Chapter 4 Consciousness. 2 Types of Consciousness 1. Waking consciousness: thoughts, feelings, perceptions when awake and alert 1. Waking consciousness:

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  • Chapter 4Consciousness

  • 2 Types of Consciousness1. Waking consciousness: thoughts, feelings, perceptions when awake and alert 2. Altered states of consciousness: include daydreamingsleep and dreaminghypnosismeditationdrug induced

  • DaydreaminagWhy? to escape boredom or worry, deal with difficult situationsIndividual differences: relate to personalityAnxious Daydreamers: brief, worry related daydreamsAchievement Oriented: success, guilt over failuresHappy Daydreamers: pleassant relaxed fantasyProblem Solvers: use daydreams to work out solutions to problems

  • SleepWhy?: May have developed as we evolved to protect us from dark, large animals, etc.Age differences:Children: sleep soundly through the night, more REMElderly: awaken easily and often, less REMMost Americans are sleep deprivedin 1950s: 8 - 12 hours a nightin 1990: 7 hours a nightIs your surgeon, pilot, bus driver sleep deprived?

  • Circadian RhythmsOur Daily rhythms (Biological Clock)sleep, waking, workFrom circle meaning around and diem meaning dayLight controls sleep cycle by controlling melatonin productionCycle can be disrupted bystressanxiety or depressionjet lagalcohol and drugsloss of sleep

  • Age-Related Sleep Changes

  • Stages of SleepStages: we cycle through several stages of sleep each nightBrain Waves: electrical activity of the brain signal these stagesEEG (electroencephalogram): measures the electrical activity (waves) of the brain

  • Stages of SleepTwilight sleep (stage 0)drowsy half aspleep statelow amplitude, high frequency ALPHA wavesStages 1 through 3increasingly deep sleeppulse slows, BP drops, breathing slowshigher amplitude, lower frequency wavesStage 4Deepest stage of sleeppulse and breathing at slowesthigh amplitude, low frequency DELTA waves

  • REM (Paradoxical) SleepRapid Eye Movements: eyes move rapidly behind closed eyelidsParadoxical: because brain is awake but body is asleepBody is Paralyzed: prevents us from hurting ourselves during dreamsDreams: most vivid and realistic dreams occur during REM sleep

  • REM DeprivationWilliam Dement: Do we need REM?Subjects were awakened each time they entered REMResults: subjects became irritable, anxious, NO long term effectsREM Rebound: when allowed normal sleep, subjects spend extra time in REMAlcoholic DTs: may be a severe form of REM rebound

  • Sleep DisordersSleepwalking: moving or talking in sleepmore common in childrencause, minor dysfunction in brainstem?Narcolepsy: fall asleep unexpectedlyhereditaryemotion may trigger sleep or REM/hallucinationscause, minor CNS defect

  • Sleep Disorders (cont.)Night Terrors (sleep terrors): child is screaming and terrified during sleep does NOT remember a nightmarecannot be easily awakenedfor most, this decreases with ageadults who continue to experience these may be at higher risk for psychological problems

  • Sleep Disorders (cont.)Insomnia: 3 typesinitial: trouble falling asleepmiddle: waking during nightterminal: early morning waking (link to endogenous depressionSleep Apnea: breathing related disorderbreathing problems disrupt sleep person is constantly exhaustedcause is a minor defect in brainstem

  • What are Dreams?Freuds Theory: Royal Road to the UnconsciousDreams express repressed conflicts and desiresManifest Content: what the dream looks likeLatent Content: underlying meaningDream Work: understanding the meaning of dreams

  • Neuropsychological TheoriesActivation-Synthesis: (Hobson)Higher brain areas try to make sense out of random firing of neurons in the lower brain areas (brainstem)Organization-Housecleaning: (Crick & Mitchison)Brain is organizing and storing the days events and is cleaning out old unnecessary information

  • Artificial Variations in Consciousness

  • Drug-Altered Consciousness Prentice Hall, 1999

  • Substance Use and AbusePsychoactive drugs: chemicals that alter mood and/or perceptionabuse: continued frequent use despite negative consequences dependence: indicated by tolerance and/or withdrawal.

  • Substance Use and Abuse tolerance: higher drug doses are needed to produce the original desired effect withdrawal: unpleasant symptoms when use is abruptly discontinued

  • 3 Main Categories 1. depressants: depress CNS, relax, produce euphoria 2. stimulants: excite/stimulate CNS, produce optimism and energy 3. hallucinogens: distort perception, especially visual but in other senses too

  • Depressants alcohol barbiturates opiates

  • AlcoholMost popular: the LEGAL drug most abused by adolescents and college studentsParadoxical: relaxes and disinhibitsinvolved in 2/3 of auto accidentsFetal alcohol syndrome

  • Short-term Consequences of Alcohol Abuse memory loss, blackouts loss of balance and coordinationimpaired abilities (e.g., driving)Memory storage is affecteddoing stupid stuff

  • Long-Term Effects of AlcoholMemory lossLiver and kidney damageKorsakoffs Syndrome (Alcohol Amnestic Disorder) with chronic usememory failure, hallucinations, confusionDelerium Tremens (DTs)Severe Withdrawal symptoms: shaking, nausea, hallucinations

  • Who is at risk for alcoholism?Both heredity and environment (e.g., family, friends) play a roleResearch suggests that Heredity is the stronger factorCultural differences - Muslims forbid alcohol use and Jews use wine primarily for religious ceremonies. Both groups have low rates of alcoholism

  • Barbiturates (downers)Potent CNS depressantsEffects: tension/anxiety reduction, sleepDeadly: when combined with alcoholExamples: Seconal, Amytal at low doses can enhance memory (so-called truth serum)

  • Opiates Opium, morphine, heroin: all derived from the opium poppyOpium: smoked, many opium dens were in San Francisco Laudanum: opium dissolved in alcohol, one of many patent medicines of the 1800s Action: opiates chemically resemble endorphins, the bodys natural pain killers

  • Opiates (cont.)Morphine: developed during 1800sMorpheus the Greek God of dreamsused as a pain killeraddictive properties were soon recognizedHeroin: developed to replace morphineturned out to be more addictivecan be injected, smoked or snorted

  • Opiates (cont.)Pleasant Effects:euphoriarelaxationsense of well beingsense of peace and calmUnpleasant Effects: (Withdrawal)pleaseant effects wear of quicklychills, hot flashes, shakes, cramps, nausea, excess sleepgoosebumps that appear on skin are origin of the term Cold Turkey

  • StimulantsCaffeineNicotineAmphetaminesCocaine

  • Caffeine found in coffee, colas and other sodas, chocolate, tea, etc. Caffeinism (coffee nerves): with large doses (>600 mg a day), may become anxious and jitteryWithdrawal: minor headaches, fatigue, depression

  • Amount of Caffeine in Common Drinksdecaffeinated coffeepercolated coffeedrip-brewed coffeeinstant coffeebrewed teainstant teacocoamany soft drinkspain relieverscold/allergy remedies0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200Milligrams

  • NicotineMechanism: increases levels of dopamine and endorphins in brainAddictive?: Yes, maybe more addictive than heroinincreases risk of cancers, other lung diseases, heart diseaseLess than 20% can quit permanently

  • AmphetaminesWidely used: in wake up pills, diet pills, pep pillsMechanism: chemically similar to adrenaline (norepinephrine), increases dopamine activityAmphetamine Psychosis: overdose leads to schizophrenia-like paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions

  • Methamphetamine (Ecstacy)Has both stimulant and hallucinogenic propertiesnotable loss of inhibitionfeelings of love and trustsaid to heighten sexual pleasureEven short-term use can permanently damage neural connections in the brain

  • CocaineExtracted from the coca bush, can be snorted or smoked, or injectedAction: increases dopamine activity in the brains pleasure centers Effects: euphoria, clarity of thought, energy, well being, addiction is fastCrack: smoked cocaine is particularly potent and addictive

  • HallucinogensLSDMarijuanahashish

  • LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)synthesized in 1950s, blocks serotonin receptorsdesired effects: sensory (esp. visual) hallucinations, expanded consciousnessbad trip: panic/anxiety experience during an acid trip flashbacks: re-experiencing of high long after drug has left body

  • Marijuana/HashishSource: cannabis hemp plantmarijuana: leaves and stemshashish: plant resinActive ingredient: THCEffects: relaxes inhibitions, increases appetite, perceptual, spatial, time, disortionDangers:respiratory problems, cancerpoor judgement

  • MeditationTechniques: have many similaritiescontrolled breathing (ZEN)chanting a Mantra (TM)frenzied dancing (Sufism)

    Reduces sympathetic nervous system activityhas a calming effectproduces ALPHA brain activity

  • HypnosisTrancelike state, susceptibility to suggestion is heightened.Therapeutic uses:to quit bad habits: (e.g., smoking or overeating) results are no better or worse than other methodsregression therapy: recall of repressed childhood memories is controversial and risky Who can be hypnotized?10% yes, 10% no, 80% maybe


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