Building an Effective Skills Strategy for Spain Workshop with Stakeholders

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This presentation was prepared for the Diagnostic Workshop with Stakeholders in Cuenca (November 24-25, 2014) in the context of the Building an Effective Skills Strategy for Spain project, a collaborative project of the OECD and the Government of Spain. The material was intended as input to the Diagnostic Workshop with Stakeholders and does not aim to provide a comprehensive assessment of Spains Skills System.

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Slide 1

OECD Skills Strategy Building an effective skills strategy for Spain

Diagnostic Workshop with StakeholdersCuenca, 24-25 November 2014

1To explore the strengths and challenges facing Spains Skills System.

2Generate relevant insights into Spains current skills system for use in the diagnostic reportUse the OECDs Skills Strategy framework to inform and structure group discussions Ensure a wide range of stakeholder participationObjectivesPurposeskills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives3Agenda Day 1Setting the scene: the OECD Skills StrategyExercise 1: Visioning ExerciseCoffee breakExercise 2: Spains Skills System Strengths and ChallengesExercise 3: Developing SkillsLunch breakExercise 4: Individual Diagnostic Assessment QuestionnaireExercise 5: Activating SkillsDinnerskills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives4Agenda Day 2Opening RemarksExercise 6: Using SkillsCoffee breakExercise 7: Effectiveness of the Skills SystemExercise 8: Skills Strategy Obstacle CourseLunch breakReporting on Results of Individual Assessment QuestionnaireClosing Remarks and next Stepsskills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives

Your diverse experience and expertise is a valuable resource. Making this workshop a success depends upon your active participation. Here are some tips to help you and everyone else get the most out of it:Give the workshop your undivided attention Contribute your ideas and your experiences speak up and speak your mind Focus your comments and keep them short Listen to, understand and learn from each otherBe constructive and forward-looking

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Rules of engagementskills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives

Collaboration between OECD and countryApproach tailored to country context and prioritiesCross-directorate OECD team National cross-ministry project team Guiding principles for Skills Strategy projectsStrengthening skills systems through policy coherence Whole-of-government approachEngaging all relevant stakeholders Bringing together perceptions and evidence Learning from international comparisons Learning from international experience concrete examples international expertsBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives6

OECD Skills Strategy country projects underwayskills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better LivesBuilding effective national & local skills strategies: These projects consists of 2 main phases: diagnostic and action phaseEntails close collaboration between an OECD cross-directorate team and an inter-ministerial project team in capitalIncludes significant stakeholder engagement in interactive workshops

New round of countries 2014-2015Latest country to launch is Spain We welcome the substantive and financial support offered by the EC for these national and local skills strategy projects The Secretariat would welcome expressions of interest and delegates should contact Joanne Caddy (Team Leader) for more informationA project brochure is available in the room

7OECD-Spain Building an effective skills strategy for Spain Overview of project sequencing: Diagnostic Phase (Q3 2014-Q2 2015)How can Spain maximise its skills potential?What are the main challenges ahead?Which challenges are top priority?What actions need to be taken, and by whom?Stakeholder workshops (Q3 2014-Q2 2015)

Consultation workshop with regions (3-4 November2014)National diagnostic workshop (24 & 25 November 2014)OECD data:PISA 2012PIAAC 2013 Employment OutlookEconomic Survey of Spain 2014Country examples

Diagnostic phaseInterministerial project team and OECD team meeting(11 Sept. 2014)Q3 2014Draft Diagnostic Report

(May 2015)

Q1 2015Action phase Q4 2015 Q2 2016Outline of Diagnostic Report

(Mar 2015)

NOTE: each successive report builds upon the content of the previous one and includes stakeholder input obtained during workshops and latest available OECD data. Skills challenges workshop

(Mar 2015)

OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report: Spain

(published June. 2015)

Q2 2015

Please introduce yourself to the rest of the group with your name, your role at work and your role in the workshop.You will have a chance to get to know each other better during the breaks. You have 10 minutes for everyone to introduce themselves to their group. 9

Introductions

OECD Skills Strategy2012What do we mean by skills?Skills (or competencies) are defined as the bundle of knowledge, attributes and capacities that can be learned and that enable individuals to successfully and consistently perform an activity or task and can be built upon and extended through learning.

The sum of all skills available to the economy at a given point in time forms the human capital of a country.

OECD Skills Strategy (2012)

skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives11

12Why do skills matter to countries?skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives 12

13Why do skills matter to people?skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives13

14How can we improve skills and their use?skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives14

The OECD Skills Strategyskills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives15The demand for skills is changing 16

Levy and Murnaneskills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better LivesThe pace of economic and labour market change has accelerated and with it we see drastically changing skills requirements in the labour market the world over, and especially in the advanced OECD economies.

One way of looking at this is provided by Autor, Levy and Murnane (2003), who classify jobs into routine and non-routine tasks and analysed changing job tasks performed by American workers has since 1960. The graph shows that the share of non-routine analytic and interactive job tasks, which involve expert thinking and complex communication skills, has increased steadily. The share of routine cognitive and manual tasks began to decline in the early 1970s and 1980s, respectively coinciding with the introduction of computers.

This is one example underlining that countries need to be able to adjust and to embark upon new growth areas.

The more economies strive to rely on the highest levels of innovation and competitiveness the more countries have to provide the relevant skills mix to underpin their capacity to innovate.

16and in Spain tooSource: CEDEFOP Skills Forecast, 2013-2025

skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives[Read text]17

The OECD Skills Strategyskills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives18

1919Pillar 1: How can a country develop the right skills? Gather and use evidence about changing skills demand to guide skills developmentEngage social partners in designing and delivering education and training programmesEnsure that education and training programmes are of high qualityPromote equity by ensuring access to, and success in, quality education for allEnsure that costs are shared and that tax systems do not discourage investments in learningMaintain a long-term perspective on skills development, even during economic crisesEncourage and enable people to learn throughout life

[Read text]20Foster international mobility of skilled people to fill skills gapsFacilitate entry for skilled migrants and support their integrationDesign policies to encourage international students to remain after their studiesMake it easier for skilled migrants to return to their country of origin

Pillar 1: How can a country develop the right skills? skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives21Numeracy and literacy skills among adults in Spain are lowSource: OECD (2013), PISA 2012 Results: What Makes Schools Successful? Resources, Policies and Practices (Volume IV), PISA , OECD Publishing.Adult Mean Numeracy Skills by Proficiency Levels (PIAAC, 2012)skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better LivesParticipation in job-related adult education is low in SpainSource: OECD (2013), OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills, OECD Publishing.Participation in job-related adult education (PIAAC, 2012)% of adultsskills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better LivesSource: Eurofound (2010), European Survey of Working Conditions, http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/surveys/ewcs/2010/A high proportion of training is self-fundedskills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better LivesPillar 2: How can a country activate the supply of skills? Identify inactive individuals and the reasons for their inactivityCreate financial incentives that make work payDismantle non-financial barriers to participation in the labour forceEncourage people to offer their skills to the labour marketRetain skilled people in the labour marketDiscourage early retirementStaunch brain drain

skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives25

2626A large percentage of Spanish youth is neither employed nor in education or trainingSource: OECD, EU27 and euro area (17) are weighted averages. OECD includes 31 countries (excluding Chile, Israel and Korea).NEET population among 15 to 29 year-olds (2012)skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better LivesThe unemployment rate for youth varies significantly across Spain

Source: OECD (2014), Education at a Glance 2014, OECD Publishing.skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better LivesSpending on labour market programmes is high, but mostly on passive measures.Source: OECD (2013), OECD Stats.skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better LivesPillar 3: How can a country put skills to effective use? Help employers to make better use of their employees skillsProvide better information about the skills needed and availableFacilitate internal mobility among local labour marketsCreate a better match between peoples skills and the requirements of their job Increase the demand for high-level skills Help economies to move up the value-added chainStimulate the creation of more high-skilled and high value-added jobsFoster entrepreneurship

skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives30

3131A large share of Spanish workers are over-skilledSource: OECD (2013), OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills, OECD Publishing.Share of all workers who are over-skilled for their jobs, (PIAAC, 2012)% of adultsThe U.S. has a similar level of skills, but a higher use of those skills at work. Use of Skills at Work (PIAAC, 2012)Gross domestic expenditure on R&D, 2001 and 2011As a percentage of GDP

Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators Database, www.oecd.org/sti/msti.htm, June 2013Pillar 4: How can a country provide enabling conditions for building an effective skills system? Create formal systems for information sharing and planning across government portfoliosAssess the interaction effects of policies across ministries and levels of government.

By improving policy coherence:By facilitating informed decision making:Conduct ex-post and ex-ante evaluations of skills policies Develop and disseminate timely, accurate and targeted information to support policy design and the skills, training and career choices of stakeholders.

skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives35Pillar 4: How can a country provide enabling conditions for building an effective skills system? Create effective, efficient and equitable financing policies that reflect the relatives costs and benefits to all skills system actors. Set up financing policies that create strong incentives for all stakeholders to maximise skills development, activation and use.By establishing effective financing systems:

Foster strong linkages and collaboration among governments and stakeholders.

By fostering strong partnerships:skills.oecdBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives36Putting it all together: OECD Skills Strategy framework

3737Project yourself into the future and share with the group your views on: Your vision for the future skills system in Spain? What would success look like in the short term and in the long term? What are the economic, employment and social outcomes you would expect/hope to see?

Discuss as a group then write down on the poster 1:What skills headline will we read in the newspaper in 5 years time?What will we read in 20 years time?

38Exercise 1: vision for the future

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdEjercicio 1: Visin Nmero de Grupo:

Titular del periodico en 5 aos

24 noviembre 201939

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdEjercicio 1: Visin Nmero de Grupo:

Titular del periodico en 20 aos

24 noviembre 203440Consider the skills system in Spain today: What are its strengths? (Card 2A)What are some of the challenges it faces? (Card 2B)

On each card, please write down: Your views on the 3 main strengths Your views on the 3 main challenges 41Exercise 2 (individual): identifying strengths and challenges in Spains Skills System

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdEjercicio 2A: Fortalezas Cules son las mayores fortalezas de Espaa en trminos de desarrollo, activacin y uso de competencias?_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

Nmero de Grupo:Represento la siguiente organizacin: _________________________________________

42

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdEjercicio 2B: Desafos Cules son los mayores desafos de Espaa en trminos de desarrollo, activacin y uso de competencias?_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

Nmero de Grupo:Represento la siguiente organizacin: _________________________________________

43Discuss your individual responses at your table As a group, identify the most common:

3 strengths

3 challenges

Please write down the results of your group discussion on posters 2A and 2B.44Exercise 2 (group): identifying common strengths and challenges in Spain

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdCartel 2A: Observando las fortalezas de EspaaCules son las mayores fortalezas de Espaa, segn los pilares de La Estrategia de Competencias de la OCDE?

Desarrollo de competenciasActivacin de competenciasUso de competencias________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdCartel 2B: Observando los desafos de EspaaDnde estn los mayores desafos de Espaa, segn los pilares de La Estrategia de Competencias de la OCDE?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Desarrollo de competenciasActivacin de competenciasUso de competencias

As a group, identify and circle the three most common challenges47Exercise 2 (group): identifying common strengths and challenges in SpainReducing youth unemployment and NEETsReducing barriers to employmentImproving quality and equity in educationStimulating innovation and creating high-skilled jobsDiscuss at your table the graph and the questionAs a group, identify key points.

Please write down the results of your group discussion on posters 3.48Exercise 3 (group): Developing skills

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdEjercicio 3: Desarrollo de competenciasCules son los puntos clave de la discusin?Please share your own individual assessment of the current situation of Spains skills system today, where: 1 = poor/weak5 = excellent/strong

Please do hand them to Sam the overall results will be reflected in the workshop report.

50Exercise 4: individual assessment questionnaire

bit.do/spainskills2014Ejercicio 4: La estrategia de competencias de Espaa: evaluacin de fortalezas y desafos

Discuss at your table the graph and the questionAs a group, identify key points.

Please write down the results of your group discussion on poster 5.52Exercise 5 (group): Activating Skills

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdEjercicio 5: Activacin de la oferta de competenciasCules son los puntos clave de la discusin?Discuss at your table the graph and the questionAs a group, identify key points.

Please write down the results of your group discussion on poster 6.54Exercise 6 (group): Using Skills

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdEjercicio 6: Uso de competenciasCules son los puntos clave de la discusin?Discuss at your table the graph and the questionAs a group, identify key points.

Please write down the results of your group discussion on poster 7.56Exercise 7 (group): Effective Skills System

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdEjercicio 7: Sistemas eficientes de competenciasCules son los puntos clave de la discusin?Discuss at your table the profile and the questionAs a group, identify challenges and resources needed to overcome the obstacle.

Please write down the results of your group discussion on poster 8.58Exercise 8 (group): Skills Strategy Obstacle Course

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdEjercicio 8: Curso de obstculos en el sistema de competencias

DesafosRecursosNombre:Nmero de grupo:Please provide us with any additional comments or questions on this card.

Electronically, you will receive a document through which you may submit best practice examples of developing, activating or using skills in or through your organization. Please return by December 9th.60Final Words

OECD Skills StrategyBetter Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives skills.oecdMs pensamientos, sugerencias y preguntas..Tienes ideas, preguntas o comentarios adicionales? Si es as, nos gustara recibirlos. Por favor escrbelo abajo y dselos al facilitador.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

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A5Resultados del cuestionario individual de diagnstico Desarrollo de competenciasOn the question of information sharing, transparency and accountability:Nation-wide up-to-date labour market informationImpact assessment of existing policies and effective implementation

Enhancing partnerships and co-operation:At the national and local levelBetween universities and businesses

A focus on specific target groups:School drop-outsThe long-term unemployed

Finally, a focus on skills relevance for the labour market and call for greater recognition of skills acquired outside formal education.62Resultados del cuestionario individual de diagnstico La activacin de la oferta de competenciasOn the question of information sharing, transparency and accountability:Nation-wide up-to-date labour market informationImpact assessment of existing policies and effective implementation

Enhancing partnerships and co-operation:At the national and local levelBetween universities and businesses

A focus on specific target groups:School drop-outsThe long-term unemployed

Finally, a focus on skills relevance for the labour market and call for greater recognition of skills acquired outside formal education.63Resultados del cuestionario individual de diagnstico El uso de competenciasOn the question of information sharing, transparency and accountability:Nation-wide up-to-date labour market informationImpact assessment of existing policies and effective implementation

Enhancing partnerships and co-operation:At the national and local levelBetween universities and businesses

A focus on specific target groups:School drop-outsThe long-term unemployed

Finally, a focus on skills relevance for the labour market and call for greater recognition of skills acquired outside formal education.64Resultados del cuestionario individual de diagnstico Sistemas eficientes de competenciasOn the question of information sharing, transparency and accountability:Nation-wide up-to-date labour market informationImpact assessment of existing policies and effective implementation

Enhancing partnerships and co-operation:At the national and local levelBetween universities and businesses

A focus on specific target groups:School drop-outsThe long-term unemployed

Finally, a focus on skills relevance for the labour market and call for greater recognition of skills acquired outside formal education.65To discuss OECDs work with countries on building more effective skills strategies at national and local levels contact: joanne.caddy@oecd.org

To learn more about the OECDs work on skills visit: oecd.skills.org

For more information66

La estrategia de competencias de Espaa: evaluacin de fortalezas y desafosCal es t opinin sobre el sistema de competencias en Espaa?Nos gustara conocer t opinin sobre la forma en que el sistema actual de competencias se desarrolla en Espaa. Por favor toma unos minutos para completar este cuestionario, marcando una casilla para cada resultado.Da una puntuacin baja si piensas que el sistema de competencias actual tiene un mal desempeo en la entrega de los resultados descritos en cada afirmacin (por ejemplo, una puntuacin de "1" habla de un mal desempeo). Si piensas que el sistema actual se desempea muy bien da una puntuacin alta (una puntuacin de 5 si consideras que tiene un excelente desempeo). Si piensas que el desempeo del sistema de competencias de Espaa se encuentra en algn punto intermedio, elije el nmero de la escala de 1 a 5 que mejor represente tu opinin.

Desarrollo de competencias12345

1La gente desarrolla las competencias que exige el mercado laboral.

2Los programas de desarrollo de competencias y de formacin se adaptan a las necesidades de las empresas y las PYMEs.

3Los adultos de todas las edades (incluyendo adultos mayores) tienen en promedio un buen nivel de comprensin de lectura y matemticas.

4Un nmero cada vez mayor de jvenes obtiene algn tipo de experiencia laboral antes de terminar la educacin inicial.

5Se hacen esfuerzos para reducir el abandono escolar y los jvenes que abandonan la escuela son dirigidos hacia "programas de segunda oportunidad y vas de aprendizaje alternativas.

6Jvenes talentosos, de alto potencial y con buenos logros acadmicos tienen la oportunidad de sobresalir y ampliar y profundizan sus competencias.

La activacin de la oferta de competencias12345

7Las oficinas pblicas de empleo orientan a las personas desempleadas hacia trabajos que les corresponden adecuadamente o hacia programas de formacin dirigidos a mejorar sus oportunidades de empleo dentro de los seis meses que siguen al inicio de su situacin de desempleo.

8Las alianzas slidas a nivel local y nacional, que incluyen a las escuelas, universidades, servicios de empleo y empleadores, aseguran una adecuada transicin entre la educacin, la formacin y el empleo.

9La informacin sobre las necesidades del mercado de trabajo a nivel local y nacional es fcilmente accesible.

10Las razones por las cuales la gente est desempleada o en situacin de inactividad estn bien identificadas y se ponen en marcha polticas especficas para hacerles frente.

11Las polticas especficamente dirigidas a asegurar que la gente est empleada o participe en la educacin y la formacin, y que los desempleados encuentren trabajo, son exitosas.Por favor vease la parte de atrs

12Las competencias que son adquiridas de manera no-formal o informal pueden ser validadas o certificadas por medio de mecanismos aprobados por todas las partes interesadas, especialmente por los empleadores y empleados.

El uso de competencias12345

13Los empleadores son capaces de contratar un nmero suficiente de personas cualificadas que cumplen con los requisitos del puesto.

14A nivel nacional, la informacin sobre el mercado de trabajo y las previsiones de la demanda de competencias son fcilmente accesibles.

15Los empleadores invierten en el desarrollo de competencias de sus trabajadores de acuerdo con sus estrategias de negocio a medio y largo plazo.

16Las competencias de los empleados se utilizan de manera efectiva en el lugar de trabajo a travs de prcticas de gestin y de organizacin.

17Los empleadores contratan a ms de la mitad de sus aprendices despus de la finalizacin de un aprendizaje.

18Existen grupos de investigacin que facilitan el traspaso de nuevas tecnologas y conocimientos entre las universidades y las empresas.

Sistemas eficientes de competencias12345

19Polticas, leyes y reglamentos estn sujetos a una evaluacin de impacto ex-ante con el fin de analizar su posible interaccin e impacto sobre las polticas de competencias ya existentes. Su aplicacin efectiva est garantizada a travs del monitoreo regular de sus procesos y resultados.

20Instituciones del sector pblico se renen y publican datos e informacin relevantes sobre la evolucin de la demanda de competencias, monitorean el rendimiento y los resultados de sus acciones y utilizan esta informacin para el desarrollo de polticas en el futuro.

21Los mecanismos de coordinacin en el sector pblico (entre ministerios y diferentes niveles de gobierno), garantizan coherencia en el diseo de nuevas polticas, legislaciones y reglamentos sobre competencias.

22Las instituciones del sector pblico tienen la capacidad y los recursos (incluyendo experiencia, previsin, recursos financieros y humanos) para disear polticas, legislaciones y reglamentos sobre competencias en el futuro.

23Las alianzas slidas entre los actores gubernamentales y no gubernamentales (por ejemplo, las empresas, los sindicatos, los organismos sectoriales, asociaciones empresariales, cmaras de comercio, instituciones de formacin y enseanza) a nivel nacional y local, apoyan la elaboracin, ejecucin y financiamiento de las polticas de competencias y los programas de educacin y de formacin pertinentes para las necesidades actuales y futuras.

24Los sistemas de financiacin, incluidas las subvenciones pblicas, los prstamos y los subsidios estn alineados para proporcionar incentivos financieros para individuos y empresas, para fomentar las inversiones en competencias a corto y a largo plazo.

Gracias por sus comentariosPor favor entrege esta hoja a un miembro del equipo de la OCDE, una vez completada.3