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Chapter 19-1
Chapter 19-2
CHAPTER CHAPTER 1919
COST–VOLUME–COST–VOLUME–PROFIT ANALYSIS: PROFIT ANALYSIS: ADDITIONAL ISSUESADDITIONAL ISSUES
Accounting, Fourth Edition
Chapter 19-3
Chapter PreviewChapter PreviewChapter PreviewChapter Preview
Chapter 19-4
Study ObjectivesStudy ObjectivesStudy ObjectivesStudy Objectives
1. Describe the essential features of a cost-volume-profit income statement.
2. Apply basic CVP concepts.
3.3. Explain the term sales mix Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-and its effects on break-even sales.even sales.
4.4. Determine sales mix when a Determine sales mix when a company has limited company has limited resources.resources.
5.5. Understand how operating Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.leverage affects profitability.
Chapter 19-5
Preview of ChapterPreview of ChapterPreview of ChapterPreview of Chapter
The relationship between a company’s fixed and variable The relationship between a company’s fixed and variable costs can have a huge impact on its profitability.costs can have a huge impact on its profitability.
The current trend is toward companies with cost structures The current trend is toward companies with cost structures dominated by fixed costs.dominated by fixed costs.
This has significantly increased theThis has significantly increased thevolatility of many companies’ net income.volatility of many companies’ net income.
Thus, the use of CVP analysis has additional uses in making Thus, the use of CVP analysis has additional uses in making sound business decisions.sound business decisions.
Chapter 19-6
Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) ReviewCost-Volume-Profit (CVP) ReviewCost-Volume-Profit (CVP) ReviewCost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Review
As noted in Chapter 18, CVP analysis is: As noted in Chapter 18, CVP analysis is: the study of the effects of changes in the study of the effects of changes in
costs costs and volume on a and volume on a company’s profit.company’s profit.
CVP analysis is important to profit planning.CVP analysis is important to profit planning.
CVP analysis is critical in management decisions CVP analysis is critical in management decisions such as:such as:
determining product mix,determining product mix,maximizing use of production facilities,maximizing use of production facilities,
setting selling prices.setting selling prices.
Chapter 19-7
Basic ConceptsBasic ConceptsBasic ConceptsBasic Concepts
CVP is so important, management often wants the information reported in a special format income statement.The CVP income statement is for internal use only, classifies costs and expenses as fixed or variable, reports a contribution margin in the body of the statement.
Contribution margin – amount of revenue remaining after deducting all variable costs.
The contribution margin is often reported as a total amount and on a per unit basis.
SO 1: Describe the essential features ofSO 1: Describe the essential features ofa cost-volume-profit income statement.a cost-volume-profit income statement.
Chapter 19-8
CVP Income Statement - ExampleCVP Income Statement - ExampleCVP Income Statement - ExampleCVP Income Statement - Example
The CVP income statement for Vargo Video The CVP income statement for Vargo Video Company is illustrated below: (This illustration was Company is illustrated below: (This illustration was also presented as Illustration 18-11 in Chapter 18.) also presented as Illustration 18-11 in Chapter 18.)
SO 1: Describe the essential features of SO 1: Describe the essential features of a cost-volume-profit income statement.a cost-volume-profit income statement.
Illustration 19-1
Chapter 19-9
CVP Income Statement – Example CVP Income Statement – Example Cont’dCont’d
CVP Income Statement – Example CVP Income Statement – Example Cont’dCont’d
A detailed CVP income statement for Vargo Video A detailed CVP income statement for Vargo Video Company is illustrated below: (This uses the same base Company is illustrated below: (This uses the same base information as the previous statement.) information as the previous statement.)
SO 1: Describe the essential features ofSO 1: Describe the essential features of a cost-volume-profit income statement.a cost-volume-profit income statement.
Illustration 19-2
Chapter 19-10
Basic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A Review
Break-Even AnalysisBreak-Even Analysis
As noted in Chapter 18, Vargo Video’s As noted in Chapter 18, Vargo Video’s contribution margin per unit is $200 (sales contribution margin per unit is $200 (sales price $500 - $300 variable costs).price $500 - $300 variable costs).
It was also shown that Vargo Video’s It was also shown that Vargo Video’s contribution margin ratio was:contribution margin ratio was:
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Chapter 19-11
Basic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A Review
Break-Even AnalysisBreak-Even Analysis
Vargo Video’s break-even point in units or in dollars (using Vargo Video’s break-even point in units or in dollars (using contribution margin ratio) is:contribution margin ratio) is:
In its early stages of operation, a company’s primary In its early stages of operation, a company’s primary goal is to break-even.goal is to break-even.
Failure to break-even will eventually leadFailure to break-even will eventually leadto financial failure.to financial failure.
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Illustration 19-3
Chapter 19-12
Basic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A Review
Target Net IncomeTarget Net Income
Once a company achieves break-even sales, a Once a company achieves break-even sales, a sales goal can be set that will result in a target sales goal can be set that will result in a target net income.net income.
Assuming Vargo’s target net income is $250,000, Assuming Vargo’s target net income is $250,000, required sales in units and dollars to achieve this required sales in units and dollars to achieve this are:are:
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Illustration 19-4
Chapter 19-13
Basic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A Review
Margin of SafetyMargin of Safety
Remember from Chapter 5, the margin of safety Remember from Chapter 5, the margin of safety tells us how far sales tells us how far sales can dropcan drop before the before the company will operate at a loss.company will operate at a loss.
The margin of safety can be expressed The margin of safety can be expressed in dollars in dollars or as a ratio.or as a ratio.
Assuming Vargo’s sales are $800,000:Assuming Vargo’s sales are $800,000:
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Illustration 19-5
Chapter 19-14
Basic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A ReviewBasic Computations – A Review
CVP and Changes in the Business EnvironmentCVP and Changes in the Business Environment
To better understand CVP analysis, three To better understand CVP analysis, three independent cases involving Vargo will be independent cases involving Vargo will be examined.examined.
Each case will use the original data for Vargo Each case will use the original data for Vargo Video:Video:
SO 2: Apply CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply CVP concepts.
Illustration 19-6
Basic Data
Chapter 19-15
Basic Computations – A Review: Case IBasic Computations – A Review: Case IBasic Computations – A Review: Case IBasic Computations – A Review: Case I
Should Vargo Video match a competitor’s 10% Should Vargo Video match a competitor’s 10% discount and reduce selling price to $450 per unit?discount and reduce selling price to $450 per unit?
News Sales Price [$500 - (.10 × $500)] = $450.News Sales Price [$500 - (.10 × $500)] = $450.
New Contribution Margin ($450 - $300) = $150.New Contribution Margin ($450 - $300) = $150.
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Illustration 19-7
Illustration 19-6
Chapter 19-16
Basic Computations – A Review: Case IBasic Computations – A Review: Case IBasic Computations – A Review: Case IBasic Computations – A Review: Case I
Should Vargo Video match a competitor’s 10% Should Vargo Video match a competitor’s 10% discount and reduce selling price to $450 per unit?discount and reduce selling price to $450 per unit?
Management must decide how likely it is that Management must decide how likely it is that Vargo can achieve the increase in sales as well as Vargo can achieve the increase in sales as well as the likelihood of lost sales if the discount is not the likelihood of lost sales if the discount is not matched.matched.
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Illustration 19-6
Chapter 19-17
Basic Computations – A Review: Case IIBasic Computations – A Review: Case IIBasic Computations – A Review: Case IIBasic Computations – A Review: Case II
Use of new equipment is being considered that will Use of new equipment is being considered that will increase fixed costs by 30% and lower variable increase fixed costs by 30% and lower variable costs by 30%. costs by 30%. What effect will the new equipment What effect will the new equipment have on the sales required to break-even?have on the sales required to break-even?
Fixed costs will increase $60,000 and variable Fixed costs will increase $60,000 and variable costs will decrease $90,000 (variable cost per unit costs will decrease $90,000 (variable cost per unit = $210).= $210).
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Illustration 19-6
Chapter 19-18
Basic Computations – A Review: Case IIBasic Computations – A Review: Case IIBasic Computations – A Review: Case IIBasic Computations – A Review: Case II
Fixed costs will increase $60,000 and variable Fixed costs will increase $60,000 and variable costs will decrease $90,000 (variable cost per costs will decrease $90,000 (variable cost per unit = $210).unit = $210).
The change appears positive as break-even point The change appears positive as break-even point is reduced by approximately 10%.is reduced by approximately 10%.
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Illustration 19-8
Illustration 19-6
Chapter 19-19
Basic Computations – A Review: Case Basic Computations – A Review: Case IIIIII
Basic Computations – A Review: Case Basic Computations – A Review: Case IIIIII
Vargo’s supplier of raw materials has increased the cost of raw materials which will increase the variable cost per unit by $25 to $325.
The selling price will remain the same at $500.
New contribution margin $175 ($500 - $325).
Management intends to cut fixed costs by $17,500 to $ 182,500.
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Illustration 19-6
Chapter 19-20
Basic Computations – A Review: Case Basic Computations – A Review: Case IIIIII
Basic Computations – A Review: Case Basic Computations – A Review: Case IIIIII
Vargo currently has a net income of $80,000 on sales of 1,400 DVDs.
How many more units will need to be sold to maintain the $80,000 net income?
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Illustration 19-6
Chapter 19-21
Basic Computations – A Review: Case IIIBasic Computations – A Review: Case IIIBasic Computations – A Review: Case IIIBasic Computations – A Review: Case III
Variable cost per unit increases to $325 as a result Variable cost per unit increases to $325 as a result of the $25 increase in raw materials cost.of the $25 increase in raw materials cost.
Fixed costs decrease to $182,500.Fixed costs decrease to $182,500.
Contribution margin per unit is now $175.Contribution margin per unit is now $175.
If Vargo cannot sell an additional 100 units, If Vargo cannot sell an additional 100 units, management must further reduce costs, increase management must further reduce costs, increase the selling price of the DVDs, or accept a lower net the selling price of the DVDs, or accept a lower net income.income.
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Illustration 19-9
Chapter 19-22
Croc Catchers calculates its contribution Croc Catchers calculates its contribution margin to be less than zero. Which margin to be less than zero. Which statement is true?statement is true?
a.a. Its fixed costs are less than the variable Its fixed costs are less than the variable cost per unitcost per unit.
b. Its profits are greater than its total
costs.
c. The company should sell more units.
d. Its selling price is less than its variable costs.
Let’s ReviewLet’s ReviewLet’s ReviewLet’s Review
SO 1: Describe the essential SO 1: Describe the essential features of features of
a cost-volume-profit income a cost-volume-profit income statement.statement.
SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.SO 2: Apply basic CVP concepts.
Chapter 19-23
Sales MixSales MixSales MixSales Mix
When a company sells more than one When a company sells more than one product:product:
It is important to understandIt is important to understandits sales mix.its sales mix.
The The sales mixsales mix is the relative percentage is the relative percentage in which a company sells its products.in which a company sells its products.
If a company’s unit sales are 80%If a company’s unit sales are 80% printers and 20% computers, its printers and 20% computers, its sales mix is 80% to 20%.sales mix is 80% to 20%.
Sales mix is important because Sales mix is important because different products often have very different products often have very different contribution margins.different contribution margins.
SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.
Chapter 19-24
Break-Even Sales in UnitsBreak-Even Sales in UnitsBreak-Even Sales in UnitsBreak-Even Sales in Units
A company can compute break-even sales for a mix of two or more products by determining the:
Weighted-average unit contribution margin of all
products.
The weighted-average unit contribution margin is the sum of the weighted contribution margin of each product.
SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.
Chapter 19-25
Break-Even Sales in Units - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Units - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Units - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Units - Example
Assume that Vargo Video sells two products and has the following sales mix and related information:
SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.
Illustration 19-10
Illustration 19-11
Chapter 19-26
Break-Even Sales in Units - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Units - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Units - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Units - Example
First, determine the weighted-average contribution margin for Vargo’s two products:
Second, use the weighted-average unit contribution margin to compute the break-even point in units:
SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.
Illustration 19-12
Illustration 19-13
Chapter 19-27
Break-Even Sales in Units - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Units - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Units - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Units - Example
With a break-even point of 1,000 units, Vargo must sell:
750 DVD Players (1,000 units × 75%)250 TVs (1,000 units × 25%)
At this level, the total contribution margin will equal the fixed costs of $275,000 .
SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.
Illustration 19-14
Chapter 19-28
Break-Even Sales in DollarsBreak-Even Sales in DollarsBreak-Even Sales in DollarsBreak-Even Sales in Dollars
The calculation of break-even point in units works well if the company has only a few products.
Consider 3M which has over 30,000 different products:
3M would need to calculate 30,000 different unit contribution margins.
When there are many products, calculate the break-even point in terms of sales dollars for divisions or product lines, NOT individual products.SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.
Chapter 19-29
Break-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - Example
Assume that Kale Garden Supply Company has two divisions: Indoor Plants and Outdoor Plants.
Each division has hundreds of different plant types.
Compute sales mix as a percentage of total dollar sales rather than units sold,
andCompute the contribution margin ratio rather than the contribution margin per unit.
SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.
Chapter 19-30
Break-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - Example
The information necessary to perform cost-volume-profit analysis is:
SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.
Illustration 19-15
Chapter 19-31
Break-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - Example
First, determine the weighted-average contribution margin ratio for each division:
Second, use the weighted-average unit contribution margin ratio to compute the break-even point in dollars:
SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.
Illustration 19-16
Illustration 19-17
Chapter 19-32
Break-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - ExampleBreak-Even Sales in Dollars - Example
With break-even sales of $937,500 and a sales mix of 20% to 80%, Kale must sell:
$187,500 from the Indoor Plant division.$750,000 from the Outdoor Plant division.
If the sales mix between the divisions changes, the weighted-average contribution margin ratio also changes, resulting in a new break-even point in dollars.
Example - If the sales mix becomes 50% to 50%, the weighted average contribution margin ratio changes to 35%, resulting in a lower break-even point of $857,143.
SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.
Chapter 19-33
Net income will be:Net income will be:
a.a. Greater if more higher-contribution margin Greater if more higher-contribution margin units are sold than lower-contribution margin units are sold than lower-contribution margin unitsunits.
b. Greater is more lower-contribution margin units are sold than higher-contribution margin units.
c. Equal as long as total sales remain equal, regardless of which products are sold.
d. Unaffected by changes in the mix of products sold.
Let’s ReviewLet’s ReviewLet’s ReviewLet’s Review
SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even SO 3: Explain the term sales mix and its effects on break-even sales.sales.
Chapter 19-34
Sales Mix with Limited ResourcesSales Mix with Limited ResourcesSales Mix with Limited ResourcesSales Mix with Limited Resources
All companies have limited resources whether it be floor space, raw materials, direct labor hours, etc.
Limited resources force management to decide Limited resources force management to decide which products to sell to maximize net income.which products to sell to maximize net income.
Example: Vargo makes DVD players and TVs. The limiting resource is machine capacity – 3,600 hours per month. Relevant date is as follows:
SO 4: Determine sales mix when a company has limited SO 4: Determine sales mix when a company has limited resources.resources.
Illustration 19-18
Chapter 19-35
Sales Mix with Limited Resources - Sales Mix with Limited Resources - ExampleExample
Sales Mix with Limited Resources - Sales Mix with Limited Resources - ExampleExample
The TVs seem to be more profitable since they have the higher contribution margin per unit, but they require more machine hours to produce than the DVD Players.
To determine the appropriate sales mix, compute the contribution margin per unit of limited contribution margin per unit of limited resource:resource:
Since DVD players have higher contribution margin per machine hour, management should produce more DVD players if demand exists or else increase machine capacity.SO 4: Determine sales mix when a company has limited SO 4: Determine sales mix when a company has limited
resources.resources.
Illustration 19-19
Chapter 19-36
Alternative: Increase machine capacity from 3,600 to 4,200 hours.
To maximize net income, all 600 hours should be used to produce and sell DVD players.
Sales Mix with Limited Resources - Sales Mix with Limited Resources - ExampleExample
Sales Mix with Limited Resources - Sales Mix with Limited Resources - ExampleExample
Illustration 19-20
Chapter 19-37
Theory of ConstraintsTheory of ConstraintsTheory of ConstraintsTheory of Constraints
Approach used to identify and manage constraints so as to achieve company goals.
Requires identification of constraints.
Continual attempts to reduce or eliminate constraints.
SO 4: Determine sales mix when a company has limited SO 4: Determine sales mix when a company has limited resources.resources.
Chapter 19-38
If the contribution margin per unit is $15 and it margin per unit is $15 and it takes 3.0 machine hours to produce the unit, the takes 3.0 machine hours to produce the unit, the contribution margin per unit of limited resource is:contribution margin per unit of limited resource is:
a.a. $25$25.
b. $5.
c. $4.
d. No correct answer is given.
Let’s ReviewLet’s ReviewLet’s ReviewLet’s Review
SO 4: Determine the sales mix when a company has limited SO 4: Determine the sales mix when a company has limited resources.resources.
$15 ÷ 3 hours = $5 an hour
Chapter 19-39
Cost Structure and Operating LeverageCost Structure and Operating LeverageCost Structure and Operating LeverageCost Structure and Operating Leverage
Cost StructureCost Structure is the relative proportion of fixed versus variable costs that a company incurs.
May have a significant effect on profitability.
Thus, a company must Thus, a company must carefully choose its carefully choose its cost structure.cost structure.
SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.profitability.
Chapter 19-40
Comparison of Cost StructuresComparison of Cost StructuresComparison of Cost StructuresComparison of Cost Structures
Vargo Video manufactures DVD players using a traditional, labor-intensive manufacturing process.
New Wave Company also manufactures DVD players, but uses a completely automated system where factory employees only set up, adjust, and maintain the machinery.
Both companies have the same sales and net income; however, each has different risks and rewards due to changes in sales as a result of their cost structures.
SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.profitability.
Illustration 19-21
Chapter 19-41
Effect on Contribution Margin RatioEffect on Contribution Margin RatioEffect on Contribution Margin RatioEffect on Contribution Margin Ratio
The contribution margin ratio for each company is as follows:
Thus, New Wave contributes 80 cents to net income for each dollar of increased sales while Vargo only contributes 40 cents.
However, New Wave loses 80 cents per dollar of sales decrease while Vargo only loses 40 cents.
New Wave’s cost structure which relies on fixed costs is more sensitive to changes in sales.
SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.
Illustration 19-22
Chapter 19-42
Effect on Break-even PointEffect on Break-even PointEffect on Break-even PointEffect on Break-even Point
The break-even point for each company is as follows:
New Wave needs to generate $150,000 more in sales than Vargo to break-even.
Because of the greater break-even sales required, New Wave is a riskier company than Vargo.
SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.
Illustration 19-23
Chapter 19-43
Effect on Margin of Safety RatioEffect on Margin of Safety RatioEffect on Margin of Safety RatioEffect on Margin of Safety Ratio
The margin of safety ratio of each company is as follows:
The difference in the margin of safety ratio reflects the difference in risk between New Wave and Vargo.
Vargo can sustain a 38% decline in sales before operating at a loss versus only a 19% decline for New Wave before it would be operating “in the red.”
SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.
Illustration 19-24
Chapter 19-44
Operating LeverageOperating LeverageOperating LeverageOperating Leverage
Operating leverageOperating leverage refers to the extent that net income reacts to a given change in sales.
Higher fixed costs relative to variable costs cause a company to have higher operating leverage.
When sales revenues are increasing, high operating leverage means that profits will increase rapidly – a good thing.
When sales revenues are declining, too much operating leverage can have devastating consequences.
SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.
Chapter 19-45
Operating LeverageOperating LeverageOperating LeverageOperating Leverage
The degree of operating leverage provides a measure of a company’s earnings volatility.
The degree of operating leverage is computed by dividing total contribution margin by net income.
The computations for Vargo and New Wave are:
New Wave’s earnings would go up (or down) by about two times (5.33 ÷ 2.67 = 1.99) as much as Vargo’s with an equal increase in sales.
SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.SO 5: Understand how operating leverage affects profitability.
Illustration 19-25
Chapter 19-46
Chapter Review - Brief Exercise 19-9 Chapter Review - Brief Exercise 19-9 Chapter Review - Brief Exercise 19-9 Chapter Review - Brief Exercise 19-9
Briggs Candle Supply makes candles. The sales mix Briggs Candle Supply makes candles. The sales mix (as a percent of total dollar sales) of its three product (as a percent of total dollar sales) of its three product lines is as follows: birthday candles, 30%; standard lines is as follows: birthday candles, 30%; standard tapered candles, 50%; and large scented candles, tapered candles, 50%; and large scented candles, 20%. The contribution margin ratio of each candle 20%. The contribution margin ratio of each candle type is shown below.type is shown below.
Candle TypeCandle Type Contribution Margin Contribution Margin RatioRatio BirthdayBirthday 10% 10%
Standard taperedStandard tapered 20% 20%Large scentedLarge scented 45% 45%
What is the weighted-average contribution margin ratio?
Chapter 19-47
Chapter Review - Brief Exercise 19-9 Chapter Review - Brief Exercise 19-9 Chapter Review - Brief Exercise 19-9 Chapter Review - Brief Exercise 19-9
Type of CandlesType of Candles CMR Sales Mix CMR Sales MixBirthday 10% × 30% = 3%Standard tapered 20% × 50% = 10%Large scented 45% × 20% = 9% Weighted Average Contribution Margin Ratio
22%
If the company’s fixed costs are $440,000 per year, what is the If the company’s fixed costs are $440,000 per year, what is the dollar amount of each type of candle that must be sold to dollar amount of each type of candle that must be sold to break even? break even?
Step 1:Step 1: Fixed Costs: Fixed Costs:$440,000 ÷ WACMR 22% = $ BEP = $2,000,000$440,000 ÷ WACMR 22% = $ BEP = $2,000,000
Step 2:Step 2:Birthday candles $2,000,000 × 30% = $ 600,000Standard tapered $2,000,000 × 50% = 1,000,000Large scented $2,000,000 × 20% = 400,000 $2,000,000
Chapter 19-48
AppendixAppendixAbsorption Costing vs. Variable Absorption Costing vs. Variable
CostingCosting
AppendixAppendixAbsorption Costing vs. Variable Absorption Costing vs. Variable
CostingCostingUnder variable costing, product costs consist of:
Direct Materials Direct Labor
Variable Mfg. Overhead
The difference between absorption and variable costing is:
SO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingSO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costing and variable costing.and variable costing.
Illustration 19A-1
Chapter 19-49
AppendixAppendixAbsorption Costing vs. Variable Absorption Costing vs. Variable
CostingCosting
AppendixAppendixAbsorption Costing vs. Variable Absorption Costing vs. Variable
CostingCostingUnder both costing methods, selling and administrative expenses are treated as period costs.
Companies may not use variable costing for external financial reports because GAAP requires that fixed manufacturing overhead be treated as a product cost.
SO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingSO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingand variable costing.and variable costing.
Fixed Mfg. Fixed Mfg. OverheadOverhead
Chapter 19-50
AppendixAppendixAbsorption Costing vs. Variable Absorption Costing vs. Variable
CostingCosting
AppendixAppendixAbsorption Costing vs. Variable Absorption Costing vs. Variable
CostingCostingExample – Premium Products
Manufactures Fix-it, a sealant for car windows.
Relevant data for January 2012, the first month of production are:
SO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingSO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingand variable costing.and variable costing.
Illustration 19A-2
Chapter 19-51
AppendixAppendixAbsorption Costing vs. Variable Absorption Costing vs. Variable
CostingCosting
AppendixAppendixAbsorption Costing vs. Variable Absorption Costing vs. Variable
CostingCostingExample – Continued
Per unit manufacturing cost under each approach.
The manufacturing cost per unit is $4 ($13 - $9) higher for absorption costing because fixed manufacturing costs are treated as product costs.
SO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingSO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingand variable costing.and variable costing.
Illustration 19A-3
Chapter 19-52
AppendixAppendixAbsorption Costing Income StatementAbsorption Costing Income Statement
AppendixAppendixAbsorption Costing Income StatementAbsorption Costing Income Statement
SO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingSO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingand variable costing.and variable costing.
Illustration 19A-4
Chapter 19-53
AppendixAppendixVariable Costing Income StatementVariable Costing Income Statement
AppendixAppendixVariable Costing Income StatementVariable Costing Income Statement
SO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingSO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingand variable costing.and variable costing.
Illustration 19A-5
Chapter 19-54
AppendixAppendixSummary of Income EffectsSummary of Income Effects
AppendixAppendixSummary of Income EffectsSummary of Income Effects
SO 7: Discuss net income effects under absorption costingSO 7: Discuss net income effects under absorption costingversus variable costing.versus variable costing.
Illustration 19A-14
Chapter 19-55
Fixed manufacturing overhead costs are recognized as:Fixed manufacturing overhead costs are recognized as:
a.a. Period costs under absorption costingPeriod costs under absorption costing.
b. Product costs under absorption costing.
c. Product costs under variable costing.
d. Part of ending inventory costs under both absorption and variable costing.
Let’s ReviewLet’s ReviewLet’s ReviewLet’s Review
SO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costingSO 6: Explain the difference between absorption costing and variable costing.and variable costing.
Chapter 19-56
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