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Chapter 19 Designing the GUI front-end: the Model- View-Controller pattern

Chapter 19

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Chapter 19. Designing the GUI front-end: the Model-View-Controller pattern. This chapter discusses. The Model-View-Controller (MVC) Two components: View and Controller. Implementing MVC and the observes relation in Java. Basic Swing components structured along the lines of the MVC pattern. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Chapter 19

Chapter 19Designing the GUI front-end: the Model-View-Controller pattern

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This chapter discusses

The Model-View-Controller (MVC) Two components: View and

Controller. Implementing MVC and the

observes relation in Java. Basic Swing components

structured along the lines of the MVC pattern

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Model-View-Controller

model components -- the objects that model and solve the problem at hand.

view components -- the objects that determine the manner in which the model components are to be displayed.

controller components -- the objects that handle user input.

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Advantages Input processing is separated from

output processing. Controllers can be interchanged,

allowing different user interaction modes. Multiple views of the model can be

supported easily.

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Model

The model does not require details of the other components.

The model is independent. The model can be retrofitted

readily with a new look and feel.

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View

The view must insure that the display accurately reflects the current state of the model.

The view is an observer, notified of state changes in a target (model).

The view-controller relationship is often has-as-strategy.

View is often a composite built of simpler views.

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Controller

The controller defines how the view responds to user input.

The controller must effect changes in the model as determined by user input.

The controller listens to the view or its components.

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Example

Let’s consider a system that models a right triangle.

It accepts base and height and calculates the hypotenuse.

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Example: Modelpublic class RightTriangle {

//Contructors/** * Create right triangle with base and height * require: * base>=0; height >= 0 */public RightTriangle (int base, int height) { this.base = base; this.height = height; setHypotenuse();}//Queries/** * The base * ensure: * result >= 0; */public int base() { return this.base;}

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Example: Model (cont.)/** * The height * ensure: * result >= 0; */

public int height() { return this.height;}/** * The hypotenuse * ensure: * result >= 0; */

public int hypotenuse() { return this.hypotenuse;}//Commands/** * Change base * require: * newBase>= 0; */

public void setBase(int newBase) { this.base = newBase; setHypotenuse();}

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Example: Model (cont.)public void setHeight(int newHeight) { this.height = newHeight; setHypotenuse();}//Private Methods/** * Adjust hypotenuse */

public void setHypotenuse() { this.hypotenuse = (int) Math.round(

Math.sqrt(base*base + height*height));}//Private Methods

private int base;private int height;private int hypotenuse;

}

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Observer To support the observes relation, Java provides a

class Observable and an interface Observer in the package java.util.

Observable methods:public void addObserver(Observer o);

protected void setChanged ();

public void notifyObservers ();

public void notifyObservers (Object arg); Class component:private boolean haschanged;private ObserverList observers;

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Example:Model (cont.)public class RightTriangle extends Observable

{…public void setBase (int newBase) { this.base = newBase; setHypotenuse(); setChanged(); notifyObservers();}public void setHeight (int newHeight) { this.height = newHeight; setHypotenuse(); setChanged(); notifyObservers();}…

}

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Example:Observer

class RTObserver implements Observer {

public RTObserver (RightTriangle rt) {

target = rt;

target.addObserver(this);

}

private RightTriangle target;

}

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Observer

The interface Observer specifies only one method:

void update (Observable o, Object arg);

The first parameter references the target; the second is the argument provided by the target to

notifyObservers. Called by the target to notify the observer of a state

change

notifyObservers(info); causes the update method of each of its observers to be

called.

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Observer (cont.)public class Observable () {

public Observable () { observer = new ObserverList(); hasChanged = false;}

public void addObserver (Observer o) { observer.append(o);}

public void setChanged () { hasChanged = true;}

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Observer (cont.)public void notifyObservers(Object arg){ if (hasChanged) {

int i;int len = observers.size();for (i = 0; i < len; i = i+1)((Observer)observers.get(i)).update(

this, arg); hasChanged = false;

}}

public void notifyObservers () { this.notifyObservers(null);}

private boolean hasChanged;private ObserverList observers;

}

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Example:view and controller The components of the view are the 3 text fields. Each text field has an action command

incorporated in any ActionEvent it generates.

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Example: viewclass TextView extends JPanel implements

Observer {public TextView (RightTriangle model) { super(); … base = new JTextField(FIELD_SIZE); base.setActionCommand(“Base”); … height = new JTextField(FIELD_SIZE); height.setActionCommand(“Height”); … hypotenuse = new JTextField(FIELD_SIZE); hypotenuse.setActionCommand(“Hypotenuse”); …}…

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Example: view (cont.) update is invoked whenever the model changes state.

public void update (Observable model, Object arg) {

int side; RightTriangle rt = (RightTriangle)model; side = rt.base(); base.setText(String.valueOf(side)); side = rt.height(); height.setText(String.valueOf(side)); side = rt.hypotenuse(); hypotenuse.setText(String.valueOf(side));}

private final static int FIELD_SIZE = 16;private JTextField base;private JTextField height;private JTextField hypotenuse;

}

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Example: controller

It captures user input from the base and height text fields, and updates the model.

Because the controller and the view are very closely related, we make the controller class an inner class of TextView.

The controller will then have direct access to the view’s text field components.

The controller must be an ActionListener and must respond to ActionEvents generated by the text fields. It implements actionPerformed.

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Example: Controllerclass TVController implements ActionListener {

public TVController(RightTriangle model, TextView view) {

this.model = model; this.view = view; view.base.addActionListener(this); view.height.addActionListener(this);}public void actionPerformed (ActionEvent e) { JTextField tf = (JTextField)e.getSource(); try {

int i = Integer.parseInt(tf.getText());String which = e.getActionCommand();if (which.equals(“Base”)); model.setBase(i);else model.setHeight(i);

} catch (NumberFormatExeception ex) {view.update(model, null);

}}private TextView view;private RightTrangle model;

}

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Example

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View layout

We lay out components in a 2 3 grid, using a GridBagLayout layout manager.

A GridBagLayout layout manager uses a GridBagConstraints object to position each component.

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View layout (cont.)public TextView (RightTriangle model) {

super();setLayout(new GridBagLayout());GridBagConstraints constraints =

new GrideBagContraints();constraints.gridx = 0;constraints.gridy =

GridBagConstraints.RELATIVE;constraints.anchor =

GridBagConstrains.EAST;constraints.insets = new Insets(5,5,5,5);add(new Label(“Base”),constraints);add(new Label(“Height”),constraints); add(new Label(“Hypotenuse”),constraints);constraints.gridx = 1;base = new JTextField(FIELD_SIZE);base.setActionCommand(“Base”);add(base,constraints);

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View layout (cont.)height = new JTextField(FIELD_SIZE);height.setActionCommand(“Height”);add(height,constraints);

hypotenuse = new JTextField(FIELD_SIZE);hypotenuse.setEditable(false);add(hypotenuse,constraints);

model.addObserver(this);controller = new TVController(Model,

this);update(model,null);

}

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A graphic view

This shows a graphic rendition of the triangle without a controller.

The basic structure is the same as the previous view.

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A graphical view

JPanel is not just a container for other components, but also is useful as a blank canvas on which to draw.

We override the JPanel paintComponent method to draw.

The Graphics object provides several methods for drawing on components.

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View

A view does not need to be a part of a graphical interface.

Example: A view can log changes in the model’s state to a file.

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MVC and Swing

Swing components are structured along the Model-View-Controller pattern.

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Swing: model

Each Swing JComponent has an associated model object that is responsible for maintaining the component’s state.

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Swing: model (cont.)

ButtonModel:public boolean isPressed()

public boolean isEnabled()

public void setPressed (boolean b)

public void setEnabled (boolean b)

default class: DefaultButtonModel.

State information is maintained by a Document.

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Swing: UI delegate

Because the view and controller for a component are very closely related, they are combined into one object for many Swing components.

The component delegates the view and control responsibilities to its UI delegate.

The plugable look-and-feel package (javax.swing.plaf) contains an abstract delegate class for each Swing component.

Basic classes in javax.swing.plaf.basic can be used for building custom look-and-feel components.

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Swing: UI delegate

A standard JButton implementation consists of: a model (implements the interface

ButtonModel) a look-and-feel specific view element An element that responds to user input and

functions as a controller

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JButton MVC

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We’ve covered

The Model-View-Controller pattern. The standard Java library for

implementing the observes relation.

Swing components structured along the lines of MVC.

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Glossary