Bites and Stings. Introduction First-Aid Priorities Animal Bites Dog Bites Insect Stings Injuries by Marine Creatures Snake Bites Q & A

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Bites and Stings Slide 2 Introduction First-Aid Priorities Animal Bites Dog Bites Insect Stings Injuries by Marine Creatures Snake Bites Q & A Slide 3 Most animals will not turn aggressive unless provoked. Staying away from these wild animals could prevent many unnecessary injuries. It is only wise be equipped with a first aid kit when involved in outdoor activities. Before attempting a rescue, ensure personal safety before approaching a victim that is under attack. Always call 995 for assistance if you are unable to handle the situation alone. Introduction Slide 4 1.Ensure personal safety before attempting rescue 2.Assess victims condition (e.g. consciousness level) 3.Calm the victim by reassuring victim 4.Treat any visible injuries and minimize any risk of further injury and infection. 5.Call 995 if you are unable to handle the injuries alone 6.Identify the injury and the source to assist the medical team in treating the wounds and anticipating certain symptoms such as anaphylactic shock. Rescue Procedure Slide 5 Animal Bites Animals with sharp teeth can cause deep puncture wounds and carry germs deep into the tissues and result in an infection. Any bite that breaks the skin can cause the victim to become very vulnerable to infection. Slide 6 Dog Bites Canines are born with teeth to hunt and an instinct that commands it to bite whatever targets it considers as prey. These instincts could result in very severe injuries to the victim. Dogs are generally very protective over - Food - Territory - Young When threatened, they will attack to protect them. Slide 7 Prevention Do not run past a dog Do not travel alone in the wild Do not approach a dog when its eating Do not approach a dog when its tied up Do not snatch anything that belongs to the dog Do not pat any stray dog even if it seems pitiful or cute Slide 8 Prevention Avoid attracting a dog to you with food or sound Do not approach a dog when it is nursing its puppies. Never force a dog into a corner or threaten it for the fun of it. Treat every dog you do not know with caution. Do not throw objects or provoke animals (Dogs etc) Do not intrude into their territory Slide 9 How to recognize an unfriendly dog? A 'normal' but unfriendly dog exhibits various signs. It is signaling to you that it is not welcoming your presence and to keep away. 1st sign: It barks at you to keep away. The tail is not wagging and usually up. 2nd sign: It growls from its throat with a deep sound signaling that it is serious. 3rd sign: It snarls and bare its teeth and adopt a pouncing position. It shows tension and anger. 4th sign: Its eyes "flashes' (shiny eyes with pupils dilated) It is either at the brink of going to attack you or is already attacking you. Slide 10 During an attack 1.Defend yourself with any available stick or bag. Shield yourself from the attacking canine. Initial Defence could deter the dog from advancing further 2.As a last resort, drop down and protect your face, neck and the front part of your body as well as you can. 3.Shout for help. 4.Seek medical attention immediately. Inform the doctor of the vicinity where the attack occurred. They need to check it if is an area where there are dogs with rabies Slide 11 Treatment for Animal Bites (For serious wounds) 1.Control bleeding by applying direct pressure and raising the injured part. Slide 12 2.Cover the wound with a sterile dressing or a non fluffy clean pad bandaged in place to control bleeding. 3.Arrange to take or send the casualty to hospital. Treatment for Animal Bites (For serious wounds) Slide 13 1.Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and warm water in order to minimize the risk of infection. Treatment for Animal Bites (For superficial wounds) Slide 14 2.Pat the wound dry with clean gauze swabs and cover with an adhesive dressing or small sterile dressing. 3.Advise the casualty to see a doctor in case inoculation (vaccination) is needed. If the wound is large or deep, arrange to send the casualty to hospital. Treatment for Animal Bites (For superficial wounds) Slide 15 Potential Infections of Animal Bites Rabies A potentially fatal viral infection of the nervous system, spread in the saliva of infected animals. Hepatitis B or C viruses There is probably only a small risk of hepatitis B or C viruses being transmitted through a human bite. Slide 16 Insect Stings Bee, wasp and hornet stings usually are painful rather than dangerous. An initial sharp pain is followed by mild swelling and soreness, which first aid can relieve. Some people are allergic to stings and can rapidly develop the serious condition of anaphylactic shock. Multiple stings can also be dangerous. Stings in the mouth or throat are serious, as swelling can cause obstruction to the airway. Slide 17 Treatment for Insect Stings (For a sting in the skin) Reassure the casualty. Apply constant firm pressure, scrape or brush the sting off with your fingernail or blunt edge of knife. (Tweezers are not recommended as it may squeeze the venom sac thus increasing the venom released). If stung on the fingers or hands, remove any rings and watches in case of swelling. Wrap a few ice cubes in a towel and apply on the area for 10-15 minutes to stop the pain and swelling. Do not apply ice directly on the sting area to prevent frostbite. Advise the casualty to see his doctor if the pain and swelling persist. Bee Sting Slide 18 Treatment for Insect Stings (For a sting in the mouth) Reassure the casualty. Give the casualty ice to suck or cold water to sip, to minimize swelling. DIAL 995 FOR AN AMBULANCE. Slide 19 Symptoms of Bee Stings Red, swollen, or warm lump Hives Rash Itching, tingling, numbness, burning, tenderness, pain Serious allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) occur when symptoms spread. These can include difficulty in breathing, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, fever, muscle spasms, or loss of consciousness. Call for emergency medical help right away. Slide 20 Safety Precautions Against Insect Bites/Stings Use insect repellants Wear long pants / T-shirt During an attack, cover your face and run in a straight line as quickly as possible. Grab a net, coat, towel, or anything that will give you momentary relief. During your escape, try to find shelter like a house, tent or car with windows and door closed. Avoid other people as they too may come under attack. Bees may pursue for up to 400m They are slow fliers and most people can outrun a bee. Hence, be alert for bees coming in and out through cracks in a wall. Stay away once you notice a bee colony. Do not provoke it. Slide 21 Treatment for Insect Stings (For Tick Bites) Using fine-pointed tweezers, grasp the ticks head as close to the casualtys skin as possible. Use a slight to-and-fro action to lever, rather than pull, the head out. The mouthparts will be very firmly embedded in the skin; try to avoid breaking the tick and leaving the buried head behind. Slide 22 Injuries by Marine Creatures Slide 23 Sea creatures can cause injury in various ways. In some parts of the world, particularly in tropical regions, severe poisoning can occur, and occasionally death results from a severe allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock), or paralysis of the chest muscles leads to drowning. Slide 24 Dangerous Sea Creatures Jellyfish Jellyfish stings occur when people brush against it in the water or step on those washed ashore. Jellyfish washed ashore can sting for weeks. Detached tentacles can also release venom. The Portuguese Man-of-War (a type of jellyfish) is well known for its painful and powerful sting. The stings can cause fever, shock as well as heart and lung problems. Sea wasps (Box Jellyfish) have tentacles containing thousands of stinging cells. Stings usually occur when people bump into them. The tentacles become sticky and adhere tightly to the skin. When the cells come into contact with human skin, they release their venom and cause severe pain. Slide 25 Portuguese Man-of-WarBox Jellyfish Slide 26 Sea urchins Sea urchins are found in tropical and subtropical marine regions. The spines of the sea urchins are used to deliver their venom. The sting can cause severe burning pain, swelling, bleeding, itch, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness and difficulty breathing. The symptoms may develop immediately and may last up to 6 hours. Deep puncture wounds may be seen after a sting. Slide 27 Stingrays Stingrays are often found buried and feeding in shallow water. Stingrays are not aggressive by nature. People are usually stung when they step on the stingray. The sting causes profuse bleeding, swelling and severe pain that can last for months. Other symptoms that may develop are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, muscle cramps, and fits. Slide 28 Treatment for Marine Stings 1.Reassure the casualty and sit him or her down, Pour copious amounts of vinegar or sea water over the injury to incapacitate stinging cells that have not yet released venom. *Alcohol may aggravate the injury and should not be used. Avoid rubbing sand on the affected area. Slide 29 Treatment for Marine Stings Slide 30 2.Dust a dry powder over the skin around the affected area to make any remaining stinging cells stick together. Talcum powder is very good for this. Meat tenderiser, used in barbecue cooking, is also good as it contains papain, which inactivates venom. Treatment for Marine Stings Slide 31 Slide 32 3.Gently brush off the powder with a clean, non-fluffy pad. *If the injuries are severe, or there is a serious general reaction, DIAL 995 FOR AN AMBULANCE. If the casualty is having difficulty breathing, she may be in anaphylactic shock. Slide 33 Treatment for Marine Puncture Wounds 1.Gently pull out any protruding spines. Do not crush the spines. 2.Soak the affected area into hot (not scalding) water for 30-90 minutes to ease pain. If pain returns later, try the heat soaks again. 3.Take or send the casualty to hospital. Slide 34 Safety Precautions against stings from Marine C