BY SANTHOSH G. What is Networking Network Requirements What is Topology Types of Topologies.

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BY SANTHOSH G Slide 2 What is Networking Network Requirements What is Topology Types of Topologies Slide 3 What is Networking? Networking means interconnection of 2 or more autonomous pcs in order to share the information & resources with security that they can have communication among themselves. And there are many techniques for making pcs networked and also there are many network hardware to make it possible. Slide 4 Network requirements There are four things that must be present in the network. two or more individual systems something to share (ex: data) a physical pathway or transmission medium rules of communication or protocols Slide 5 Topology The physical layout of the network Classified in to the following. 1. Bus topology 2. Star topology 3. Ring topology 4. Mesh topology Among these first 3 are the commonly used. Slide 6 APPLICATION PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT NETWORK DATA LINK PHYSICAL Slide 7 THE OSI MODEL The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1983 to provide a conceptual model on which networks could be based. In the process of developing this framework, the ISO established a vocabulary that assisted engineers worldwide by giving them a common set of words to use to describe concepts they already understood and took for granted. Slide 8 Physical Layer Functions Physical Characteristics of interfaces & media ( deals with electrical & mechanical specifications ) Representation of bits (electromagnetic or optical) Data Rate (bits per sec.) Synchronization (Sender & Reciever clock) Physical Topology (Star, Bus.) Transmission Mode (direction of transmission between 2 devices; e.g Half, Full between devices) Slide 9 Data Link Layer Functions Framing Physical addressing (MAC of sender/reciever as Header) Flow Control (Matching the Speed) Error Control (FCS Trailor ) Access control ( Which device uses the media) Slide 10 Network Player Functions Logical Addressing ( IP addressing used for the communication out of the network ) Routing ( Packets are routed in the internetwork to the final destination ) Slide 11 Transport Layer Functions Service- Point or Port addressing( Port no. as header to segment) Segmentation & re-assembly (sequence no. to segments when sending & replace the missing packets when recieves) Connection control ( connectionless or connection oriented) Flow & error control( applied over entire message & error correction is through retransmission) Slide 12 Session Layer Function Dialog Control (half duplex or full duplex between application processes) Synchronization (incertion of checkpoints in the stream of data for recovery) Slide 13 Presentation Layer Funtions Translation(sender dependent format - common format Receiver dependent format) Encryption & decryption Compression & decompression(for multimedia information) Slide 14 Application Layer Functions when you use your Web browser, that actual software is an application running on your PC.It doesn't really reside at the application layer. Rather, it makes use of the services offered by a protocol that operates at the application layer, which is called the HTTP Other e.g FTP, E-Mail etc Slide 15 RESOURECES Slide 16 N/W Devices Vs Layers Repeater Physical Bridge Data Link Router Network Brouter Data Link and Network Gateway Transport, Session, Presentation and Application Multiplexer Physical SwitchData Link Slide 17 THANK YOU


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