1. A Journey Under The Sea Pre-K (Four year olds) Thematic Unit Project CHD 204- Methods & Materials For Teaching Children Kristin L. Howell Spring 2013
2. 14 Philosophy There are various areas of development and believe that the adult in a childs life set the stage for the quality of that development. Cognitive Development is the development of the child's ability to learn and solve problems. This is not limited to word or math problems but also conflicts that may arise between other individuals and themselves. Social and Emotional Development is the development of the child's ability to interact with others, including helping themselves and self- control. The child needs to be aware of themselves and others, and learning to share. Hands-on activities are vital to the learning process. At this age they are not always aware that they are actually learning and developing, they only know that they are playing, having fun, and exploring new things. If I believe nothing else, I believe that children learn through play. Look at the toys we give to children. Baby dolls for girls and cars, trucks, and action figures for boys. When children are together playing, what do they play? House. The girls pretend that the doll is their baby, feeding it and putting it to bed. They cook in the play kitchen reenacting the behavior of the adult female in their own homes. This playing house definitely serves as practice for what may happen in their adult lives. Children learn from what they are exposed to, their environment and they express it through the activities that they participate in. It is often said that the brains of young children are like sponges, soaking up all the information presented to them. Children learn what they live. In the sociocultural theory, the social environment is stressed. Like Lev Vygotsky, I believe that the assistance and participation of the adults promotes the childs learning. Child gain knowledge and skills through shared experiences between themselves and adults or older peers. In Vygotskys theory of zone of proximal development the zone is a representation of tasks that the child as yet to be able to do on his or her own but can accomplish with the support of the adult or older child. Therefore, the child is dependent on social mediation and their environment plays a major role in their growth and development. I also believe that children develop through interaction with other children. They learn to share toys, take turns and even comfort each other.
3. 14 Curriculum Plan Activity: Reading Big Al Standard 1: Children will develop listening skills for the purpose of comprehension. 1.3 Show understanding of meaning of stories, songs, informational texts and poems read aloud 1.4 Demonstrate progress in abilities to retell and dictate stories from books and experiences, to act out stories in dramatic play, and to predict what will happen next in a story Standard 2: Children will develop skills to discriminate the sounds of language (Phonological Awareness). 2.3 Hear syllables in words Standard 3: Children will develop an understanding of new vocabulary. 3.1 Increase vocabulary through everyday communication 3.2 Use new and challenging vocabulary words correctly within the context of play or other classroom experiences Activity: Seashell Uppercase and Lowercase Match Standard 7: Children will develop letter knowledge. 7.1 Show progress in associating the names of letters with their shapes and sounds 7.2 Demonstrate increased ability to notice the beginning letters in familiar words 7.3 Identify letters of the alphabet, especially letters in own name
4. 14 Literacy Seashell Uppercase and Lowercase Match Materials: Pictures of seashells (drawn or printed out) Procedure: On one set of shells, print uppercase letters and on the other, print lowercase letters. Spread the uppercase shells on the floor and place the lowercase shells in a face-down pile. One child at a time takes a shell with a lowercase letter and tries to match the letter to the uppercase shell. Source: http://www.ehow.com/info_8638984_ocean-theme-literacy-activities- preschoolers.html#ixzz2QxBI7pY8
5. 14 Mathematics Fishing for Colors Materials: Goldfish Colors crackers Plastic cups (or paper cups), Plastic spoons Procedure: Students will receive one cup containing the crackers, and four empty cups. Using their spoons students will fish the crackers out and separate them according to color and put them into the empty cups. Then they will count out how many fish of each color that they have.
6. 14 Creative Arts Aquarium Paper Plate Diorama Materials: 2 white or blue paper plates A roughly 6 inch diameter circle of clear plastic cut from discarded packaging material (or clear plastic wrap for food) Colored construction paper or tempera paint Scissors and a craft knife (optional) Glue, tape, and stapler Crayons, or markers Thread of yarn (about a foot total) Procedure: Work on the Top Plate (with a viewing window): Cut a Viewing Window: Turn one paper plate upside down and draw a circle around the base of the plate (you will cut out the entire bottom of the plate, the part of plate that you would normally put food on). This plate will become the viewing window of the aquarium. Cut along the circle you drew (have an adult start the cut with a pointy scissors or a craft knife; the child can finish the cutting using a blunt scissors).
7. 14 Cover the Viewing Area With Plastic: Cut a circle of clear plastic slightly larger than the hole in the front plate (the plastic should be about 1/4 inch larger than the hole). You can use the thick plastic that is used as packing material on many of the things we buy (the thicker plastic is easier to work with than thin plastic film that can tear and stick to itself). Tape the plastic to the inside of the plate, where the food would normally be. Work on the Lower Plate (which contains the ocean diorama): Make a Blue Background (if you're using a blue plate, omit this step):You can either color the background blue or cut out a circle of blue construction paper and glue it in place. If you opt to use paper, use the circle you cut out as a template to cut out a blue construction-paper circle for the background of your aquarium. Glue the blue circle to the plate (glue it to the surface where the food would normally go). Draw and Make Construction-Paper Plants and Animals for the Diorama: The plants and animals in your diorama can be drawn or cut out of construction paper. Kelp (green or brown) and brightly-colored coral are good for the background. Then, either draw or cut out paper fish, starfish, jellyfish, seahorses, sharks, whales, and/or other creatures for the foreground. Add the Construction-Paper Plants and Animals to the Diorama: Glue some of the creatures to the background. Others creatures can hang from threads so they look like they're swimming. For each hanging creature, cut a short length of thread. Tape one end of the thread to the back of a fish; tape the other end of the thread to the top of the plate. Finish the Aquarium: Tape or staple the top plate to the back plate. Have the child write his/her name on the back of the aquarium. Now you have a cute paper plate diorama of an aquarium. Source: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/crafts/diorama/aquarium/
8. 14 Science and Environmental Education Measure a Blue Whale It is difficult for young children to visualize the enormity of the largest ocean dweller, the blue whale. A blue whale's average span is 80 feet but they can grow to reach 100 feet in length. Demonstrate this size to children who are learning about the ocean. Materials: 100-foot length of twine Procedure: Designate a student to hold one end of the twine while another class member unrolls it. Let the children walk from one end to the other. Source: Ocean Science Activities for Preschool | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_6523691_ocean-science-activities-preschool.html#ixzz2QxxqMxj0
9. 14 Social & Emotional Development Big Al By Andrew Clements and Yoshi Picture Book Studio, 1998 Big Al is a fish who wants to make friends! He tries everything he can think of to make friends, but nothing seems to work! The other fish are afraid of him because he is different. They all think that Big Al is very big and very scary! When the other fish get caught in a fishermans net, Big Al comes to the rescue. It is then that they realize what a great friend he really is! While reading the story, ask the children how they would feel if they were Big Al. How would they feel if they really wanted to make friends with someone, but no matter what they triedit didnt work? Ask if they think Big Al is different? How is he different? Talk about how we are all differentsome of us are tall/short, have blue eyes/brown eyes/green eyes, etc.and just because we are different doesnt mean we cant be friends! Ask what they think they would do if Big Al tried to be their friend? Talk about the fact that Big Al solved his friendship problem by helping the other fish get out of the fish net when they were trapped. Helping each other is one way to make friends, but
10. 14 there are also many other ways. Ask what they think Big Al could have done to make friends with the other fish. Ask what they do to make new friends Remind the children that Big Al wanted to be friends with the other fish. He tried very hard to make friends, Ask the children if they remember what happened when Big Al tried to make friends with the other fish. Why Big Al was lonely? Why did he cry? Point out ideas from the How to Make Friends list that the children developed earlier. Tell them that today everyone is going to try really hard to be a good friend! Sing the Friend Song to the tune of This Old Man. Lets be friends, Lets be friends Play and share and laugh with me And well be friends forever youll see Play