Bond Graph for Modelling, Analysis, Control Design, Graph for Modelling, Analysis, Control Design, Fault

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  • Bond Graph for Modelling, Analysis,Control Design, Fault Diagnosis

    Genevive Dauphin-TanguyChristophe Sueur

    Laboratoire dAutomatique et dInformatique Industrielle de Lille

  • Bond Graph Research GroupLaboratoire dAutomatique et dInformatique Industrielle de Lille

    Ecole Centrale de Lille

    6 academics (2 Profs, 2 associate profs, 2 assistant profs) 10 PhD students

    Application areas : power systems (electrical machines, photovoltaicsystems, fuel cells), thermofluid process, car industry

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 3

    Studies performed in collaboration with Peugeot -Citron

    Mechatronic design of an automatic gear box

    Clutch management and drive comfort

    Mechatronic design of an active hydraulic suspension

    Thermal comfort regulation in a car interior

    Modelling and simulation of a fuel cell system

    Analysis of structural properties of bond graph models

    Robustness of control laws for systems with parametric uncertainties

    ..

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 4

    Why a bond graph approach ?

    Multidisciplinary systems need for a communication language between people from different physical domains

    Need for models with physical insight (virtual testing facility)

    Unified modelling methodology for knowledge storagein model libraries

    Integrated ( mechatronic ) design of controlled systems

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 5

    Mechatronic design

    Modelling Control

    Diagnosis

    IdentificationAnalysisValidationSimulation

    SimplificationActuatorsSensors

    Fault Detection andIsolation

    Objectives

    Faulty modeMaintaining

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 6

    1 - Mechatronic design of an automatic gear box

    engine torqueconverter

    automatic gear box

    vehicle

    computer

    Differential, Transmission shaftWheels, Vehicle mass, air resistance, road friction

    Complete driveline

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 7

    1 - Mechatronic design of an automatic gear box

    Problem statement

    Design control laws for the driving of an automatic gear box by a computer with the following objectives: Complete satisfaction of the customer corresponding to a variation

    of the engine torque as continue as possible (no jerk in acceleration during a shift)

    Respect of technological constraints (actuator response duration, minimization of the energy dissipated in the clutchs)

    When to shift ? How to shift ?

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 8

    1 - Mechatronic design of an automatic gear box

    Automatic gear box : physical scheme

    Arrangement of 2 epicyclic gear trainswhich allows 3 ratios plus one reverse

    Different ratios : one element blockedor 2 elements maintained at the same speed

    Clutches between 2 rotating elementsBrakes between one element and the housing block

    Planetcarrier

    ring

    Planet

    mPCP

    PCR =

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 9

    1 - Mechatronic design of an automatic gear box

    Bond graph model of the automatic gear box

    :Jinp

    :friction:PC1_R2

    :P1

    :PC2

    :housing

    :m2

    :1-m2

    :1-m1

    :m1

    :R1

    :input

    :load

    clutch 2

    :housing

    Clutch1

    brake 2

    brake 1

    Free wheel

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 10

    1 - Mechatronic design of an automatic gear box

    Bond graph model of a clutch or a brake

    :pressure:friction_coeff

    Coulomb friction depending on the pressure applied on the clutch disks, defining the limited torque

    torque

    slip

    pressure

    If clutch torque < limited torque clutch closed, all the torque transmittedIf clutch torque = limited torque clutch opened, slipping velocity

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 11

    1 - Mechatronic design of an automatic gear box

    Decision block

    Contains the schift schedule (diagram throttle position vs vehicle speed)which permits to know when to shift

    Different programs: economical, sport, snow

    When a shift is decided, the different pressures in the clutches are controlled

    pressure

    time

    How to shift : - action on only 2 clutches or 2 brakes at the

    same time,- control of the pressure to have a smooth shift and no jerk in acceleration

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 12

    1 - Mechatronic design of an automatic gear box

    Bond graph model of the vehicle

    differential

    : AGB outputtorque

    :Cwheel_r:Jwheel_r:Cshaft_r

    :Cwheel_l:Cshaft_l:Jshaft_l

    :air_friction

    :Mveh

    :Jwheel_l

    :rwh_2

    :rwh_1

    :slope

    :Jshaft_r

    left_shaft left_wheelvehicle

    right_wheel

    right_shaft

    :Idiff

    :diff

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 13

    2- Clutch management and drive comfort

    Ojectives: Reduce the well-known fore and aft oscillation of a vehicle

    occuring when a sudden torque variation takes place in thetransmission (throttle step sollicitation)

    Satisfy comfort and driving pleasure

    Means: Define an hydraulic-electronic-mechanical actuator transforming

    the numerical output into pressure on the plates of the clutch Design control laws for this electrohydraulic servovalve

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 14

    3 - Thermal comfort regulation in a car interior

    Usual climate control

    Try to reach and maintain the passenger compartment temperature to a specified target temperature.

    The regulator acts on the mixing flap to increase or decrease the blown air temperature. Usually, a proportional strategy is used to control the mixing flap

    CABMixing

    FlapProp.+ -

    Tb,target Tb

    Ta

    Ta,target

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 15

    3 - Thermal comfort regulation in a car interiorUsual climate control

    ! Usually the air temperature in the compartment does not reach the target temperature.

    0 500 1000 1500-10

    -5

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    temps(s)

    Tha

    b(C

    )

    Tcons

    Text = -10C

    heating

    0 500 1000 150018

    19

    20

    21

    22

    23

    24

    25

    temps(s)

    Tha

    b(C

    )

    Tcons

    Text = 25C

    cooling)

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 16

    3 - Thermal comfort regulation in a car interiorComfort strategy

    comfort : much more than only thermal comfort. Our five senses, our cerebral state, our thermal state have an influence on our comfort estimating.

    thermal sensations rather than thermal comfort - a very subjective notion.

    in PSA Peugeot-Citron, quantitative scale to evaluate a thermal sensation : an integer between 1 (very cold) and 9 (very hot) sensation.

    Objectives: define a regulation strategy for a climate controller for car interior, taking into account the car passenger's thermal sensations.

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 17

    3 - Thermal comfort regulation in a car interiorBlock representation of the model

    climaticconditions

    ACTUATORS

    recycling flap

    thermalcar

    interiormodel

    air temperature

    walls temperatureair speed

    interiorgeometry

    materialsproperties

    drivingconditions

    mixing flap

    compressor on/offblower tension

    spreading air flaps

    e

    activity

    physiologicalmodel thermal

    feelings

    clothes

    SENSORSREGULATOR

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 18

    3 - Thermal comfort regulation in a car interiorPhysiological model

    human body divided into seven parts called segments:the head, the trunk, the left arm, the right arm, the hands, the legs and the feet.

    head and hands segments are bare.

    fat

    center

    muscle

    skin

    air

    clothes

    center

    muscle

    fatskin

    bare segment dressed segment

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 19

    3 - Thermal comfort regulation in a car interiorPhysiological model

    CENTER MUSCLE FAT SKIN

    BLOOD

    conduction conduction conduction

    convect

    ionco

    nvec

    tion convection

    convection

    evap

    orat

    ion

    wallsradiation

    METABOLISM

    AMBIENT

    AIRO

    RMEDIUM

    AIR

    respiration

    shivers

    Activity

    Sunradiation

    convection

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 20

    For each segment

    3 - Thermal comfort regulation in a car interiorPhysiological model

    to the fat

    Sf :Qsh (m)

    1

    R

    0

    T(m)Td (m)

    Toth

    ebl

    ood

    1B

    cR

    C:C

    (m)

    Td (c)

    Sf:Qa

    (m)Sf

    Qb(m)

    Muscle layer

    0

    Tblood

    C: Cblood

    Bc(c)

    Bc

    (f)

    Bc(s)

    Bc

    (m)

    Blood layer

  • Rosario - 22/11/02 LAIL - Ecole Centrale de Lille 21

    3 - Thermal comfort regulation in a car interiorPhysiological mathematical model

    x state vector (order = 57) : temperature, water mass, sudation production and water partial pressure of the layers.

    u input vector (size = 14) : air temperature and air speed of the ambient air close to the 7 segments.

    d disturbance vector (size = 35) : ambient air humidity, sun and wall radiation o

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