1. Introduction First-Aid Priorities Animal Bites Dog Bites Insect Stings Injuries by Marine Creatures Snake Bites Q & A
2. Most animals will not turn aggressive unless provoked. Staying away from these wild animals could prevent many unnecessary injuries. It is only wise be equipped with a first aid kit when involved in outdoor activities. Before attempting a rescue, ensure personal safety before approaching a victim that is under attack. Always call 995 for assistance if you are unable to handle the situation alone.
3. 1. Ensure personal safety before attempting rescue 2. Assess victims condition (e.g. consciousness level) 3. Calm the victim by reassuring victim 4. Treat any visible injuries and minimize any risk of further injury and infection. 5. Call 995 if you are unable to handle the injuries alone 6. Identify the injury and the source to assist the medical team in treating the wounds and anticipating certain symptoms such as anaphylactic shock.
4. Animals with sharp teeth can cause deep puncture wounds and carry germs deep into the tissues and result in an infection. Any bite that breaks the skin can cause the victim to become very vulnerable to infection.
5. Canines are born with teeth to hunt and an instinct that commands it to bite whatever targets it considers as prey. These instincts could result in very severe injuries to the victim. Dogs are generally very protective over - Food - Territory - Young When threatened, they will attack to protect them.
6. Do not run past a dog Do not travel alone in the wild Do not approach a dog when its eating Do not approach a dog when its tied up Do not snatch anything that belongs to the dog Do not pat any stray dog even if it seems pitiful or cute
7. Avoid attracting a dog to you with food or sound Do not approach a dog when it is nursing its puppies. Never force a dog into a corner or threaten it for the fun of it. Treat every dog you do not know with caution. Do not throw objects or provoke animals (Dogs etc) Do not intrude into their territory
8. 1. Control bleeding by applying direct pressure and raising the injured part.
9. 2. Cover the wound with a sterile dressing or a non fluffy clean pad bandaged in place to control bleeding. 3. Arrange to take or send the casualty to hospital.
10. 1. Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and warm water in order to minimize the risk of infection.
11. 2. Pat the wound dry with clean gauze swabs and cover with an adhesive dressing or small sterile dressing. 3. Advise the casualty to see a doctor in case inoculation (vaccination) is needed. If the wound is large or deep, arrange to send the casualty to hospital.
12. Rabies A potentially fatal viral infection of the nervous system, spread in the saliva of infected animals. Hepatitis B or C viruses There is probably only a small risk of hepatitis B or C viruses being transmitted through a human bite.
13. Reassure the casualty. Apply constant firm pressure, scrape or brush the sting off with your fingernail or blunt edge of an object. (Tweezers are not recommended as it may squeeze the venom sac thus increasing the venom released). Bee Sting Bee Sting
14. Some people are allergic to stings and can rapidly develop the serious condition of anaphylactic shock. Multiple stings can also be dangerous. Stings in the mouth or throat are serious, as swelling can cause obstruction to the airway.
15. If stung on the fingers or hands, remove any rings and watches in case of swelling. Wrap a few ice cubes in a towel and apply on the area for 10-15 minutes to stop the pain and swelling. Do not apply ice directly on the sting area to prevent frostbite. Advise the casualty to see his doctor if the pain and swelling persist.
16. The following slide contain pictures of shocking nature
17. Reassure the casualty. Give the casualty ice to suck or cold water to sip, to minimize swelling. DIAL 995 FOR AN AMBULANCE.
18. Red, swollen, or warm lump Hives Rash Itching, tingling, numbness, burning, tenderness, pain Serious allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) occur when symptoms spread. These can include difficulty in breathing, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, fever, muscle spasms, or loss of consciousness. Call for emergency medical help right away.
19. Use insect repellants Wear long pants / T-shirt During an attack, cover your face and run in a straight line as quickly as possible. Grab a net, coat, towel, or anything that will give you momentary relief. During your escape, try to find shelter like a house, tent or car with windows and door closed.
20. Avoid other people as they too may come under attack. Bees may pursue for up to 400m They are slow fliers and most people can outrun a bee. Hence, be alert for bees coming in and out through cracks in a wall. Stay away once you notice a bee colony. Do not provoke it.
21. Using fine-pointed tweezers, grasp the ticks head as close to the casualtys skin as possible. Use a slight to-and-fro action to lever, rather than pull, the head out. The mouthparts will be very firmly embedded in the skin; try to avoid breaking the tick and leaving the buried head behind.
22. Sea creatures can cause injury in various ways. Severe poisoning and occasionally death results from a severe allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock) Paralysis of the chest muscles leads to drowning.
23. Jellyfish Jellyfish stings occur when: people brush against it in the water step on those washed ashore. Jellyfish washed ashore can sting for weeks. Detached tentacles can also release venom.
24. The Portuguese Man-of-War (a type of jellyfish) is well known for its painful and powerful sting. The stings can cause: Fever Shock Heart and lung problems.
25. Box Jellyfish (sea wasp) have tentacles containing thousands of stinging cells. Stings occur when people bump into them. Tentacles become sticky and adhere tightly to the skin. Venom is released when in contact with human skin. Causes severe pain.
26. Sea urchins are found in tropical and subtropical marine regions. Spines of the sea urchins deliver their venom. Sting can cause severe burning pain, swelling, bleeding, itch, nausea, muscle weakness and difficulty breathing. Symptoms can develop immediately and last up to 6 hours. Deep puncture wounds may be seen after a sting.
27. Stingrays are often found buried and feeding in shallow water. Stingrays are not aggressive by nature. People are usually stung when they step on the stingray. The sting causes profuse bleeding, swelling and severe pain that can last for months. Other symptoms that may develop are nausea, diarrhea, sweating, muscle cramps, and fits.
28. Reassure the casualty and sit him or her down, pour vinegar or sea water over the injury to disable stinging cells that have not yet released venom. Dust dry powder over the skin around the affected area to make any remaining stinging cells stick together. Talcum powder is very good for this. Meat tenderizer, used in barbecue cooking, is also good as it contains papain, which inactivates venom. Gently brush off the powder with a clean, non-fluffy pad.
29. 1. Gently pull out any protruding spines. Do not crush the spines. 2. Soak the affected area into hot (not scalding) water for 30-90 minutes to ease pain. If pain returns later, try the heat soaks again. 3. Send the casualty to hospital.
30. Proper footwear Be careful when handling marine creatures as they may have venomous spines and stings Keep away from jellyfish
31. Snake Bites
32. King Cobra Blue Coral Snake Black Spitting Cobra
33. A snake bite is often not a serious injury, but it can be very frightening. Reassurance is vital, for if the casualty keeps still and calm, the spread of venom may be delayed. Try to get a description of the snake. This will help the doctor to identify the snake and the correct treatment. Do not try to catch the snake. Notify the police if the snake remains at large.
34. A pair of puncture marks. Severe pain at the site of the bite. Redness and swelling around the bite. Nausea and vomiting. Difficulty breathing; in extreme cases, respiration may stop altogether. Disturbed vision. Increased salivation and sweating.
35. 1. Lay the casualty down. Tell the casualty to keep calm and still. 2. Gently wash the wound and pat dry with clean swabs. DIAL 995 FOR AN AMBULANCE.
36. 3. Lightly compress the limb above the wound with a roller bandage. Use triangular bandages to immobilize the affected area to minimize the spread of venom. 4. Position the injured limb below the level of the heart. If she stops breathing, be ready to resuscitate if needed. *DO NOT apply a tourniquet, a bandage or ice on the wound, slash the wound with a knife, or suck the venom. 5. If there is eye irritation, rinse the eye under gently running cool water for at least 15 minutes. Prevent run-off water from entering the unaffected eye.
37. Keep the heart above the level of wounded part Tie narrow-fold bandage in figure-of-eight around feet Lightly compress with Roller bandage Leave bite exposed
38. Do not try and chase, provoke, catch or beat up the snake Move away if you spot a snake
39. Most animals and insects do not usually attack unless injured or provoked You must always take sensible precautions before attempting, for example, to rescue a casualty from an angry dog or a swarm of bees. If you cannot cope alone, get help or call 995 for ambulance