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  • 1.
    • Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood

Chapter 13 Danielle Miller 2. What is Middle Adulthood?

    • Middle Adulthood- The developmental period beginning at aprox. 40 to 65 years of age.
    • declining physical skills
    • expanded responsibilty
    • consciousness of young-old
    • awareness of time left in life
    • Reaching and maintaining satisfaction in career
    • need to pass along a legacy

3. Physical Changes

    • Apperance is the most visible sign of middle adulthood
    • Skin wrinkles/sag
    • Aging spots appear(hand,face)
    • Hair becomes thinner and gray
    • Finger and toe nails become thicker and more brittle
  • With emphasises being on beauty and youthfulness in American culture, alot of people try to maintain themselves in many ways:
    • cosmetic surgery
    • hair dyes
    • wigs and weaves
    • exercise regiemns
    • heavy doses of vitamins/supplements

4. Physical Changes con't

  • Height and Weight
  • Men :
    • Men lose about 1/2 inch in height(30-50)
    • Men lose another 3/4 inch in height(50-70)
  • Women:
    • Women can lose up to 2 inch over a 50 year span(25-75)
  • Decrease in height is due to bone loss in the vertebrae
  • Both man and women gain weight, on average body fat accounts for more than 20 percent of body weight in middle adulthood.

5. More Physical Changes

    • loss of strenght and bone density
    • loss of flexibility in joints
    • vision and hearing
    • Cardiovascular system (
    • sleep changes(awake more, loss of deepest sleep)
  • Health and Disease
    • Disease and health concerns become more prevelant in middle adulthood
    • Stress is an increasing factor in disease
  • Leading causes of death in middle adulthood (1) heart disease,(2) cancer,(3) cerebrovascular disease
  • Men havea higher rate of mortality than women for each of the above

6. Sexuality

    • Middle life transition when fertility declines a.k.a. Climacteric
  • Women-
    • menopause-the complete cessation of menstruation
    • average age for women's last period is 51
    • symtoms:hot flashes, nausea, fatigue,and rapid heartbeat
    • Treatments: Hormone replacement therapies
  • Men-
    • Testosterone levels and sexual activity decline
    • ability to father children is not lost
    • erectile dysfunction becomes common
    • treatments: prescription drugs ie. viagra

7. Cognitive Development

  • Concepts of Intelligence
  • Crystallized-accumulated information and verbal skills which increase in middle age(Horn)
  • Fluid-the ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood onward(Horn)
  • Schaie(Seattle Study)
  • The highest level of functioning of intellectual abilities in middleadulthood:vocabulary, verbal memory, inductive reasoning and spatial orientation

8. Cognitive Development con't

  • Processing information declines as well as the working memory
  • Use it or lose it

9. Careers, Work and Leisure

    • The role of work is central
    • Middle aged adults reach their peak in position and earnings
    • More financial responsibilties
    • various career paths
  • Challenges/Changes
    • Some experience midlife career changes due to company downsizing, rapid change in technology, concerns about pension and retirement, etc..
  • Leisure is defined as the pleasant times after work when individuals are free to pursue personal activites and interest.
  • Leisure is important for adults in he middle ages.

10. Religion and Life Meaning

  • Religion is important to Lives all across the world

11. Religion and Life Meaning

  • Females tend to show a stronger interest in religion than males
  • Religion can play an important role in offering comfort and support when individuals are faced with stressful events
  • Frankl's book , Mans's Search For Meaning ,
    • belief in examining the finiteness of our exsistenceand the certainity of death adds meaning to life
  • Human qualities are spirituality, freedom and responsibility
  • For many people , midlife is a time of evaluation, assessment and reflection.

12. Thankyou & The End