Blowing Bubbles in Space: The Birth and Death of Practically Everything (Astronomical)Heather PrestonTNS First Global General Gathering
Its a Gas90% of the atoms in the Universe (by number of atoms) are Hydrogen atoms (~73% by mass). More than 9% of whats left is Helium atoms (~25% by mass).Crystalline solids and anything heavier than Beryllium are the result of the life cycles of stars (usu. s-process and r-process nucleosynthesis)The Iron in your blood came from an exploding star Reference: 1 AU = 150 Mkm = 93 Mmi1 ly = 9.46 trillion km1 pc = 3.26 ly
Bang the gases together, guysThe study of how gases of different speeds, compositions, densities and/or temperatures interact is therefore the study of just about every phenomenon in astrophysics at some time or another (they do other things too!)Shorthand: Blowing Bubbles
What Phenomena Blow Bubbles?Stars, as they begin to coalesceStars, when they drive stellar winds Stars, in binary systemsStars, at the ends of their livesPlanetary nebulaeSupernovaeGalaxies with active nuclei
Stars and abbreviationsThis is the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, with some famous sample stars on it. Notice MS and RGB plus wdw
The Quick, the Slow, and the DeadAll stars go through a protostar phase. Its a short phase relative to the stars total lifetime. That makes it harder to observe.All stars go through a longer-lived MS phaseAll stars above 0.3 M go through a red giant phase: RG life < MS lifeAll stars die. The more massive ones complete every phase faster, and are a LOT brighter. Death throes include (low-M to hi-M): PNWD or SNNS or SNBH
Creating Something out of GasThings fall together (gravity never sleeps)The center cannot cool (ideal gas law)Angular momentum is hard to get rid ofHence, the pancake is the official food of the astronomical universe we see disks, and gas outflows, in:Star formationPlanetary system formationBinary systems (incl M binaries)Star death events like PN and SNGalaxies
A Star is Born: Protostars, YSOs & Herbig-Haro objectsOr sometimes, several things are happening at once a dust-shrouded (150m) binary protostarMERLIN 5GHz radio shows bipolar outflow HST WFPC: hot bubble inflatedSUBARU shows a bow shock between YSO system and ambient ISMprotostellar jet L1551 IRS5 in Taurus D=450 lyL1551 IRS 5
Star Forming Region S106
Credit : CISCO, Subaru 8.3-m Telescope, NAOJMassive star IRS4 CygnusAge:100,000 years Neb: Sharpless 106 Nebula (S106) D=2klyA large disk of dust and gas orbiting Infrared Source 4 (IRS4), visible in dark red near the image center, gives the nebula an hourglass shape. Detailed inspection of this representative color infrared image has revealed hundreds of low-mass brown dwarf stars lurking in the nebula's gas. S106 spans about 2 light-years
HH 212: more jets from a protostarSometimes the jets are so well collimated that they resemble much higher-energy features. This one goes right down to within 500 AU of the protostar!Credit: IRAM Codella ++ 2003 A Ap 462L53
Planetary NebulaePlanetary nebulae are the final stages in the lives of low-mass stars, such as our Sun. As they reach the ends of their lives, their late RGB superwinds send off large amounts of material into space. Although the nebulae can look like a fireworks display, the process of developing a nebula is (usually!) neither explosive nor instantaneous; it takes place over a period of about 10,000 to 1,000,000 years. This gradual process creates these nebulae by exposing their inner cores, where nuclear burning once took place and from which bright ultraviolet radiation illuminates the ejected material.
Pne: Not really sphericalHelix Nebula NGC 7293 The white box shows the area observed by the Subaru Telescope. Credit: NASA, NOAO, ESAM. Meixner [STScI], and T.A. Rector [NRAO]
Helix nebula ctdSubaru observed one small area and found thousands of knots (bow shocks)
PGC 3074547: Boomerang NebulaAKA Centaurus bipolar nebulaD=5 klyPre-PNVout=600,000 kphShining with light from the central star reflected by dust, the frigid Boomerang Nebula is believed to be a star or stellar system evolving toward the planetary nebula phase
When we talk about binariesMany different kinds of mass-transfer binaries. This is the recurrent nova RS Oph as rendered by space artist David A. Hardy (STFC, UK)
Lagrange EquipotentialsOuter Lagrange point losses take place in a system where mass arrives at L2 or L3 with some momentum
Peeking into the deathbed of a low-mass star: the pPN M1-92Top: map of the total integrated IR emission with IRAM, while the inset shows the continuum HST image at 547 nm and the same size scale. Bottom: position vs. velocity diagram for a cut along the symmetry axis of the nebula. The vertical bar=5000 AU (upper R of imaged nebula at top is an expanding ellipsoidal shell tilted TOWARD the viewer, and there is rotating material near the equator of the nebula)
Pneb: MyCn 18MYCn 18 (8000 ly dist) credits: NASA, R. Sahai, J. Trauger (JPL), and The WFPC2 Science Team
Gas Dynamic Simulations
Gas Dynamic SimulationsIckes simulation of MyCn18: Note the extra bubbles at the tips of the lobes. Icke has also applied this model to Mz3:The smaller bubbles protruding from the shock were not understood until recently; these remarkable features are due to an inward deflection of the highly supersonic gas that bounces off the inner walls of the nebula, causing a double vortex that moves outward with great violence.
Eta CarinaeEta Carinae suffered a giant outburst about 160 years ago, when it became one of the brightest stars in the southern sky. Though the star released as much visible light as a supernova explosion, it survived the outburst.
Eta Carinae: inside scoopEta Carinae was observed by Hubble in September 1995 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Images taken through red and near-ultraviolet filters were subsequently combined to produce the color image shown. A sequence of eight exposures was necessary to cover the object's huge dynamic range: the outer ejecta blobs are 100,000 times fainter than the brilliant central star. Observer: Jon Morse (University of Colorado), and NASAIts actually a binary system (P 5.52 y) with the most massive component < 100 Msol LBV (4 8 mag) 7500 ly=D
There are still Mysteries: He2-47WFPC2. R. Sahai JPL/STScI 2000
Bigger Bubbles: SupernovaeThis very deep Chandra image shows Cas A, the youngest supernova remnant in the Milky Way Age: 330 yImage credit: NASA/CXC/UMass Amherst/M.D. Stage et al.Scale 420D 3067 pc
SN 1006D= 7200 lyNote mass concentration in band!Type Ia: was a CV60 light-years across
SN E0102-72An analysis of all the data indicates that the overall shape of E0102 is most likely a cylinder that is viewed end-on rather than a spherical bubble. The intriguing result implies that the massive star's explosion has produced a shape similar to what is seen in some planetary nebulae associated with lower mass stars. SMC=190 kly away, so this field of view spans about 150 light-years.
SN LMC N 63AD=160 klyM=50MsolIn SFR N63Age 2000 to 5000 yBut wait, theres more!Credit: You-Hua Chu STScI
SN LMC N 63A extended mixExtended Diam = 60 lyThe x-ray emission (blue), is from gas heated to 10 million degrees C as knots of fast moving material from the cosmic blast sweep up surrounding interstellar matter. Radio (red) and optical emission (green)X-ray: J. Warren (Rutgers) et al., CXC, NASA Optical: Y.Chu (U. Illinois), STScI, NASA Radio: J.Dickel (U. Illinois) et al. and Composite: Bob Sault (18-Jun-2004) Australia Telescope Compact Array
Galaxies Blow Bubbles, too:Centaurus A (2.5 Mpc) The 870-micron submm data, from LABOCA on APEX, are shown in orange. X-ray data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory are shown in blue. Visible light data from the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope located at La Silla, Chile, show the background stars and the galaxys characteristic dust lane in close to "true color". Credit: ESO/WFI (Optical); MPIfR/ESO/APEX/A.Weiss et al. (Submillimetre); NASA/CXC/CfA/R.Kraft et al. (X-ray)
Cygnus-A in radioCygnus A just looks like a few little blobs in optical. At 600 million ly, who wouldnt?!Jets are about 391,00 ly in extent at the distance typically associated with the galaxy (cD)Double Radio src AGN
Galaxy M87D= 60 MlyDominates the Virgo ClusterVis vs radio!
Large-scale VLA image of M87: White circle indicates the area within which the gamma-ray telescopes could tell the very energetic gamma rays were being emitted. To narrow down the location further required the VLBA. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF
Radio structure is~ 200 kly across
M87Zooming in on the powerful core of the galaxy M87CREDIT: Bill Saxton NRAO/AUI/NSF
M87: The modelArtists's Conception of M87's inner core: Black hole, accretion disk, and inner jets.CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF
Much to doConsider computational fluid dynamics!