Business Glossary & Dictionary Terms

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  • 7/31/2019 Business Glossary & Dictionary Terms


    Ability The capacity to perform an act, either innate or as the result of

    learning and practice.

    Ability Grouping Arrangement whereby students are assigned to groups on the basis of

    aptitude testing.

    Accelerated Learning Combining adult learning theory and whole brain learning theory in the

    learning environment to achieve a faster learning rate.

    Accounts Payable Short term debts incurred as the result of day-to-day operations.

    Accounts Receivable Monies due your organisation as the result of day-to-day operations.

    Accrual Based


    An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books

    at the time of contract versus when payment is received or expenses


    Accuracy The degree of freedom from error or the degree of conformity to a


    Achievement A measurement of what a person knows or can do after training.

    Action Learning


    This is a continuous process of learning and reflection with the

    intention of getting something done. Learning is centred on the need to

    find a solution to a real problem. Reg Ravens is said to be the

    originator of action learning

    The six steps are:

    1) Formulate Hypothesis

    2) Design Experiment

    3) Apply in Practice

    4) Observe Results

    5) Analyse Results

    6) Compare Analysis

    Action Maze A case study which has been programmed. Learners receive enough

    information to take them to their first decision point. The decision then

    takes them to the next frame, which explains the consequence of their

    decision. This process is continued until the maze has been completed.

    Action Verb A word that conveys action/behaviours and reflects the type of

    performance that is to occur (i.e., place, cut, drive, open, hold). Action

    verbs reflect behaviors that are measurable, observable, verifiable, and


    Active Learning


    A process of learning new ideas, skills and attitudes through what we

    do at work or in other behavioral situations. It is about learning from

    doing, performing, and taking action. The action can be either mental

    (e.g. reflection) or physical (e.g. case study). It uses such devices as

    games, simulations, introspection, role playing, etc.

    Active Learning A learning principle that says participants learn more when they are
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    actively involved in the process. Remember the saying we learn more

    by doing.

    Activity Step The step of learner activity based on the enabling objective. In

    achieving the activity the learner is carried through the teaching points

    and the teaching steps.

    Actuals Information about the current skills, knowledge, perspectives and

    environment of individuals in an organisation. Specifics about what

    people now do.

    Adaptive Branching

    (Adjustive Device)

    Any of several techniques used in scheduling to accommodate

    individual differences. It may permit the student to bypass material

    they already know or may provide them with additional instruction as


    Adjunct Program


    An instructional or training method that applies programming principles

    to existing course materials, texts, manuals, etc. Learners are directed

    to specific areas within these materials that support course objectives;then directed to respond and given confirmation until they have

    progressed through the material and have accomplished predetermined


    Adult Learning


    Based on the work of Malcolm Knowles, adult learning principles refer

    to ways in which adult learning differs from child learning. Principles

    include difference in self-concept, importance of mutual respect,

    learning through discovery, responsibility for learning, ability to self-

    evaluate, difference in accumulated experience, the need to unlearn

    fixed habits, and the importance of applicability to real-life problems

    (whats in it for me.)

    Agenda A list, plan or outline of things to be done before, during and after the

    training. An agenda is the road map that will lead to the achievement

    of the learning objectives. Everyone needs a plan and wants to know

    where you are leading them.

    Analogy A cognitive process in which an example or schema is used to map a

    new solution for a similar problem.

    Analysis Phase First phase of any Instructional Design System. The purpose of this

    phase is to determine what the job holder must know or be able to do

    on the job and to determine training needs.

    Anecdote A short story used to help illustrate a point, usually tailored to theneeds of the learner

    Aptitude The ability of an individual to acquire a new skill or show the potential

    for acquiring a skill when given the opportunity and proper training.



    A measurement process of the learning that has either taken place or

    can take place. Usually measured against stated learning outcomes:

    Predictive assessment attempts to measure what the learner might
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    achieve given suitable training Attainment assessment attempts to

    measure what the learner knows or can do, and is usually related to

    the syllabus of a course the learner has followed

    Assets All real or intellectual property owned by the organisation that has a

    positive financial value.

    Asynchronous Learning Any learning event that is delivered after the original live event. Also

    used to indicate a learning event where the interaction is delayed over

    time, such as a correspondence course.

    Attitude A feeling or emotion of a person that influences choice of action and

    response to stimulus. Defined as a disposition or tendency to respond

    positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person,

    and situation). They encompass, or are often closely related to, our

    opinions and beliefs and are based upon our experiences.

    Audio-Visual Aids Training or educational materials directed at both the sense of hearing

    and the sense of sight. Including: Flip charts, overhead transparencies,graphical presentations, computer-based presentations, slide

    presentations, videos and DVDs are some examples of audio-visual


    Authoring A structured approach to developing all elements of a unit of


    Authoring Tool Software application used to produce media-based learning content.


    Balance Sheet A statement of assets and liabilities.

    Bandwidth Information carrying capacity of a communication channel.

    Barriers To Entry


    Conditions that create difficulty for competitors to enter the market.

    For example, copyrights, trademarks, patents, dedicated distribution

    channels and high initial investment requirements.

    Baseline A set of measurements (metrics) that seek to establish the current

    starting level of a performance. These measurements are usually

    established before implementing improvement activities.

    Behaviour Any activity the learner will be expected to exhibit after training. The

    activity should be observable and measurable. It is the primary

    component of any objective.

    Behaviorism Belief that learning results in a change in the learners behavior. The

    focus of behaviorists is on the outputs of the learning process. The

    study of learning only through the examination and analysis of

    objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events, in contrast

    with subjective mental states.
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    Block Of Instruction A group of related instructional units or modules covering a major

    subject area.

    Brain Dominance An individuals preference for using ones cognitive abilities. There are

    two styles of thinking right brain (intuitive, spontaneous, and

    qualitative) and left brain (factual, analytical and quantitative).

    Brainstorming A group method for collecting ideas and suggestions from the

    participants. This technique is used to problem solve and collect

    information by stimulating creative thinking through unrestrained and

    spontaneous participation in discussion.

    Branching An instructional technique, usually in the form of programmed text, in

    which the learners next step of instruction is determined by her

    response to a previous step. Two or more directions in a program path

    can go from a decision point.

    Break-Even Point The point at which revenues are equal to expenses.

    Broadcast Method of transferring learning content to many learners


    Business Services


    Services offered to commercial organisations, such as: equipment

    maintenance, supplying of part time personnel, engineering, design

    and management consulting, etc.

    Bypassing In programmed instruction, a technique that permits a student to skip

    certain portions of the material because of prior knowledge.


    Capital The financial investment required to initiate and/or operate anorganisation.

    Case Study A documented description of a problem situation that contains enough

    detail to enable the learners to recommend a solution.

    Cash Based Accounting An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books

    at the time when payment is received or expenses incurred.

    Cash Flow The transfer of monies into and out of an organisation.

    Causes What gets in the way of individual and organisational performance?

    There are normally four kinds of causes: absence of skills and

    knowledge or information, weak motivation, improper environment,and flawed incentives.

    Certification Programme and process where a learner completes prescribed training

    and passes an assessment with a minimum acceptable result.

    Chaining An instructional technique that transforms a learned response into a

    stimulus for the next desired response.
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    Checklist A list of relevant items to be considered when preparing and

    conducting a training programme or activity.



    A process of organizing many tasks into groups for the purpose of

    deciding upon the optimal instructional setting mix for that group of

    tasks. Also pertains to sequencing groups of objectives within a course

    of instruction.

    Coach A person, who instructs, demonstrates, directs, and prompts learners.

    Cognitive From the Latin cogito; I think. The mental processes of perception,

    memory, judgment, and reasoning. Cognitive also refers to attempts to

    identify a perspective or theory in contrast to emphasizing observable


    Cognitive Engagement


    The intentional and purposeful processing of lesson content.

    Engagement, in effect, requires strategies that promote manipulation

    rather than memorization, as the means through which learners

    acquire both lesson knowledge and deeper conceptual insight.Engagement can be elevated through a variety of activities such as

    inducing cognitive dissonance, posing argumentative questions

    requiring the development of a supportable position, and causing

    learners to generate a prediction and rationale during a lesson.

    Cognitivists Believe that learning occurs when learners are able to add new

    concepts and ideas to their cognitive structure by recognizing a

    relationship between something they already know and what they are

    learning. The focus of cognitivists is on the inputs of the learning

    process. Cognitive theorists emphasize internal processes and

    knowledge representations which are impossible to observe directly,

    but which are inferred.

    Collaborative Learning A more radical departure from cooperative learning. It involves

    learners working together in small groups to develop their own answer

    through interaction and reaching consensus, not necessarily a known

    answer. Monitoring the groups or correcting wrong impressions is not

    the role of the trainer since there is no authority on what the answer

    should be.

    Collateral Assets that can be pledged to guarantee a loan.

    Collective Task A task that requires more than one individual to complete with each

    individual performing a discreet part of the collective task.

    Common Learning


    A learning objective written for a task element (supporting skill or

    knowledge) that is common to two or more tasks.



    A knowledge, skill, ability, or trait which is needed to succeed at a

    particular task or job.

    Competency Model A list of critical knowledge, skills, abilities, and traits needed to succeed
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    in a job, job family, or organisation. Competency models can be used

    to select, develop, evaluate, and reward performers. Some models

    focus on baseline (minimal level) skills needed while others identify

    target competencies needed for mastery of performance. Competency

    models often identify competencies which must be selected for

    (because they are innate or hard to train) and those which may bedeveloped or learned through training or coaching.



    Instruction that is organized around a set of learning objectives based

    upon the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a set of

    skills called competencies.



    Possessing sufficient or suitable skill, knowledge or experience to

    achieve a specific objective. For example: He is competent to use a

    ladder in our building.

    Competitive Action


    A purposeful event designed to overcome the advantages of another

    company, or to advance your company over another. A competitive

    action can be for or against your company. The key is to identify theaction taken as it pertains to a certain event, from the event then

    identify the goals and objectives of the parties involved.

    Compilation A learning process in which learners embed declarative knowledge in

    highly domain specific rules or productions.


    Instruction (CAI)

    The use of computers to aid in the delivery of instruction in which the

    system allows for remediation based on answers but not for a change

    in the underlying program structure.


    Training (CBT) or E-


    Training that is delivered via a computer as opposed to a trainer or

    paper-based format. CBT programmes usually incorporate a mix of

    text, graphics, animation and interactive exercises.



    A mental picture of a group of things that have common

    characteristics. A generalization is a persons idea of the relationships

    between two or more concepts. Concepts represent a group of solid

    objects, such as an airplane or book; or abstract ideas, such as

    leadership and honesty. A concept is an idea about a group of things. A

    concept involves thinking about what it is that makes those things

    belong to that one group.

    Concept Map or

    Learning Map

    The arrangement of major concepts from a text or lecture into a visual

    arrangement. Lines are drawn between associated concepts, and

    relationships between the connected concepts are named. Theseconcept maps reveal the structural pattern in the material and provide

    the big picture. Sometimes called Mind Maps.

    Condition The component of an objective that describes the situation,

    environment, or limitations in which the learner must exhibit the

    specified behavior.
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    Conditional Branching Branching which occurs when a specified condition or set of conditions

    is satisfied.

    Conditioned Response A response that has been learned through employing a specific


    Conference A group of people who get together to exchange information and ideas

    on a specific topic.



    Giving each learner knowledge of the results of each exercise

    throughout the training process. This reinforces or rewards the learner

    during the entire learning situation.

    Constraint Any element or factor that prevents a person from reaching a higher

    lever of performance with respect to their goal.

    Constructed Response An answer requiring recall or completion as opposed to recognition

    (e.g., drawing a diagram, filling in a form, and labeling the parts of a

    piece of equipment). A term often used in the construction of e-learning based materials

    Contextual Interference Various factors inhibit a quick and smooth mastery of a skill.

    Contract Learning Also known as self-directed learning. It is a relatively new concept to

    trainers and learners. It allows the learner to select the topics or

    competencies they want to learn.

    Controlled Pacing


    A programming principle that implies self-pacing within an instructional

    system. The information and learner activity are developed so that the

    learners can progress toward the criterion objectives according to their

    own learning ability.

    Convenience Goods - Goods often used by the consumer, but the consumer is unwilling to

    spend shopping time to acquire them. This covers a broad spectrum

    of products including candy, cigarettes, drugs, newspapers, magazines

    and most grocery products.

    Cooperative Learning Involves the more conventional notion of cooperation, in that learners

    work in small groups on an assigned project or problem under the

    guidance of the trainer. Also see collaborative learning.

    Core Competencies Those things that are essential and must be learned for an individual

    to accomplish the primary objectives of their job. The central,

    innermost or most essential part of what the trainee must know to do

    their job effectively.

    Core Curriculum A curriculum in which all or some of the subjects or courses are based

    on a central theme in order to correlate the subjects and the theme.

    Corporate Image


    A corporate image ad is designed to primarily promote the

    organisation and secondarily promote the products or services of the

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    Correlation The relationship between two sets of data, that when one changes, the

    other is likely to make a corresponding change. If the changes are in

    the same direction, then there is a positive correlation. If it is in the

    opposite direction, then it is a negative correlation.

    Cost Of Goods The direct costs involved in producing a product or service which

    usually includes labour and materials.

    Cost Of Sales The cost of goods plus the expenses involved in selling and delivering

    the product or service.



    A means of assisting and developing students and subordinates. A

    leader/instructor counsels subordinates: to praise and reward good

    performance, to develop teamwork, to inform students on how well or

    how poorly they are performing, to assist students to reach required

    standards, to cause students to set personal and professional goals,

    and to help students resolve personal problems.

    Course A complete integrated series of lessons which are identified by acommon title and/or number.

    Course Management


    A document that includes the course description and the administrative

    directions for managing a course. Sometimes called a training

    management plan.

    Course Map A chart that depicts the designed sequence for events of a course.

    Course Trials A full length course conducted in a target environment (facilities,

    trainers and students) using the curriculum and supporting training

    material prepared for that course. It has as its purpose the shaking

    down or validating of the curriculum and materials in a classroom

    situation to determine their effectiveness in attaining the approved

    learning objectives or training goals. Also called pilot course.

    Courseware The media, either text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains

    the instructional content of the course.



    The standard by which something is measured. In training, the task or

    learning objective standard is the measure of student performance. In

    test validation, it is the standard against which test instruments are

    correlated to indicate the accuracy with which they predict human

    performance in some specific area. In evaluation it is the measure used

    to determine the adequacy of a product, process, or behavior.

    Criterion Referenced


    Testing of the objectives as a learner progresses through the course of

    instruction. Learners pass or fail depending upon their attainment of

    the objectives and NOT in accordance with their rank or standing

    among peers.

    Critical Incident


    A methodology of task analysis which determines the tasks to be

    included in instruction. Experts identify the critical job incidents and

    their products. Incidents are edited for redundancy, grouped into
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    top similar tasks, and then classified as positive or negative incidents. The

    incidents are summarized and then validated by the experts for

    completeness. This is a useful means for obtaining a list of relevant,

    real-world tasks to be included in instruction.

    Cross-Training Providing training in several different areas, functions or activities. This

    provides backup workers when the primary worker is unavailable.

    Current Assets Assets that can be converted quickly to cash.

    Current Liabilities All debts incurred in the normal day-to-day business and due within

    one calendar year.

    Curriculum The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning environment. The

    courses are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier.

    Customer One that buys goods or services. One whose desires are fulfilled in

    monetary exchange. Internally: An individual who is served by another

    individual with a specific series of tasks or desired outcome.

    Customer Interaction


    A moment where a product or service may be used, seen, or

    considered by someone qualified to purchase it.


    Debt Service The regular payments required to keep a loan current.

    Decay Rate The amount of time it takes learners to forget what they have learned

    in training. The decay rate can be stopped or slowed by having them

    use their new skills upon their return to the job.

    Deductive Design An instructional design where rules are presented followed byexamples. The emphasis is on forming conclusions.

    Delivery Any method of transferring offerings to learners. Variants are

    instructor-led training, web-based distance learning, online laboratory,

    CD-ROM, and books.

    Delivery Of Training


    The implementation of a training solution such as a workshop, job aid,

    written or computer-based self-study program. When the training

    solution is implemented, it is available to the learner and ready for use.



    Numbers and population, for example; the size of the audience,

    location of the presentation etc. Factors which will impact the

    effectiveness of the training.

    Demonstration A method for showing participants how to do a specific task or skill.


    Performance Method

    A learning experience in which students observe and then participate in

    a sequence of events designed to teach a procedure, a technique, or an

    operation, frequently combining oral explanation with the operation or

    handling of systems, equipment, or materials.
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    Dependent Learning


    Skills and knowledge in one learning objective that are related to those

    in another learning objective. In order to master one of the learning

    objectives, it is first necessary to learn the other.

    Depreciation The gradual erosion of the usability and value (possibly due to

    obsolescence) of an organisations fixed assets. In some cases

    depreciation can be declared as a tax deduction.

    Design Of



    The process of determining the purpose, objectives, structure, format,

    and instructional methods for a training program or learning

    intervention, such as coaching, OJT, and so forth.

    Design Phase


    The second of the Instructional System Design phases. The learning

    objectives, tests, and the required skills and knowledge for a task are

    constructed and sequenced.

    Design Review A technique for evaluating a proposed design

    Design Specifications(Design Specs)

    A written document summarizing the design blue print for a training orlearning intervention which helps to guide the design team. Design

    specifications s usually include the following sections:

    Background or context

    Target audience


    Learning Objectives



    Modules & Topics

    Development Growth of people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints.

    It enables leaders to guide their organisations onto new expectationsby being proactive rather than reactive. It enables workers to create

    better products, faster services, and more competitive organisations. It

    is learning for growth of the individual, but not related to a specific

    present or future job.

    Development Of

    Training/ Learning



    The development phase follows the design phase. It includes creation

    of any materials involved in a training program, job aid, or

    intervention. Development results in the finished products needed to

    deliver training, e.g. trainers( instructors) leaders guide, trainee

    (participant) workbook, hand outs, flip charts, CBT story board (script),

    video tape, etc.

    Development Phase The third of the Instructional System Design phases. The purpose of

    this phase is to develop and validate the instructional material


    Developmental Need A gap between an individuals current skill/knowledge/ability level and

    the level required for effective performance success in the future.

    Didactic Design Instructional design in which the student is presented information and
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    asked to respond to questions.

    Differential Feedback Test response feedback specific to the multiple choice answer selected

    by the student.


    Frequency Model

    One of several models available for use in selecting tasks for training.

    Using this model, tasks are identifies as critical based on The difficulty,

    importance, and frequency of job task performance.

    Direct Sales Method Selling direct to the end user with promotional efforts using

    advertising, direct mail or telephone sales.

    Discovery Learning Students learn by doing and experiencing, rather than relying only on

    the trainer/ facilitator.

    Discrimination The ability to choose between two closely related responses to a

    specific stimulus.

    Distance Learning


    The provision of a structured learning programme delivered remotely

    from the learners. Media may include books, workbooks, video, e-

    learning etc. Many programmes have a level of classroom based

    activity integrated. Often used for qualifications rather than work based


    Distracter In testing, incorrect answers provided as choices in multiple choice or

    matching type test items.

    Distributed Learning Students take courses from a variety of sources (and delivery modes)

    to customize a program of study. Often is used synonymously with

    online learning.

    Distribution Channel The path your product follows to be delivered to the end user. Thismay be through distributors, retail outlets, self service outlets, vending

    machines, telephone sales, direct mail sales, etc.

    Distribution Method A way of delivering training/information electronically. Methods include

    audio tape, cable TV, CD-ROM, Electronic Mail, Internet, Intranet, LAN

    (local area network), Satellite TV, Telephone, Videotape, Voice Mail,


    Distributor An organisation that purchases your products for resale to their

    customers who are usually retail outlets. The distributor expects to

    receive a significant price discount for providing the distribution


    Document Of

    Understanding (DOU)

    A written document which describes the background, purpose, benefits,

    scope, deliverables, assumptions, resource requirements, time frames,

    and change management procedure for a given project. It includes a

    sign-off section which should be signed and dated by the sponsor,

    business partners, project manager, and other key project resources

    once the project parameters have been finalized.
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    Duty A combination of related tasks equal a duty and duties combine to form

    a job.


    E-Book Offerings that organize text and graphics into on-line lessons or

    chapters like traditional print books.



    Training people to do a different job. It is often given to people who

    have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new

    job either lateral or upwards, or to increase their potential.

    Educational Technology A complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas,

    devices, and organisation, for analyzing problems, and devising,

    implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems,

    involved in all aspects of human learning.

    Efficiency A measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard

    output expected. Efficiency measures how well someone is performingrelative to expectations.

    E-Learning The use of innovative technologies and learning models to transform

    the way individuals and organisations acquire new skills and access


    Elements Components of a task or the smallest meaningful activity that describes

    what an individual is expected to be able to do

    Enabling Learning

    Objective (ELO)

    A statement in behavioural terms of what is expected of the student in

    demonstrating mastery at the knowledge and skill level necessary for

    achievement of a Terminal Learning Objective (TLO) or another ELO.

    Equity A percentage ownership of an organisation, usually in the form of


    Ergonomics An approach to job design that focuses on the interactions between the

    person and the environmental elements such as the work station, light,

    sound, tools, etc.



    The process of gathering information in order to make good decisions.

    It is broader than testing, and includes both subjective (opinion) input

    and objective (fact) input. Evaluation can take many forms including

    memorization tests, portfolio assessment, and self-reflection. There are

    at least six major reasons for evaluating training, each requiring a

    different type of evaluation: *Improve the instruction (formative

    evaluation) *Promote individual growth and self-evaluation (evaluation

    by both trainer and learner) *Assess the degree of demonstrated

    achievement (summative evaluation) *Diagnose future learning needs

    (of both trainer and learner) *Enhance ones sense of merit or worth

    (learner) *Identify or clarify desired behaviours (trainer)

    Evaluation Testing and comparing results.
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    Evaluation Hierarchy

    (Four Levels Of

    Evaluation Model)

    Donald Kirkpatrick identified the evaluation model most widely

    recognized today in corporate training organisations. The Kirkpatrick

    Model addresses the four fundamental behaviour changes that occur as

    a result of training. *Level one is how participants feel about training

    (reaction). This level is often measured with attitude questionnaires.

    *Level two determines if people memorized the material (learning).This is often accomplished with pre-testing and post-testing. *Level

    three answers the question, Do people use the information on the

    job? This level addresses transference of new skills to the jobs

    (behavior change). This is often accomplished by observation.

    Evaluation Instrument A test or other measuring device used to determine achievement (go

    and no-go) or the relative standing of an individual or group or a test

    objective (i.e., attitude, behavior, performance objective, and other

    attributes). Evaluation instruments include tests, rating forms,

    inventories, and standard interviews.

    Evaluation Phase The fifth of Instructional System Design phases. The purpose of this

    phase is to determine the value or worth of the instructional program.

    This phase is actually conducted during and between all the other


    Evolutionary Approach A method for developing training programs. It includes both

    deterministic and incremental systems, in contrast to the systems

    approach, which is entirely deterministic. This means that in an

    evolutionary approach, tentative or short term goals may be specified.

    This approach is particularly appropriate for situations where there is

    limited past experience from which to draw guidance.

    Exercise A structured experience in which the participants are involved.

    Experiential Learning A learning activity having a behavioral based hierarchy that allows the

    student to experience and practice job related tasks and functions

    during a training session.



    A sub-level of the comprehension level of learning in which students

    develop sufficient understanding to estimate trends or predict

    outcomes based upon the subject matter under study.


    Face-To-Face Learners and trainers are in the same location at the same time.

    Facilitation The process of helping a group to accomplish its own goals byencouraging and leading discussion, tracking ideas and progress,

    synthesizing ideas, and keeping the group on course by balancing

    preplanned goals with spontaneously occurring needs. Facilitation

    assists a group in discovering its own insights, learning, and needs.

    Facilitator A person who makes it easier for learners to learn by attempting to

    discover what a learner is interested in knowing, and then determines
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    the best way to make that information available to the learner by

    providing the knowledge, systems, or materials which enable the

    learner to perform a task more effectively. This is done by listening,

    asking questions, providing ideas, suggesting alternatives, and

    identifying possible resources.

    Feedback Providing individuals or learners with information about the nature of

    an action and its result in relation to some criterion of acceptability.

    Fishbowl A group process using a discussion group and an observer of the


    Fixed Assets


    Also called long term assets, these are usually non-liquid assets that

    are integral to the organisations day-to-day business operations such

    as plants, equipment, furniture and property.

    Fixed Costs The day-to-day cost of doing business that is pre-committed, such as

    salaries, insurance, lease expenses, utilities, etc.

    Flip Chart An easel with large sheets of paper for presenting or collecting written

    lists or ideas, usually ISO A1 in size.

    Formative Assessment The focus of discussion between trainer and learner, as a result of

    which both parties review their objectives or approach.

    Front-End Analysis


    The front end phase of the design process in which the job is

    analyzed, tasks are selected for training, task performance measures

    are constructed, existing courses are reviewed, and the instructional

    setting tentatively determined.

    Functional Grouping Organizing instruction such that tasks that relate to the same

    procedures or equipment are presented together.


    Games Discovery exercises where participants learn by experience. The rules

    for games should be clearly defined for all participates to understand.

    Competition should be controlled so that all participants feel like

    winners at the end.

    Gaming A technique in which the student is presented situations involving

    choice and risks. The choices and the consequences resemble real-life

    situations, and the players are reinforced for various decisions. Gaming

    is typically an enjoyable learning method for the student.

    Generalizations Responding in the same manner to several different stimuli.

    Gestalt Study of human learning where understanding is based upon insight.

    Gross Profit Revenues less cost of sales.

    Group Trial Tryout of a training course on a representative sample of the target
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    population to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard

    to error rates, criterion test performance, and time to complete the


    Group-Paced Instruction


    Students progress as a group at a rate equal to that of the slowest

    student. There is no fixed minimum time for a unit.

    Guidance Package A complete self-instructional package that guides the learner through

    various methods and media to achieve specific learning objectives and

    directs the learner activities in the performance of a task.

    Guided Discussion


    A learning experience in which students participate in an instructor-

    controlled, interactive process of sharing information and experiences

    related to achieving an instructional objective.




    A written summary of the presentation that is distributed to the

    audience before, during or after the presentation. Handouts willreinforce important information, summarize action items for the

    audience to follow up on and supply supporting data you dont want to

    clutter your visual aids.

    Hands-On Student practice on actual equipment, simulators, or training aids.

    Hard Skills Skills to perform where job requirements are well defined in terms of

    actions to be taken and expected outcomes.

    Heuristic Routine A problem solving approach, not a direct step-by-step procedure, but a

    trial-and-error approach frequently involving the act of learning.

    Human Capital The value of the sum of attitudes, skills, and knowledge andcompetencies of people in an organisation. Unlike structural capital,

    human capital is owned by the individuals who have it. It is the

    renewable part of intellectual capital and is the source of creativity and


    Human Performance

    Improvement (HPI)

    A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance

    improvement gaps, planning for future improvements, designing cost-

    effective interventions to close performance gaps, implementing the

    interventions, and evaluating the financial and non financial results.

    Human Resource

    Development (HRD)

    An organized learning experience, conducted in a definite time period,

    to increase the possibility of improving job performance and growth.




    A quick game or exercise designed to get participants settled or mixing

    with each other.

    Implementation Phase The fourth of the Instructional System Design phases. The instruction

    is delivered to the learners during this phase.
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    Income Statement Also called Profit & Loss statement or P&L, a statement of revenues

    and expenses.

    Inductive Design An instructional design where examples are presented and then

    followed by the rule.

    Instruction The delivery of information to enable learning. The process by which

    knowledge and skills are transferred to students. Instruction applies to

    both training and education.

    Instructional Analysis The procedures applied to an instructional goal in order to identify the

    relevant skills and their subordinate skills and information required for

    a learner to achieve the goal.

    Instructional Concept An initial estimate of what the instruction should do, and what it should

    look like.

    Instructional Design The philosophy, methodology, and approach used to deliver

    information. Some courseware aspects include question strategy, levelof interaction, reinforcement, and branching complexity.

    Instructional Goals Clear statements of behaviour that learners are to demonstrate as a

    result of instruction.

    Instructional Method


    A component of the instructional strategy defining a particular means

    for accomplishing the objective. For example a traditional instructor led

    instructional strategy may be accomplished using the lecture method, a

    Socratic lecture technique, and a defined step-by-step questioning

    procedure. Also called method of instruction.

    Instructional Module A self-contained instructional unit that includes one or more learning

    objectives, appropriate learning materials and methods, and associatedcriterion-reference measures.

    Instructional Setting The location and physical characteristics of the area in which

    instruction takes place. The setting can be in a classroom, a laboratory,

    a field, or workplace location. An example is: a clean, well lighted,

    temperature controlled classroom equipped with individual desks,

    chairs, and individual video monitors.

    Instructional Step A portion of material to which the student makes a response. It is a

    stage in the instructional process that represents progress in the

    students mastery. A subject to be taught is broken down into frames,

    items, or segments (steps). It is assumed that students cannot takelater steps in a given sequence before taking the earlier step and that

    each segment or item represents a step forward.

    Instructional Strategy The approach used to present information in a manner that achieves

    learning. Approaches include tutorial, gaming, simulation, etc. Aspects

    of instructional strategies include the order of presentation, level of

    interaction, feedback, remediation, testing strategies, and the medium

    used to present the information.
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    Instructional Systems

    Design (ISD)


    A formal process for designing training, be it computer-based or

    traditional instructor-led training. The ISD process includes analysis,

    design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Also known as

    Systems Approach to Training (SAT).



    The use of technology (computers, compact disc, interactive media,

    modem, satellite, teleconferencing, etc.) to support learning.

    Instructor The person who teaches, trains or instructs an individual or a group of


    Intangible Assets Non-physical assets such as patents, trademarks, a customer base,

    brand recognition of your products, etc. This is also called goodwill.

    Interaction The act or process of interacting. Mutual or reciprocal action or

    influence; as, the interaction of an individual and a product on each


    Interactive Training An umbrella term that includes both computer-based and multimediatraining.

    Interim Summary A segment of instruction that reviews recent learning to reinforce prior




    Situated near the inside of a body (groups supporting direct customer

    interactions), Relating to, or occurring within the confines of an

    organized structure, Related or belonging to or existing within the

    management process,

    Internal Partnership Any relationship between leadership, managers, teams, or employees

    with a common purpose to achieve business objectives and serve

    customer needs.

    Internet-Based Training Delivery of educational content via a Web browser over the internet or

    intranet. It provides links to learning resources outside of the course,

    such as references, email, bulletin boards, and discussion groups.

    Intranet A companys internal network which is based on Internet technology. It

    is accessed using a Web browser and is protected from unauthorized

    access by other Internet users via a firewall.

    Introduction A major section of a lesson designed to establish a common ground

    between the presenter and students, to capture and hold attention, to

    outline the lesson and relate it to the overall course, to point out

    benefits to the student, and to lead the student into the body of the

    lesson; usually contains attention step, motivation step, and overview.

    A segment that provides a general statement of the course content,

    target population, why the student is studying the material, and

    appropriate motivation to gain the students attention.

    Inventory Turnover A ratio for evaluating sales effectiveness. For a given accounting period

    divide total revenue for the product by the average retail value of the