-labeled trial

CKD patients (Age ≥ 20)

Hb <10.0 g/dL, serum Cr : 2.0~6.0 mg/dL

High Hb group(target Hb11.0~13.0g/dL): treated with darbepoietin

Low Hb group(target Hb 9.0~11.0g/ dL ): treated with EPO

Iron is supplemented to keep transferrin saturation > 20% and ferritin > 100 ng/mL

A21 STUDY

Page 63: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Hazard ratio of renal survival

0.5 0.0 1.0 2.0 1.5 2.5 3.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 4.5 5.5 6.0 6.5

Initiating serum Cr (mg/dL)

Diabetes

Age

Female (vs Male)

High Hb group (vs Low Hb group)

Initiating Hb (g/dL)

1.67

1.1

1.02

0.95

0.71

0.69

Hazard ratio (95% CI)

Tsubakihara et al. Ther Apher Dial 2012

Page 64: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

post-hoc analysis

Tsubakihara et al. Ther Apher Dial 2015

CKD stage G4

CKD stage G5

Page 65: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

post-hoc analysis

Tsubakihara et al. Ther Apher Dial 2015

non-diabetic

diabetic

Page 66: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Gouva trial : primary endpoint

Gouva et al. Kidney Int 2004

log-rank P = 0.0078

Page 67: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

non- HD

HD

JSDT(2008) NICE (2011)

KDIGO(2012) ERBP(2013)

Start 11 10 10 (9~12 according to risks )

Target 11~13 10~12 ~11.5 ~12 Upper limit

13 (12 for those with severe cardiovascular complications )

13 13

Start 10 (11 for young and active)

9~10 10 (9~12 according to risks )

Target 10~11 (11~12 for young and active)

10~12 ~11.5 ~12

Upper limit

12 (13 for young and active)

13 13

Page 68: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Target Hb should be 11~13 g/dL for non-HD CKD patients and PD patients, and 10~12 g/dL for HD patients, respectively. Target Hb should be individualized based on the personal conditions of the patient.

New anemia guideline: JSDT

Page 69: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Clinical management of myelodysplastic syndromes: Japanese

Society of Hematology guideline

40–60,000 U of EPO (once to three times per week) (grade A) is recommended

Page 70: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Clinical management of myelodysplastic syndromes: update of SIE, SIES, GITMO practice guidelines

Fixed, rather than weight-adjusted, weekly subcutaneous doses of 60–80,000 U of EPO (once-a-week or subdivided in two doses) (grade A) or 300 μg darbepoetin (once-a-week) should be used (grade B) for at least 12 weeks, possibly more than 20 (grade B).

Santini et al. Leuk Res 2010

Page 71: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

ESAs are not associated with increased risk of thrombosis in patients with MDS

Smith et al. Haematologica 2012

Page 72: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders

Anemia treatment should be individualized based on the personal conditions of the patient.

Page 73: CKD complications: CKD- MBD and anemia · CKD complications: CKD-MBD and anemia ... In patients with CKD stages 3–5, ... maintenance HD patients prescribed phosphate binders