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  • Cambridge

    English as a Second Language Third EditionWorkbook 1

    Peter Lucantoni

  • ii

    C A M B R I D G E U N I V E R S I T Y P R E S SCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, So Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City

    Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

    www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521736022

    Cambridge University Press 2009

    This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

    First published 2009

    Printed in

    A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

    ISBN 978-0-521-73602-2 Paperback with audio CDs

    A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S

    Cover image: ImageState/Alamy

    Every effort has been made to reach copyright holders of material in this book previously published elsewhere. The publisher would be pleased to hear from anyone whose rights they have unwittingly infringed.

    Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.

    7th printing 2013

    byDubai Oriental Press

  • MenuIntroduction

    ivv

    Part 1: The world around usUnit 1:Unit 2:Unit 3:Unit 4:Unit 5:Unit 6:Unit 7:Unit 8:

    SpaceLiving creaturesNatural disastersWaterPlantsAnimalsThe sensesEdible plants

    159

    1317212529

    Part 2: Human endeavourUnit 9:

    Unit 10:Unit 11:Unit 12:Unit 13:Unit 14:Unit 15:Unit 16:Unit 17:Unit 18:

    ExplorersJobsRunningSportScienceTechnologyBuildingsWonders of the worldLeisureFilms

    33384347515559646873

    AppendixTranscripts of accompanying audio CDs 77

    Contents

    Contents iii

  • Part

    1: T

    he w

    orld

    aro

    und

    us

    Unit 1: Space In this unit you will: review vocabulary, look at passive forms, read about astronauts, listen to a film critic, write about a film

    Language focus: passive forms

    Unit 2: Living creatures In this unit you will: review vocabulary, do some word building, read about space travel, listen to a scientist talking about endangered species, write a letter

    Language focus: word building, signpost words

    Unit 3: Natural disasters In this unit you will: review vocabulary, look at conditional forms, read about the weather, listen to a meteorologist, write an article

    Language focus: the 0 conditional for advice and suggestions

    Unit 4: Water In this unit you will: review vocabulary, study superlative forms, read about deserts, listen to a scientist talking about different planets, write about the planet Jupiter

    Language focus: superlatives

    Unit 5: Plants In this unit you will: review vocabulary, study imperative forms, read about the orang-utan, listen to someone talking about the flamingo bird, write about an animal

    Language focus: imperatives

    Unit 6: Animals In this unit you will: review vocabulary, look at question tags, read about animal names, listen to someone talking about Hawaii, write a description

    Language focus: question tags

    Unit 7: The senses In this unit you will: review vocabulary, look at comparative and superlative forms, read about the human brain, listen to a scientist talking about the brain, write a paragraph about the brain

    Language focus: comparative and superlative adjectives

    Unit 8: Edible plants In this unit you will: review vocabulary, read about eating disorders, listen to someone talking about a film, focus on referring words, write an e-mail of advice to a friend

    Language focus: referring words

    Part

    2: H

    uman

    end

    eavo

    ur

    Unit 9: Explorers In this unit you will: review vocabulary, read about space travel, listen to a radio programme about exploration films, look at the past perfect tense, write about Yuri Gagarin

    Language focus: the past perfect

    Unit 10: Jobs In this unit you will: review vocabulary, read about glamorous jobs, listen to people talking about youth employment, do some word building, write a job application

    Language focus: word building

    Unit 11: Running In this unit you will: review vocabulary, read about dangerous sports, listen to some young people talking about hip hop dancing, look at -ing forms, write about hip hop dancing

    Language focus: -ing forms

    Unit 12: Sport In this unit you will: review vocabulary, read about an adventure holiday, listen to someone talking about a desert adventure in Qatar, look at signpost words, write a description of a desert adventure

    Language focus: signpost words

    Unit 13: Science In this unit you will: review vocabulary, read about technology, listen to someone talking about air pollution, look at word building, write an e-mail to a friend about pollution

    Language focus: word building

    Unit 14: Technology In this unit you will: review vocabulary, read about the Skycar, listen to someone talking about penguins, look at question forms, write a description of an underwater vehicle

    Language focus: question forms

    Unit 15: Buildings In this unit you will: review vocabulary, read about bionic buildings, listen to an interview about the Titanic, look at nouns, verbs and adjectives, and write an e-mail to a friend about the Titanic

    Language focus: nouns, verbs and adjectives

    Unit 16: Wonders of the world

    In this unit you will: review vocabulary, read about the Orient-Express, listen to an announcement, look at passive forms, write a description about a train journey

    Language focus: passive forms

    Unit 17: Leisure In this unit you will: review vocabulary, read about pirate copying, listen to an interview about pirates, focus on modal verbs, write a summary of an interview

    Language focus: modal verbs

    Unit 18: Films In this unit you will: review vocabulary, read about special effects in films, listen to someone talking about humans and computers, look at word building, write an article about computers

    Language focus: word building

    Menu

    iv Menu

  • Introduction

    Introduction v

    Cambridge English as a Second Language Workbook 1 supports Coursebook 1 to form a one-year, theme-based intermediate English course. It is for students who are not yet ready to start a demanding, exam-focused course such as the International General Certifi cate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) in English as a Second Language (E2L). Once you have completed this intermediate course, you could move on to study Coursebook 2 with Workbook 2 and Exam Preparation Guide, which is a two-year exam course that will properly prepare you for the IGCSE E2L examination.

    It is assumed that most of you who use this book will be studying English in order to improve your educational or employment prospects, and it therefore includes a broad range of topics and themes relevant to this goal. You will fi nd passages and activities based on a wide variety of stimulating cross-curriculum topics and about people from all over the world, which I hope you will enjoy reading and discussing.

    Workbook 1 follows the same procedure as Coursebook 1 and is divided into two parts: The world around us, and Human endeavour. Each themed part is sub-divided into units, which focus on topics such as Space (Unit 1), Natural disasters (Unit 3), Explorers (Unit 9) and Wonders of the world (Unit 16). Each unit is further divided into fi ve sections, which cover all the language skills of reading, writing and listening, as well as grammar and vocabulary.

    The content of the Workbook 1 units mirrors the content of the Coursebook 1 units. It provides you with extra grammar and vocabulary practice, while also giving you more reading and listening texts, as well as opportunities for writing.

    I hope you enjoy using this book and I wish you success in your studies!

    Peter Lucantoni

  • Part

    1

    The world around us

    Unit 1: SpaceIn this unit you will: review vocabulary, look at passive forms, read about astronauts, listen to a fi lm critic, write about a fi lm.

    Vocabulary1 In Unit 1 of the Coursebook you read about the planets. Here are the nine

    names of the planets, but the letters have been jumbled. Write out the correct words.

    a tupneen f unvesb reptuji g rathec rermcuy h ratsnud sarm i rusunae lupto

    2 How far are the planets from the sun? Copy and label the diagram.

    3 Read this paragraph about lenses and complete the gaps with some of the words you learned in Unit 1 of the Coursebook.

    Lenses

    Lenses are of great importance in devices that use light. (a) ...... instruments such as cameras, projectors, microscopes and telescopes all produce (b) ...... with lenses, while many people use glasses to correct poor vision. Lenses work by (c) ...... , which is the bending of light (d) ...... when they leave one (e) ...... material (i.e. a material which does not block light) and enter another. With lenses, the two materials are (f) ...... and (g) ...... . The lenses in glasses and contact lenses are used to help the lens in the eye when it cannot bend light rays correctly.

    Adapted from The Way Things Work by David Macaulay (DK Limited, 1988).

    Unit 1: Space 1

    Earth

  • 2 Part 1: The world around us

    4 Find twelve living creatures in the wordsearch.

    L T K R A B B I T BD M X R R V R N B LC H I M P A N Z E ET U R T L E T R L MS L F L L T T S G ON P I M A B G A B NA M S C O O P H F KK L H N R U N D C EE R J F M T S V O YI N S E C T D E R G

    Language focus: passive forms5 Copy and complete the table.

    Tense Subject to be Past participle

    Final clause

    Present Images (produce) by rays.

    Past The planets (give) their names.

    Present perfect Many animals (send) into space.

    Past perfect Most astronauts

    (train) in Russia.

    will future More training (require) next year.

    6 Read the following texts about light rays and eyesight. As you read, put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form. Then draw some simple diagrams, based on the information in the text.

    Light rays

    Rays (a) ...... (produce) by light sources. These rays stream out in all directions. When an object (b) ...... (hit) by a light ray, the ray usually bounces off. If light rays enter our eyes, we see either the source of the light or the object that refl ected the rays towards us. The angle of the rays gives the object its apparent size.

    Eyesight

    Light rays from an object (c) ...... (bend) by the lens of the eye. An image (d) ...... (form) by the lens on the light-sensitive retina of the eye, and then this image (e) ...... (change) into a message which travels to the brain. The image is upside down on the retina, but the brain sees it as upright.

    Adapted from The Way Things Work by David Macaulay (DK Limited, 1988).

    7 Write fi ve sentences which contain a verb in the passive.

    Reading8 You are going to read a text about astronauts. Before you read, what do

    you already know? List fi ve things.

  • Part

    1

    9 Read the text below, then copy and complete the table of information.

    Basic quali! cations and requirements

    Special skills and special training, degree in science or maths, ......

    Classi! cation of astronauts

    Length of basic training

    Training subjects

    Flight training

    Other information

    10 Read the text again and fi nd words or phrases which have a similar meaning to the following:

    a make something happen (paragraph 1)b eyesight (2)c method of transport (3)d study of the structure of the Earth, such as rocks (4)e very small (5)f event that cannot be predicted (6)

    Astronauts

    (1) It is probably the dream of every person on this planet to travel to space. However, it is not possible for every person to fulfi l this dream, as travelling to space is not only a diffi cult task, but also requires hard training.

    (2) Becoming an astronaut requires special skills and special training. Certain basic qualifi cations are essential, such as a degree in science or maths, and there are requirements for age, height, vision, weight, and so on.

    Types of astronaut

    (3) According to the US space program, there are three types of astronaut:

    Commander/pilot the commander is in charge of the mission, crew and vehicle; the pilot helps the commander in operating the spacecraft and preparing the satellites.

    Mission specialist the mission specialist works with the commander and pilots in operating the shuttles, performing space walks, and performing experiments.

    Payload specialist the payload specialist performs special duties required by the mission and is usually a foreign national.

    Astronaut training

    (4) A basic astronaut training period is for two years. During this period, candidates receive training in

    geology, meteorology, oceanography)

    materials processing)

    (5) They are taught parachute jumping, land and sea survival techniques, scuba diving and ways to overcome high (hyperbaric) and low (hypobaric) atmospheric pressure conditions. They also have to pass a swimming test. They are exposed to micro gravity of space fl ight. Pilot astronauts are given 15 hours of fl ying training per month in T-38 jets, and mission specialists are given four hours.

    (6) After being selected for a fl ight, the candidates receive specifi c training for the mission at least ten months before the fl ight. The astronauts are trained in fl ight simulators, full-scale models of the shuttle and space station, and given underwater training for space walks. The simulations prepare the astronauts for every kind of emergency or contingency.

    (7) After the training, pilot astronauts are prepared for the fl ight with training in the shuttle itself. There are meetings, more simulations, medical tests and discussions. These are called debriefi ngs. After this, they are ready for space travel.

    Adapted from http://library.thinkquest.org, 8 July 2008.

    Unit 1: Space 3

  • 4 Part 1: The world around us

    Listening11 Do you like fi lms about space and science fi ction? Which are your

    favourite fi lms? Are there any which you do not like? Why? Discuss your likes and dislikes with a classmate.

    12 Do you know any stories about travelling in time? One of the most famous is H G Wellss The Time Machine. Two fi lms have been based on the book. You are going to listen to a fi lm critic talking about the story, but before you do, match the words from the listening text with an appropriate meaning.

    Word from listening text Meaning miniature base for something to stand on

    into thin air completely

    dishevelled ! nally

    paradisiacal like a human

    humanoid like paradise

    frail moves very quickly

    pedestal physically weak

    courage smaller version

    ultimately bravery or strength to do something

    whizzes untidy

    exhausted very tired

    13 Listen to the talk. The critic will mention the Eloi, who are friendly, and the Morlocks, who are not! As you listen, decide whether each of the following statements is true or false:

    a The Time Traveller travels in a small machine.b The Time Traveller tells his story to his guests during dinner.c The time machine was ready to fl y.d The Eloi look like humans.e To begin with, the Time Traveller cannot get inside the pedestal.f The Time Traveller fi nds his time machine under the ground.g The Morlocks use fi re to chase the Time Traveller.h The Time Traveller starts a fi re on purpose.i The Morlocks try to trap the Time Traveller inside the time machine.j Finally, the Time Traveller disappears for ever.

    14 Correct the information which was false in Exercise 13.

    Writing15 What do you think happened to the Time Traveller? Where did he go in

    time into the future, or back into the past? Why? Write a paragraph giving your thoughts about where the Time Traveller is now, and saying why.

    CD 1,Track 1

  • The world around us

    Part

    1

    Unit 2: Living creaturesIn this unit you will: review vocabulary, do some word building, read about space travel, listen to a scientist talking about endangered species, write a letter.

    Vocabulary1 Find ten everyday objects that could be UFOs in the wordsnake.

    umbrellaf

    risbeeaeroplanehovercraftbirdball

    oong

    lide

    rball

    kitecamcorder

    2 In Unit 2 of the Coursebook you read about living things. Copy and complete these words (they are all singular):

    a _ _ g _ _b m o _ _ _ _ _ _c a t _ _d t _ _ _ _ ee c _ _ lf _ _ g a _ _ _ _

    3 Complete this paragraph using the words from Exercise 2. You may need to make them plural.

    Living things are made of (a) ...... and (b) ...... that are organised into (c) ...... . The cells in an (d) ...... can be either uniform or specialised for various functions. Also, the cells can be organised into (e) ...... , (f) ...... and systems. Living things on Earth are quite diverse in their organisation and complexity.

    Adapted from http://science.howstuffworks.com, 25 April 2008.

    4 What are the missing words in this paragraph?

    Living things grow and develop from smaller and/or simpler forms. For example, a human begins life as a fertilised egg, developing into an (a) ...... , a (b) ...... and then a baby. Subsequently, the baby grows into a (c) ...... , (d) ...... and adult.

    Adapted from http://science.howstuffworks.com, 25 April 2008.

    Unit 2: Living creatures 5

  • 6 Part 1: The world around us

    5 Write down what all the missing words in Exercises 3 and 4 are in your own language.

    Language focus: word building and signpost words6 Put these signpost words into the appropriate column in a copy of the

    table below:

    also although and but even though fi nally fi rstly furthermore however lastly on the other hand or secondly so

    When Contrast In addition

    7 Here are some of the things that Baruti said in Unit 2 of the Coursebook. Choose a suitable signpost word to fi ll each gap.

    Baruti: Well, youre absolutely right, it is a simple question, because yes, UFOs defi nitely exist! Theyre spotted all the time. (a) ...... , nobody has ever seen an actual alien spacecraft.

    Baruti: Well, yes, thats very true, (b) ...... they are usually just the result of rare atmospheric events, like ball lightning and sprites.

    Baruti: Sprites form in the upper atmosphere, about 21 km (or 13 miles) above the ground. Each one lasts less than a second, (c) ...... when lots of them appear and disappear in a row, they can look like a single, fast-moving object.

    Baruti: Good question. We still arent completely sure, because its not easy to study them. (d) ...... , its thought that they happen when lightning hits nitrogen atoms in the air, leaving a glowing ball of coloured plasma behind.

    Baruti: (e) ...... some sightings have turned out to be unusual, they were in fact real military aircraft. Their existence may be denied at the time to keep them secret, (f) ...... we fi nd out later what they are. Others are just hoaxes, ranging from the very good, using Hollywood-style digital effects, to the very poor, such as the frisbee-on-string-dangled-before-a-camcorder type!

    Adapted from www.sciencemuseum.org.uk, 25 April 2008.

    8 Read the following paragraph about space tourism. Put the words in brackets into their correct form.

    On 28 April 2001, Dennis Tito became the fi rst ever fee-paying space tourist. He was (a) (launch) into space in a Russian Soyuz capsule and taken to the International Space Station (ISS), where he stayed for seven days. Since then, there have only been a few other (b) (visit) to space as it is an (c) (extreme) (d) (expense) trip to make. However, in Russia, Europe and the USA, private (e) (company) are already competing to become space tourism (f) (lead).

    Adapted from Bahrain and Beyond, p. 36, October/November 2006.

  • Part

    1

    Reading9 Would you like to travel to space? Why / Why not? Give three reasons

    why you would or wouldnt like to do this.

    10 Read the text below and use a dictionary to fi nd out what the words printed in blue mean.

    11 Copy and complete the table, putting the words in blue from the text into the correct column in the table, then fi lling in the other columns for each word. You may not be able to write something in every gap. Some examples have been done for you.

    Verb Noun Adjective Adverb unique uniquely

    thrill thrill/thriller thrilling/thrilled thrillingly

    There are many reasons why somebody might want to travel to space. Space travel offers a unique experience that is found nowhere else in our atmosphere, a thrill and an excitement that can only be felt up there in space. The view of the Earth is said by every astronaut to be one of the most amazing experiences of all. You can see landmarks and geographical features, and there are other striking sights, even on the dark side of the Earth.

    Lightning fl ashes roughly 100 times a second and the aurora borealis, sited near the magnetic poles, appear as colourful, rippling cones of light. Not only can you watch dusk and dawn outline the edges of the Earth with multicoloured bands of light, it is also possible to witness the formation of different weather patterns. Because there is no light pollution and no atmosphere, stars will no longer twinkle, but their various colours become startlingly apparent.

    Of course, there appears to be no gravity in space, and being weightless is one of the most intriguing factors about space travel. According to a recent Web survey, 88 per cent of people questioned said they wanted to space walk! One of the most popular attractions of space travel, according to another survey, is space sports! Now, whats that all about?!

    Why should I travel to space?

    Adapted from Bahrain and Beyond, p. 37, October/November 2006.

    Listening12 You are going to listen to a scientist being interviewed about endangered

    species on Earth. Before you listen, decide which of the following ten words and phrases you think you will hear. Use a dictionary to check anything you are unsure about.

    CD 1,Track 2

    Unit 2: Living creatures 7

  • 8 Part 1: The world around us

    adapt to changes in climate declines in numbers dinosaursgone forever human population hunted and killed wildlifeindirect destruction natural extinction polluted some habitatstourist souvenirs

    13 Copy the list in Exercise 12, then listen to the interview. As you listen, number the words and phrases in the order that you hear them.

    14 Listen again and decide whether each of the following statements is true or false:

    a Man is not the only cause of extinction.b The extinction of different species happens at different speeds.c Dinosaurs became extinct 200 million years ago.d Nobody knows why dinosaurs became extinct.e Humans have caused great damage to the planet.f Pollution is a form of indirect destruction.g Animals are no longer killed for fun.h More than one endangered species becomes extinct every year.

    Writing15 How do you feel about species becoming extinct? Write a letter to

    your school newspaper telling your readers how you feel. You can use information and ideas from the interview you have just heard.

  • The world around us

    Part

    1

    Unit 3: Natural disastersIn this unit you will: review vocabulary, look at conditional forms, read about the weather, listen to a meteorologist, write an article.

    Vocabulary1 Find nine words to do with violent weather and natural disasters in the

    wordsearch.

    J A V A L A N C H E TE K T D R O U G H T LH A Q O Z J H T W J EA K R R R Y D I L N QI T N T T N M R A Z OL C T Q H A A C M N FS R P M N Q I D A X LT K X U B R U C O W OO H S V R G L A T R OR T C U P O T N K X DM Q H P V K C M C E C

    2 Match the defi nitions below with fi ve of the words you found in the wordsearch.

    a underground movement of the earthb large ocean wavec period of dry weatherd downhill fall of snowe column of swirling wind

    3 Think of fi ve aspects of the weather connected with water.

    Example: rain

    Unit 3: Natural disasters 9

  • 10 Part 1: The world around us

    4 Match the words and phrases with the weather type or natural disaster. Can any of the words or phrases match more than one weather type or natural disaster?

    Weather type / natural disaster Words and phrases

    volcano

    hurricane

    ! ood

    ashesCategory 2drowningeruptionhide in basementknee-deep waterlavamoltenpick up speedpyroclasticwind

    Language focus: the 0 conditional for advice and suggestions5 Rearrange these words to make correct sentences:

    a warning signs in an avalanche area if you are take notice ofb try to get in the path if you are caught to the side of it of an avalanchec try to by an avalanche hit swim with it if you ared hide approaches in if a basement hurricane thee power cables on boat be a broken careful of if you live

    6 Correct the mistakes in the verb tenses in these sentences:

    a If you will see an eruption, will warn others.b If you saw buildings shaking, moved to an open area.c If you would walk in an avalanche area, never to travel alone.d If you cant to avoid an avalanche, trying to hold on to something

    solid.e If you have lived in a mobile home, moving out if danger is

    approaching.

    7 Imagine you are talking to a friend who lives in a country where there might be a tsunami. Give your friend fi ve suggestions or pieces of advice.

    Reading8 Read this poem about the weather. How

    would you describe the weather in each line? For example, how would you describe the horrible weather in line 1?

    Weather

    Horrible WeatherStaying in bed weatherCuddling up close weatherIgnoring the world weather

    Warm WeatherGo for swim weatherTake a walk weatherPicnic weather

    Alison Smith

    Source: www.poemhunter.com, 9 July 2008.

  • Part

    1

    9 You are going to read another poem about the weather: The long drought is over. Before you read, what do these words mean?

    ferocity combat ravaged moods

    10 What do you think the tone of the poem is going to be: positive or negative? Why?

    11 Poets often play with language, and sometimes break the rules of word order and grammar. Why do you think they do this?

    12 Read the poem, then copy and complete these sentences:

    a Some weather experts believe ...... .b Seven people have died ...... .c The fl ood swept ...... .d The big news story of the day was ...... .e People are dying of ...... .

    The long drought is over

    The long drought is over some weather experts believeBut weather patterns the experts have been known to deceiveIn parts of the Country huge fl ooding the weather seems strangeBut then we are in the age of climate changeThe ferocity of Nature cannot be deniedIn fl ooding tragedies up country seven people have diedTheir cars by the fl ood were swept off of the roadwayTheir deaths by drowning the big news story of the dayFor to combat extreme weather patterns we need more than God on our sideNowadays Natural disasters are occuring WorldwideIn drought ravaged Lands millions of refugeesAnd thousands are dying of hunger and diseaseThe long drought is over some weather experts do sayBut the moods of Nature changing every day.

    Francis Duggan

    Source: www.poemhunter.com, 9 July 2008.

    Listening13 You are going to listen to a meteorologist being interviewed about

    monsoons. Before you listen, discuss these questions with a classmate:

    a Where does the word monsoon come from?b Where do monsoons occur?c What causes them?d Which countries experience the worst monsoons?e What problems do monsoons create?

    CD 1,Track 3

    Unit 3: Natural disasters 11

  • 12 Part 1: The world around us

    14 Look at this list of words and phrases and decide which ones you think you will hear during the interview. Why?

    drop in temperature fl ood hazards India land and seaover 35 C rainfall snowstorms South Americasouthern Europe water supplies winds (noun) winter storms

    15 Listen to the interview. As you listen, note the answers to the questions in Exercise 13. Check your answers with a classmate.

    16 Listen again for the words and phrases in Exercise 14, and number them in the order that you hear them.

    Writing17 Imagine that you have been to a lecture about water in Sri Lanka and you

    have written the notes below. Now you are going to write up your notes into a short article for your school magazine or newspaper.

    Water in Sri LankaCharities given equipment for cleaning dirty water

    Equipment removes bacteria, dirt, but not salt

    Also give people tanks to collect rain from monsoon

    Project to dig more wells for water

    Already some wells giving clean drinking water

    Many people survive on only 3 litres per day

    Water from wells often has strange taste

    Wells can be expensive to set up