CarboNA : a Joint North American Carbon Program. Country leads/coordinators: Nancy Cavallaro (USDA) Catherine Ste. Marie (Canadian Forest Service) Julia Martinez (SEMARNAT) http:// nacarbon.org/carbona. CarboNA : a Joint North American Carbon Program. Science Steering Committee Co-Chairs: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
CarboNA: a Joint North American Carbon ProgramCountry leads/coordinators:Nancy Cavallaro (USDA)Catherine Ste. Marie (Canadian Forest Service)Julia Martinez (SEMARNAT)
CarboNA: a Joint North American Carbon ProgramScience Steering Committee Co-Chairs:Hank Margolis (Laval University)Ben deJong (ECOSUR)Scott Denning (Colorado State University)
Statement of Common InterestThe Government Coordination Working Group approved a Statement of Common Interest and Agreement to Work Togethersets forth the justification, purpose, and preliminary structure of the programEstablishes the GCWG, Science Steering CommitteeCalls for information exchange/shared results, joint workshops, scientific integration, common measurement protocols where appropriate, international projects/initiatives to be considered for cooperative funding.
North American Carbon Program (CarboNA) Science PlanOver-riding science questions: What is the current carbon budget of North American land, water, and adjacent oceans, and what is the uncertainty of the estimates? What natural processes control the variability of carbon stocks and fluxes at the continental and sub continental scales? What societal processes determine carbon emissions and sinks at these scales? What are the past and projected trends in the North American carbon budget, and what factors are expected to be important in the future? When will sinks saturate? Will they become sources? What are possible surprises? What will be the response of terrestrial ecosystems and coastal oceans to climate change and rising atmospheric CO2? Which stocks and flows of carbon are most vulnerable? What is the role of economic development, energy technology, trade, and policy actions in driving changes in fossil fuel emissions? What are the impacts of different greenhouse gas policies on future carbon stocks and fluxes? What data are needed? How can we improve carbon observation systems?
North American Carbon Program (CarboNA) Science PlanSpecial emphasis for international collaboration in North America: Monitor and predict responses of ecosystem carbon cycles to natural variability in climate and disturbance regimes, to increasing CO2 and to climate change along an ecological gradient from the Arctic to the Tropics; Estimate continental budgets for atmospheric greenhouse gases using data from land-based, airborne, marine, and space borne platforms including the integration of inventory-based carbon stock estimates for the three member countries;Establish a working group to identify research needs leading to improved understanding and quantification of carbon cycle processes and budgets in the Gulf of Mexico Basin; Improve understanding of the current state and likely future changes in carbon cycling in continental coastal ocean environments; of impacts on fisheries and coastal economies; of exchange between coastal oceans and deep ocean basins; and of air-sea gas exchange;
North American Carbon Program (CarboNA) Science PlanSpecial emphasis for international collaboration in North America: Governmentlevel agreements on data sharing and harmonization, standardization of data collection and management, and criteria for using data, This should include development of trilateral databases with spatial data from tropics to Arctic following international protocols to the extent practicable; Develop an approach for a long-term, consistent, and integrated observation and reporting system for greenhouse gas mitigation across North America; Identify impacts of possible tri-lateral mitigation strategies and opportunities for reducing emissions, increasing greenhouse gas sequestration, sustainable use of biofuels; and how the 3 countries can work together to implement them. (Also how policies in one country might affect the others; Coordinate efforts to develop and deploy decision-support tools to explore the socio-demographic, socio-economic, and socio-political causes of variability in CO2 emissions, as a way to mitigate increases, at the national, state and local level. This could help assess the effectiveness of actions undertaken by stakeholders aimed at mitigating CO2 emissions or adapting to climate change.
CarboNA projects: criteria and processGiven its mandate and the many and varied sources of funding, CarboNA requires flexible criteria and broad guidelines for designating participating projects and investigators.
A CarboNA project must be of scientific interest to the three countries. It must be relevant to CarboNA Over-riding continental-scale science questions* and is expected to develop results and products that CarboNA needs to achieve its Goals*. A CarboNA project must include collaboration of scientists from at least two of the three North American countries. A CarboNA project must clearly address one of CarboNAs Special emphasis areas for international collaboration in North America*. CarboNA Projects are generally but not necessarily relevant to continental scale analyses, continental gradients or cross-border gradients and regional studies. A CarboNA project must be endorsed by a minimum of one government agency, or by one member of the CarbonNA Government Coordination Working Group from at least two of the nations participating in CarboNA.
Example CarboNA projectsCarboNA-04: Assessing the impacts of fire and insect disturbance on the terrestrial C budgets of forested areas in Canada, Alaska, and the Western US. CarboNA-05: Collaboration with Mexico on Forest Carbon Budget CarboNA-07: Canadian Carbon Program- Flux towers, atmospheric GHG conc., top-down / bottom-up modeling, integration of process and inventory modelsCarboNA-08: Ameriflux networkCarboNA-09: Estimating the Amount, Spatial Distribution, and Statistical Uncertainty of Aboveground Carbon Stocks of the North American Boreal Forest Using the ICESAT-GLAS Spaceborne Lidar CarboNA-10: Governement Related Initiatives Program CSA-AAFC: Adapting cropping systems to climate variations: deriving above-ground crop biomass from hyperspectral reflectance and radarCarboNA-12: National Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Verification System carbon budget for agricultural land in Canada CarboNA-17: Forest land dynamics and management opportunities for North America CarboNA-18: RESUCCCITIES Initiative to Attain Resilient and Sustainable Relationships among Carbon, Climate and Cities CarboNA-19: Field protocols for terrestrial carbon accounting, and data submission protocols manual (GTOS); based on the west coast design, developed for AmeriFlux and NACP, consistent with 1ha FIA inventory plots.
Some examples of relevant collaborations
January(net CO2emission)July(net CO2 uptake)
11CarbonTracker is an inversion that uses high-accuracy atmospheric measurements to constrain fluxes derived by land and ocean models. CarbonTracker is updated with the latest atmospheric measurements once per year.It can be improved with enhanced biosphere and transport models, as well as with an increased number of high-accuracy, continuous measurements of CO2.
Sulfur Hexafluoride (ppt)Carbon Dioxide (ppm)An emerging high-altitude observatory in Mexico yields information on broad-scale fluxes of GHGsSierra Negra Orizaba18,700 ft. 12Note: Here SF6 represents transport alone; differences between CO2 and SF6 suggest sources and sinks of CO2. The Climate Institute and SIMA have lined up instrumentation and received international designations for two Stations in Mexico: one the High Altitude Observatory now planned for Sierra Negra in the State of Puebla near its border with Veracruz, and a validation station at sea level at about the same latitude, likely in a bioreserve in the State of Quintana Roo. Acosta envisions a dual purpose of the Observatories-both to fill a large gap in the Global Change Observing System and to galvanize Mexican national interest in leading both in climate science and in climate solutions.
Recent Atmospheric Monitoring Site in SaskatchewanCooperative arrangement between NOAA and EC Now has continuous measurements from tower (not shown here)Used in CarbonTracker(Alert, Canada, coop since 1985)13NOAA ils now working with Environment Canada to obtain more measurements in the Canadian interior. Of particular interest are sites near the edge of the permafrost. Alert (shown in the upper left panel) is a long-term, cooperative global site, and is exemplary of what we like to get from cooperative arrangements. This new site now has a tower in place obtaining continuous measurements of carbon cycle gases.
FLUXNET-AmeriFlux-CCP NetworksSlide 15
Fluxnet-Canada: 2002-2007Canadian Carbon Program (CCP): 2007-201015CarboNA-06: Application of the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) to Mexico(slides from Werner Kurz, Canadian Forest Service)Collaborative project between ConaFor, EcoSur, other Mexican research centers and Canadian Forest ServiceSupport for reporting of GHG emissions and removals, and analysis of REDD baseline and alternative scenarios.Currently testing of model at several pilot sites in wide range of ecological conditions in MexicoPreparation of input data for national-scale application of the model
Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3)An operational-scale model of stand and landscape-level forest C dynamics.Allows forest managers to assess carbon implications of forest management: increase sinks, reduce sourcesCompliant with IPCC reporting guidelines
Freely available at: carbon.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca
Kurz et al. 2009, Ecol. Modelling
CBM-CFS3 Application in MexicoDeveloped spatial stratification for compilation of national data.Conducted 2 workshops: project planning and user tra