Chapter Six: Carl Rogers and Person-Centered Theory.

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    23-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter Six: Carl Rogers and Person-Centered Theory
  • Slide 2
  • Biographical Information: Carl Rogers Born in 1902, 4 th of 6 children to a farm family in Illinois Religion was central in the family Traveled to China, had a significant change of view
  • Slide 3
  • Historical Context Watsons Behaviorism Otto Rank, Elizabeth Davis play central roles Influenced by John Dewey Struggled with Psychiatry and Psychology Respected GadflyBoundary stretcher Person-centered philosophy emerges
  • Slide 4
  • Theoretical Principles Theory of personality: Self-theory Value of experience Learning and growth potential Conditions of worth
  • Slide 5
  • Theory of Psychopathology Failure to learn from experience Failure to let go of limiting parental introjects
  • Slide 6
  • Theory of Psychotherapy Therapist must trust the client Therapist must establish a certain type of relationship
  • Slide 7
  • Core Conditions Congruence Unconditional Positive Regard Accurate Empathy
  • Slide 8
  • The Practice of Person-Centered Therapy Preparing yourself Preparing your client Opening statement Assessment Issues
  • Slide 9
  • Specific Therapy Techniques Experiencing and expressing congruence Experiencing and expressing unconditional positive regard Experiencing and expressing empathic understanding
  • Slide 10
  • Extended Case Example Carl Rogers interviews Mrs. PS.
  • Slide 11
  • Therapy Outcomes Research Rogers as first scientist-practitioner Some researchers indicate that person- centered not as effective as more structured therapiesbut is more effective than placebo. Possible that lack of understanding of theory/therapy contributes to research problems.
  • Slide 12
  • Multicultural Perspective Culturally sensitive? Lacking in directiveness? Example of Rogers ventures into a bit of Eastern philosophy
  • Slide 13
  • Concluding Comments Rogers and relationshipa central, abiding tenet
  • Slide 14
  • Student Review Assignments Critical corner Reviewing key terms Review questions
  • Slide 15
  • Critical Corner At the core of person centered theory is the concept of trusting the individual. Theoretically, if an individual receives that special relationship Rogers speaks of then he or she will move naturally toward self-actualization. Basically, there are two problems with this assumption. First, its impossible for individuals to have such an ideal environment all the time and so even if everyone had this inherent actualizing tendency, it would constantly be thwarted by real relationships in the real world. Second, with all the hate, prejudice, and evil in the world today, the evidence is certainly not in support of Rogers rose-colored theory.
  • Slide 16
  • Critical Corner (continued) Rogers typically saw clients for 50 or more therapy sessions. This snails pace of change is simply unacceptable in todays economy and with the needs of the modern client. How can person centered therapy be practical when it takes so long to establish that special type of relationship and healing environment?
  • Slide 17
  • Critical Corner (continued) Often cognitive and behavioral researchers use nondirective therapy as a control group or placebo condition to which they compare the efficacy of their therapeutic techniques. If researchers are just using this form of therapy as something equivalent to a placebo treatment, how can we justify using it as a real treatment with real people in the real world?
  • Slide 18
  • Critical Corner (continued) Traditional psychoanalytic forms of therapy have making the unconscious conscious or insight as their primary therapy goal. Some critics claim there is no scientific evidence of the unconscious. Where do you stand on this issue? Are there unconscious processes that affect interpersonal relationships?
  • Slide 19
  • Critical Corner (continued) If all people need to recover from their suffering is a kind and loving relationship, then why go to graduate school. Couldnt we just train legions of volunteers to display a saintly-like loving attitude and a lot of patience and thereby eradicate all suffering in our lifetime?
  • Slide 20
  • Critical Corner (continued) Person centered therapy is fine for the worried well who enjoy and can benefit from examining themselves in perpetuity. But when it comes to treating people who have clear behavioral skills deficits or who are suffering from some sort of oppression, a more directive and problem-solving approach is necessary.
  • Slide 21
  • Reviewing Key Terms Organism Self Incongruence Actualizing or formative tendency Positive regard Self-regard Subception
  • Slide 22
  • Key Terms (continued) Psychological contact Congruence Unconditional Positive Regard Empathic Understanding Intellectual empathy Emotional empathy Imaginative empathy
  • Slide 23
  • Key Terms (continued) Traditional person-centered therapy Contemporary person-centered therapy Process-experiential psychotherapy Motivational interviewing The childs game or special time
  • Slide 24
  • Review Questions 1. What innovative procedure did Rogers introduce to the study of psychotherapy that causes some historians to refer to him as the first modern psychotherapy researcher? 2. From the person-centered perspective, what is the main cause of psychopathology and what is the main characteristic of psychopathology?
  • Slide 25
  • Review Questions What is the empathy question and what might be its uses and limits in helping therapists have empathy with their clients? What are the dangers and benefits of experiencing and expressing congruence during therapy? What is the person-centered perspective with regard to psychological assessment?
  • Slide 26
  • Review Questions What is the empathy question and what might be its uses and limits in helping therapists have empathy with their clients? What are the dangers and benefits of experiencing and expressing congruence during therapy? What is the person-centered perspective with regard to psychological assessment?

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