Casting - ??Vacuum •Die •Centrifugal •Squeeze •Semi-solid •Single crystal • Directional solidification •Slush ... –die casting –hot

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  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    1

    Casting Processes

    ver. 2

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    2

    Types of Parts Made

    Engine blocks

    Pipes

    Jewelry

    Fire hydrants

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    3

    Complex, 3-D shapes

    Near net shape

    Low scrap

    Relatively quick process

    Intricate shapes

    Large hollow shapes

    No limit to size

    Reasonable to good surface finish

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    4

    Processes

    Sand

    Shell

    Plaster

    Ceramic

    Investment

    Lost foam

    Pressure

    Vacuum

    Die

    Centrifugal

    Squeeze

    Semi-solid

    Single crystal

    Directional

    solidification

    Slush

    Continuous

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    5

    Metals processed by casting

    Sand casting 60%

    Investment casting 7%

    Die casting 9%

    Permanent mold casting 11%

    Centrifugal casting 7%

    Shell mold casting 6%

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    6

    Breakdown of Castings

    Ingots for bulk deformation processing -

    85%

    Cast to near net shape - 15%

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    7

    Ingots

    Iron or steel molds

    Water-cooled molds

    Continuous casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    8

    Shapes

    Expendable Molds

    sand

    shell

    slurry

    investment

    lost wax

    lost foam

    Permanent mold

    (cavity)

    die casting

    hot chamber

    cold chamber

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    9

    Shapes

    Centrifugal

    pipes

    spinning

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    10

    Capabilities

    Dimensions

    sand casting - as large as you like

    small - 1 mm or so

    Tolerances

    0.005 in to 0.1 in

    Surface finish

    die casting 8-16 micro-inches (1-3 mm)

    sand casting - 500 micro-inches (10-25 mm)

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    11

    Casting Steps quick route from raw material to finished

    product

    Melt metals

    Pour / force liquid into hollow cavity

    (mold)

    Cool / Solidify

    Remove

    Finish

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    12

    Melting

    Raw material (charge)

    scrap, alloying materials

    Atmosphere

    Air (oxygen), vacuum, inert gas (argon)

    Heating

    External - electric, gas, oil

    Internal - induction, mix fuel with charge steel making in blast furnace -mix coke with iron

    Furnace material

    refractory ceramics

    Heat

    Raw materials

    Furnace

    Atmosphere

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    13

    Furnaces

    Blast furnace Basic Oxygen Furnace

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    14

    Furnaces

    Electric Arc Furnace

    Oxygen-Fuel,

    Oxygen Lance Furnace

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    15

    Furnaces

    Induction Furnace Electric Furnace

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    16

    Sand Casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    17

    Sand Casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    18

    Sand Casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    19

    Sand Casting Steps

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    20

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    21

    Sand Cast Parts

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    22

    Permanent Mold Casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    23

    Low Pressure Casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    24

    Die Casting (high pressure)

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    25

    Die Casting Machine

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    26

    Die Casting

    Cold chamber

    Hot chamber

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    27

    Direct Squeeze Casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    28

    Die Casting Part Example

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    29

    Continuous Casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    30

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    31

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    32

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    33

    Investment

    Casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    34

    Vacuum Casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    35

    Investment (top) and Conventional

    Castings

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    36

    Lost Foam Casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    37

    Lost Foam Castings

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    38

    Centrifugal Casting

    vertical sand-lined mold

    casting

    horizontal

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    39

    Centrifugal Casting

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    40

    Pipe Casting

    Process

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    41

    Directional Solidification

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    42

    Casting Characteristics Table 5.6

    Typical Weig ht (kg)

    Typical

    surface

    Section

    thickness (mm)

    Process

    materials

    cast Minimum Maximum

    finish

    (micron,

    Ra) Porosity*

    Shape

    complexity

    *

    Dimensional

    accuracy* Minimum Maximum

    Sand All 0.05 No limit 5-25 4 1-2 3 3 No limit

    Shell All 0.05 100+ 1-3 4 2-3 2 2 --

    Expendable

    mold

    pattern All 0.05 No limit 5-20 4 1 2 2 No limit

    Plaster

    mold

    Nonferrou

    s (Al, Mg,

    Zn, Cu) 0.05 50+ 1-2 3 1-2 2 1 --

    Investment

    All

    (High melting

    pt.) 0.005 100+ 1-3 3 1 1 1 75

    Permanent

    mold All 0.5 300 2-3 2-3 3-4 1 2 50

    Die

    Nonferrou

    s (Al, Mg,

    Zn, Cu)

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    43

    Microstructure

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    44

    Microstructure - Dendrites

    Finer structure at

    walls

    Grains / dendrites

    grow to center

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    45

    Grains on Willie Bs head

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    46

    Microstructure - Dendrites

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    47

    Fluidity

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    48

    Casting Defects - Porosity

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    49

    Casting Defects

  • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Equipment

    Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    50

    Shrinkage

    TABLE 5.1

    Metal or alloy

    Volumetric

    solidification

    contraction (%) Metal or alloy

    Volumetric

    solidification

    contraction