Biofuels production from hydrotreating of vegetable oil ... successful class of biofuels is biodiesel,

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  • Wayne State University

    Wayne State University Dissertations

    1-1-2012

    Biofuels production from hydrotreating of vegetable oil using supported noble metals, and transition metal carbide and nitride Huali Wang Wayne State University,

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    Recommended Citation Wang, Huali, "Biofuels production from hydrotreating of vegetable oil using supported noble metals, and transition metal carbide and nitride" (2012). Wayne State University Dissertations. Paper 485.

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  • BIOFUELS PRODUCTION FROM HYDROTREATING OF VEGETABLE OIL USING SUPPORTED NOBLE METALS, AND TRANSITION METAL CARBIDE AND NITRIDE

    by

    HUALI WANG

    DISSERTATION

    Submitted to the Graduate School

    of Wayne State University,

    Detroit, Michigan

    in partial fulfillment of the requirements

    for the degree of

    DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

    2012

    MAJOR: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

    Approved by:

    ________________________________ Advisor Date ________________________________ Co-Advisor Date ________________________________ ________________________________

     

     

       

  • ii   

         

    DEDICATION

    This work is dedicated first and foremost to my advisors. Your constant encouragement and

    guidance made this journey possible. Also, to my family, friends, instructors, and colleagues who

    supported, encouraged, and mentored me throughout this process … thank you all from the bottom

    of my heart.

  • iii   

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    I would like offer sincere gratitude to my supervisors Dr. K. Y. Simon Ng and Dr. Steven O.

    Salley for their invaluable guidance and time spent in helping me complete the magnitude of work

    that is contained within this dissertation. I am grateful of their input and knowledge that was of

    great importance to the direction of this work. I am thankful for their patience and support

    throughout this entire process. I also would like to express my deep gratitude to the members of my

    advisory committee, Dr. Charles Manke and Dr. Ratna Naik, for their contributions and guidance.

    The postdoc research associates in our lab, Dr. Shuli Yan, Dr Manhoe Kim, Dr Haiying Tang, and

    Dr Kapila Wadumesthrige, whose friendship, unflagging support, advice, mentoring, and

    encouragement made all the difference in the world.

    Finally I would like to thank all my family, friends and colleagues for their prayers, support,

    and love.

  • iv   

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Dedication ........................................................................................................................................... ii

    Acknowledgments .............................................................................................................................. iii

    List of Tables .................................................................................................................................... viii

    List of Figures .................................................................................................................................... ix

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1

    1.1. Significance of this study ...................................................................................................... 3

    1.2. Objectives of the study ......................................................................................................... 5

    CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................... 6

    2.1 biofuel production ................................................................................................................. 6

    2.2 Renewable sources for biofuels ............................................................................................ 9

    2.3 Hydrotreating catalysts ....................................................................................................... 15

    2.4 Hydrotreating mechanism and kinetics .............................................................................. 18

    CHAPTER 3. PRODUCT ANALYSIS METHOD DEVELOPMENT ......................................... 25

    3.1 Analysis of Sterol Glycosides in Biodiesel and Biodiesel Precipitates ................................... 25

    3.1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 25

    3.1.2 Materials ............................................................................................................................ 28

    3.1.3HPLC conditions ................................................................................................................ 29

    3.1.4 Results and discussion ...................................................................................................... 30

  • v   

    3.1.5 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 36

    3.2. Total Acid Number Determination of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends ..................................... 37

    3.2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 37

    3.2.2 Materials ............................................................................................................................ 39

    3.2.3 Method .............................................................................................................................. 40

    3.2.4 Results and Discussion ...................................................................................................... 40

    CHAPTER 4. JET FUEL HYDROCARBONS PRODUCTION FROM CATALYTIC CRACKING

    AND HYDROCRACKING OF SOYBEAN OIL ...................................................... 46

    4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 46

    4.2 Experimental Section ............................................................................................................... 49

    4.2.1 Catalyst Preparation .......................................................................................................... 49

    4.2.2 Catalyst Characterization .................................................................................................. 49

    4.2.3 Experimental Procedure .................................................................................................... 50

    4.2.4 Analysis of Products ......................................................................................................... 51

    4.2.5 Results and discussion ...................................................................................................... 53

    4.3 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 62

    CHAPTER 5. HYDROCARBON FUELS PRODUCTION FROM HYDROCRACKING OF

    SOYBEAN OIL USING TRANSITION METAL CARBIDES AND NITRIDES

    SUPPORTED ON ZSM-5 ......................................................................................... 63

  • vi   

    5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 63

    5.2 Experimental ............................................................................................................................ 66

    5.2.1 Catalyst Preparation ................................................................................................