CAMPUS LANDSCAPE: FUNCTION, FORM AND FEATURES - Richard P. Dober Book review -Abraham Philip -Jaideep C. J

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  • CAMPUS LANDSCAPE: FUNCTION, FORM AND FEATURES -Richard P. DoberBook review-Abraham Philip-Jaideep C. J-Roshni Gerorge

  • GROVES , GARDENS AND FIELDS FOR EDUCATION, ENTERTAINMENT AND ENLIGHTENMENT.Campus landscape functions are moulded by educational goals and objectives.Eleven campus landscapes.The campus landscape may differ in magnitude and scale, degree of intention, relevance and permanence.Fine line between art and science, just like in architecture and these often overlap each other.

  • BOTANICAL AND HORTICULTURAL GARDENSIt is a garden where large variety of plants are collected, cultivated and labelled according to their botanical name.Plants are grown for study and display purposes and act as live material for teaching and research.There would be ponds, green houses, rock gardens, grove of trees.Examples are Sarah B. Duke Gardens ( Duke University and the living plant museum at University of California, Riverside.

  • Sarah B Duke GardensInformal playground, superior horticultural collection- aquatic garden, rose garden, memorials, planting beds, open air theaters, classrooms and support buildings.Ellen Shipman, was chosen to create the new garden, known as the Terraces.F.H. Leubuscher added adjacent lily pond and plantings.In 1990, memorial sundial was constructed. Requires continuous care and maintenance.Over 50 acres.

  • Botanical Garden, University of California39-acres and has the profile of a natural setting with rugged terrain and contrasting ecological zonesAlder, cactus, sequoia landscapes, mammal and bird sanctuaries, rose and herb gardens, a geodesic dome and bridge over fish pond.Features linked by an outdoor classroom trail.Rail placards and information boards explain sites significant natural features.

  • Inspiring PrecedentsA number of laws were coined to encourage the creation of botanical gardens.In 1814, Dr. William Thornton who believed garden would also be requisite in the establishment of a school of arts, pressed to support funding for such an enterprise.In 1862, Land Grant College Act was introduced. The act gave federal land to the states to sell or support colleges devoted to agriculture and mechanical arts.By 1884, landscape gardening is treated as a fine art... In this respect the campus was an arboretum.Theory and practice was merged, and the science and artof campus landscape was given the entire campus as its library.

    Garden at Michigan state University. Nature contrived designs, less formal landscape, loose and strung out composition.(Source: http://www.hrt.msu.edu/our-gardens/)Garden at Michigan state University. Nature contrived designs, less formal landscape, loose and strung out composition.(Source: http://www.hrt.msu.edu/our-gardens/)

  • Other places and personalitiesDesigns at Michigan State University and Smith College by Frederick La Olmsted.The Davidson College ArboretumEvergreen State College by Professor Nalini Nadkarni.Botanical garden at University of Kentucky by Harry Lindberg.Oklahoma State University by Byron Thompson.Coker Arboretum at University of North Carolina by Chapel HillSmith college garden Source:www.smith.eduCommunity garden at Evergreen State College Source:www.evergreen.edu

  • ARBORETAAn Arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended at least partly for scientific study. Adds to greenery that informs universitys physical image and provides extensive outdoor laboratories.Examples are Devonian Botanic Garden at The University of Alberta, The Utah State University Botanical Gardens, University of Central Floridas Arboretum etc.Devonian Botanic Garden, University of Alberta. 110 acres of display gardens, natural areas and ecological preserves. (source: www.edmontonattractions.comCypress Dome at University of Central Florida ArboretumSource:www.arboretum.ucf.edu

  • The Utah State University Botanical GardenOccupies 7 acres of landConsists of visitor and education centre, greenhouses, collections of roses, perennials, lilacs, a mini arboretum and a native landscape garden.Limited amount of land converted to a place of serene beauty.

    Facility for research, teaching and community service.Source: www.gardentraveller.comSource: www.gardentraveller.com

  • Requisites and ActionsLandscapes for science is essential in a campus plan.Studies show that 5-7 acres of land will be sufficient for an arboretum and 3 acres for a botanical garden and greenhouse. Sometimes sites as small as 1 acre can be designed and planted as arboreta or botanical garden.

  • While establishing an arboretum or botanical garden, it must be carefully planned, well financed and competently administered.Planning entrusted to a committee representing various interests and experience.Arboretum concepts influenced by the following: Size of site and its configurationSelection and placement of materials.Climatic factorsTerrain analysis

    Arboreta at indiana universitySource: www.mariott.com

  • PRESERVESSome campuses have natural resources adjacent to or within the site called preserves.For example, The Duke University Forest is a specific campus land use area recognized as such in the campus plan.Carleton College owns a piece of the uncultivated prairieForest in the premises of Duke UniversitySource:www.today.duke.edu

  • NATURE WALKS AND TRAILSFor educational purposes, plant life is labelled, their location chartered and maps provided for walking through and seeing biodiversity.For example, 1.5 acre arboretum at De Anza College at California displays 12 state plant communities.In Davidson College, over 1600 major trees found on campus, which is defined on a brochure through well defined walks.Arboretum at De Anza College, CaliforniaSource:www.deanza.edu

  • Gardens For ArtGardens in campus are an art form.

    Aesthetic objects are positioned in space to amuse, inform and direct the eye in a spatial manner.

    Mathematics building, Ohio State UniversitySource:www.osu.eduContains Sculptures positioned with formal/ informal landscape settings.

    It can be a composition of trees, lawns, sculptures to document & reflect history or culture of the site.

    One plans not the Places or Spaces or Things; One plans Experiences- Ar. John Ormsbee

  • Franklin D. Murphy Sculpture Garden, University of California.Source: www.hammer.ucla.eduThe Garden replaced a parking lot with a hospitable setting with freeform seating areas.

  • One of the prime landscape components.

    Can act as a formal meeting area as well as an informal gathering space.

    Should be model in form & feature and are inserted into a natural slope.IMI, New Delhiwww.collegedunia.comAmphitheatreSource:www.imi.edu

  • 30 ft2 per spectator (includes the stage , wings, service area orchestra, entrance and exist).

    The design would approximate a raked rectangle .with; length= 2x width

    Proximity to parking facility for the disabled, toilets.

    A thick greenery to shut the unwanted noise and to add texture to the background.Design considerations

  • Identifying, transforming & interpreting aspects of the past via various kinds of campus landscape.

    Local culture can be expressed in it.Site HistoryIIT Madras Campus was formerly part of the adjoining Guindy National Park and still maintainces its flora-fauna diversity.Clemson University Founders endowment included a plantation, farmland, forest.Hence the campus initially had a botanical added upto 44 acres.

  • Responses to the functional objective; ie, promoting sound mind and body.

    Play Fields & Recreation Design ParametersLand available will constrain tight layouts or permit generous ones.

    The range of sports offered and the colleges participation in spectator sports events.

    Increased participations by women in sports, add more services requirements.

    Renewed interest in health and fitness among students, faculties and staffs

  • Landscaped open space in campus buildings.

    These spaces increase the participation in campus life, provide informal gatherings area and for extending classroom experiences.

    Selecting and placing plants for the projected height and spread are significant mattersInterior LandscapeIIM Bangalore

  • Lighting is a landscape art that can uplift scenery through theatrical effectsLandscape ElementsFunctionsTo provide a safe and secure environment.

    To Illuminate areas.

    To accent and embellish buildings.Haas School of businessSource: www.stvinc.comThe scheme includes glowing light from the windows, down light from walls, up-light from planting beds.

  • Includes kiosks, gazebos, flag poles, mailbox, seating.

    Selection and location can create a functional and attractive setting.Site furnitureIIM AhmadabadSource:www.livemint.comSeating is an essential item in campus garden.

    A place to find solitude or to gather for spirited engagement.Department of Architecture, CET