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  • CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL

    FROM CINNAMOMUM SPP. AND LITSEA SPP.

    Noor Fasihah Binti Hasan

    Bachelor of Science with Honours

    (Resource Chemistry)

    2011

  • Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum spp.

    and Litsea spp.

    Noor Fasihah Binti Hasan

    A final report submitted in partial fulfillment of the Final Year Project II STF 3015 Course

    Supervisor: Mdm. Diana Kertini Monir

    Co-supervisor: Prof. Madya Dr. Zaini bin Assim

    Resource Chemistry

    Department of Chemistry

    Faculty of Resource Science and Technology

    University Malaysia Sarawak

    2011

  • I

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor, Mdm. Diana Kertini Monir for the

    precious guidance and assistance throughout my final year project. My appreciation also goes

    to my family, friends and anyone who has in one way or another contributed towards the

    improvement and completeness of my final year project.

  • II

    DECLARATION

    No portion of the work referred in this dissertation has been submitted in support of an

    application for another degree of qualification of this or any other university or institution of

    higher learning.

    ______________________________

    NOOR FASIHAH BINTI HASAN

    Resource Chemistry Program

    Faculty of Resource Science and Technology

    Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

  • III

    Table of Contents

    Acknowledgement..... I

    Declaration II

    Table of Contents.. III

    List of Figures... V

    List of Tables. VII

    Abstract. VIII

    1.0 Introduction... 1

    2.0 Literature Review. 3

    2.1 Cinnamomum spp.. 3

    2.2 Chemical composition of essential oil from Cinnamomum spp 5

    2.3 Biological activity of Cinnamomum spp... 9

    2.4 Litsea spp.. 10

    2.5 Chemical composition of essential oil from Litsea spp 11

    2.6 Biological activity of Litsea spp... 15

    3.0 Materials and Methods. 16

    3.1 Sample collection and preparation 16

    3.2 Extraction of essential oil.. 17

    3.3 Analysis of essential oils... 18

    3.3.1 Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy... 18

    3.3.2 Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector 18

    3.4 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.. 19

    3.4.1 Kovats index... 19

  • IV

    3.4.2 Semi-Quantitative Analysis. 19

    3.5 Bioassay 20

    3.5.1 Brine shrimp toxicity test. 20

    3.5.2 Termiticidal test... 20

    4.0 Results and Discussions 22

    4.1 Abundance of essential oil in Cinnamomum spp.. 22

    4.2 Abundance of essential oil in Litsea spp... 23

    4.3 Chemical composition of essential oil.. 25

    4.3.1 Chemical composition of essential oil from C. zeylanicum.. 28

    4.3.2 Chemical composition of essential oil from C. burmannii 33

    4.3.3 Chemical composition of essential oil from C. iners.. 39

    4.3.4 Chemical composition of essential oil from L. gracilipes.. 46

    4.3.5 Chemical composition of essential oil from L. resinosa 51

    4.4 Artemia salina toxicity test.. 58

    4.5 Termiticidal activity against Coptotermes sp 63

    5.0 Conclusions 67

    6.0 References.. 69

    Appendices... 74

  • V

    List of Figures

    Figure 3.1 Several plants used for analysis 16

    Figure 3.2 The hydrodistillation attach with the sample 17

    Figure 4.1: Percentage yield of oil Cinnamomum spp. 23

    Figure 4.2: Percentage yield of oil Litsea spp. 24

    Figure 4.3: GC/MS chromatogram for the n-alkane standard 27

    Figure 4.4: GC/MS chromatogram for the leaves of C. zeylanicum 31

    Figure 4.5: GC/MS chromatogram for the bark of C. zeylanicum 32

    Figure 4.6: GC/MS chromatogram for the root of C. zeylanicum 32

    Figure 4.7: GC/MS chromatogram for the stem of C. zeylanicum 33

    Figure 4.8: GC/MS chromatogram for the leaves of C. burmannii 37

    Figure 4.9: GC/MS chromatogram for the bark of C. burmannii 37

    Figure 4.10: GC/MS chromatogram for the root of C.burmannii 38

    Figure 4.11: GC/MS chromatogram for the stem of C. burmannii 38

    Figure 4.12: GC/MS chromatogram for the leaves of C. iners 44

    Figure 4.13: GC/MS chromatogram for the bark of C. iners 44

    Figure 4.14: GC/MS chromatogram for the root of C. iners 45

    Figure 4.15: GC/MS chromatogram for the stem of C.iners 45

    Figure 4.16: GC/MS chromatogram for the leaves of L. gracilipes 49

    Figure 4.17: GC/MS chromatogram for the bark of L. gracilipes 50

    Figure 4.18: GC/MS chromatogram for the stem of L.gracilipes 50

    Figure 4.19: GC/MS chromatogram for the leaves of L. resinosa 55

  • VI

    Figure 4.20: GC/MS chromatogram for the bark of L. resinosa 55

    Figure 4.21: GC/MS chromatogram for the root of L. resinosa 56

    Figure 4.22: GC/MS chromatogram for the stem of L. resinosa 56

    Figure 4.23: Percentage of death of Artemia salina for the essential oil from the

    leaves of Cinnamomum spp.

    61

    Figure 4.24: Percentage of death of Artemia salina for the essential oil from root

    of Cinnamomum spp.

    61

    Figure 4.25: Percentage ofdeath of Artemia salina for the essential oil from

    Litsea spp.

    62

    Figure 4.26: Antitermite activity of essential oil from the leaves of C. zeylanicum 65

    Figure 4.27: Antitermite activity of essential oil from the roots of C. zeylanicum 65

    Figure 4.28: Antitermite activity of essential oil from the leaves of C. burmannii 66

    Figure 4.39: Antitermite activity of essential oil from the roots of C. burmannii 66

  • VII

    List of Tables

    Table 4.1: Percentage yield and physical properties of essential oil from

    Cinnamomum spp.

    22

    Table 4.2: Percentage yield and physical properties of essential oil from Litsea

    spp.

    24

    Table 4.3: Retention time for n-alkane standard analyzed by GC/MS 26

    Table 4.4: Chemical composition of essential oil extracted from C. zeylanicum 29

    Table 4.5: Chemical composition of essential oil extracted from C. burmannii 34

    Table 4.6: Chemical composition of essential oil extracted from C. iners 40

    Table 4.7: Chemical composition of essential oil extracted from L. gracilipes 47

    Table 4.8: Chemical composition of essential oil extracted from L. resinosa 52

    Table 4.9: Average of death percentage of Artemia salina at different

    concentration

    58

    Table 4.10: LC50 values and toxicity of Cinnamomum spp. and Litsea spp.

    against larvae of Artemia salina

    59

    Table 4.11: Termiticidal activity of the leaves and root oil from Cinnamomum

    spp.

    63

    Table 4.12: LC50 values and toxicity of Cinnamomum spp. against Coptotermes

    sp.

    64

  • VIII

    Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils of Cinnamomum spp. and Litsea spp.

    Noor Fasihah binti Hasan (21726)

    Resource Chemistry Programme

    Faculty of Resource Science and Technology

    Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

    ABSTRACT

    The essential oils from the leaves, barks, stems and roots of Cinnamomum zeylanicum,

    Cinnamomum burmannii, Cinnamomum iners, Litsea gracilipes and Litsea resinosa was

    extracted using hydrodistillation method. The essential oil obtained was analyzed by Gas

    Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS). The percentage yields of essential oil from

    Cinnamomum and Litsea species ranged from 0.01-3.72 %. The highest percentage was

    obtained from the leaves of C. burmannii while the lowest percentage of oil obtained from the

    stem of C. burmannii. The major chemical compositions in C. zeylanicum were eugenol,

    camphor, tetradecanal and cinnamyl acetate. The chemical compositions in the oils of C.

    burmannii were rich in benzyl benzoate, (+)-2-bormanone, tetradecanal and caryophyllene. C.

    iners was contained (+)-2-bormanone and hexadecanoic acid as the major compound. The

    chemical compositions in the oil of L. gracilipes were rich in caryophyllene, -bisabolene and

    spathulenol while the oil of L. resinosa contained o-cymene, caryophyllene, epizonarene and

    3-methylacetophenone as the major constituents. The toxicity and antitermite activities of the

    essential oils were determined. All the essential oil showed inhibitory activity against the

    larvae of Artemia salina with the LC50 value in the ranged of 3.02-56.23 g/mL. The leaf oil

    of C. burmannii showed stronger biological activity against the larvae of A.salina and termites

    of Coptotermes sp. with LC50 values of 3.02 g/mL and 100 % mortality after 3 days

    treatment at 1.0 % concentration respectively. Other essential oil from Cinnamomum spp. was

    exhibited moderately inhibitory activity towards termites Coptotermes sp. with 50-61 %

    mortality at 10 % concentration after 3 days of contact.

    Key words: Cinnamomum spp., Litsea spp., essential oil, toxicity, termiticidal activity.

  • IX

    ABSTRAK

    Minyak pati daripada daun, kulit, batang dan akar bagi Cinnamomum zeylanicum,

    Cinnamomum burmannii, Cinnamomum iner, Litsea gracilipes dan Litsea resinosa t