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  • Santa Rosa Jr. College Shone Farm December 3, 2015

    Presented by: Joyce Torrigino Virgilio Neto

    Beef Cattle Management Guidelines

    Contents Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 2

    Facilities ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 3

    Behavior ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 7

    Stress ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 11

    Handling ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 14

    Transportation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 19

    Identification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 21

    Nutrition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 26

    Management Practices (Health) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ page 28

    Management Practices (Illness & Injury) ------------------------------------------------------------- page 49

    Management Practices (Reproduction, Pregnancy, Parturition and Weaning) ------------- page 67




    The beef cattle at Shone Farm is a cow/calf operation maintained to assist and enhance the value

    of a students experience by helping to facilitate the practical portion of classes as well as for

    production and processing for sales with extensive grazing on 100 acres of pasture. Our goal is to

    have about 25 cows per year and another 10 heifers and steers. Breeding is by natural cover from

    January to March, weaning is May to June and calving is from September to December. The Shone

    Farm Cattle Maintenance Calendar at the beginning of this section is a good reference for most of

    the annual operations.

    We use the body condition scores to provide us with seasonal performance standards of our cows

    and our pasture. Year round observations and monitoring of the cattle is supervised by the

    Livestock Technician and carried out by student employees 2 or 3 times daily.

    Spring fed water troughs are available in all pastures and year round creeks are utilized by the

    cattle for water, which also provide shade from their tree lined banks. Sixty percent of the pastures

    are irrigated and capable of providing 60 to 70 percent of the nutritional needs of the herd.

    Supplemental feed in provided in the form of alfalfa and grass hay from late fall to early spring.

    Many of the Standard Agricultural Practice are performed by students under the supervision of the

    Livestock Technician or the Livestock instructor. Our veterinarian assists the instructor and students

    with pregnancy checking every spring.

    All husbandry and health practices are coordinated by the Livestock Technician, with special

    attention paid to any animal distress.

    Animal identification is accomplished by ear tagging and is utilized to facilitate herd recording

    keeping. Shone Farm will be moving toward Electronic I.D. ear tags while Hot Iron Branding is also

    used to identify Shone Farm cattle and to comply with the Bureau of Livestock identification


    This document has sections titled Standard Operating Procedures which are written in red. These

    serve as guidelines for the program and we print them out separately to create management

    guidelines to train staff and students.




    Beef Unit: The Shone Farm Beef Unit consists of:

    a. 6 interior Holding/Sorting Pens enclosed with pipe panels within the Porter Barn.

    b. 4 exterior Holding/Sorting Pens enclosed with pipe panels that are each approximately

    under cover and without cover and attached to the Porter Barn.

    c. Sweep Tub, Chute Alley and Squeeze Chute, Calf Chute and Squeeze Chute/Turn Table.

    d. 5 concrete Feed Bunkers.

    The Pens are used for:

    a. Sorting

    b. temporary holding (less than a full day) while vaccinating, deworming, castrating, exhibition,

    judging clinics and contests

    c. short term holding (1 - 2 days) for cattle leaving the facility or observation

    d. moderate term holding (3 7 days) for cattle new to Shone Farm, quarantine, illness or

    injury and observation

    e. long term holding (8+ days) for injured or ill cattle

    When occupied, pens are cleaned once per day. Cattle are rotated to a clean and dry pen at least

    every 2 days as muddy and/or wet pens are detrimental to the cattles well-being.

    Any pens containing calves housed short term, or longer, have straw spread out on the floor and

    the straw should be replaced every day after cleaning.

    Manure and soiled straw and hay shall be hauled away and disposed of in the compost piles in

    the garden.

    Cattle in pens are provided adequate clean water and fed at least twice per day according to their

    weight and physical demands (maintenance, breeding, pregnant, lactating, weaning).

    When possible, cattle housed in the pens for moderate term, or longer, should have a pen mate or

    another bovine penned nearby.



    FACILITIES - continued

    Beef Unit Alley: The Shone Farm Beef Unit Alley consists of 3 sections separated by 2 gates to

    hold cattle in groups while sorting and/or moving into the sweep tub. There are gates on either end

    of the alley for cattle to enter and exit at one end and trailer loading at the other end.

    In addition, there are 3 gates on the Porter Barn side of the alley used to move the cattle into the

    Pipe Panel Pens, Feed Bunkers and Sweep Tub. There is also a narrow chute-like opening on the

    Porter Barn side of the alley used for cattle to exit the Pipe Panel Pens.

    Cattle shall be moved through the alley in as quiet and calm manner as possible using appropriate

    herding tools [see Behavior and Management Practices (General)].

    Patience is paramount in moving the cattle through the alley and they should be allowed to move

    forward and methodically as they feel safe and secure.

    The amount of pressure used to move the cattle shall be only that which is necessary. A scale of

    1 10 (1 being minimum amount of pressure and 10 being maximum amount of pressure) shall be

    considered when moving cattle. Handlers shall start with 1 and move up the scale in order to

    obtain desired results. Pressure should be released immediately as cattle comply and move in the

    desired direction and manner. Handlers shall not nag cattle by constantly yelling at them, rattling

    paddles or hitting them once the cattle are complying and moving in the desired direction. Handlers

    should walk quietly behind them outside of kicking distance.

    Moving small groups (approximately 5) of cattle at a time into the Sweep Tub has the best results

    and never shall cattle be packed into the Sweep Tub so that the cattle cannot move freely and

    forward into the chute. Cattle move best in a wide circular or sweeping pattern, therefore, handlers

    should avoid forcing them to turn in small spaces or circles.

    Feed Bunkers: The Beef Unit consists of 5 concrete Feed Bunkers equipped with pipe head

    dividers to allow each animal to comfortably have their own eating area. The Feed Bunker area has

    a dirt floor that slopes away from the Bunkers.

    Feed Bunkers are used to feed the cattle hay when the pastures are unavailable and cattle shall

    be brought up or allowed access to the Feed Bunkers from the Pastures at least 2 times per day to


    Cattle are not to be housed in the Feed Bunker Alley, therefore, the cleaning may be done by

    tractor as needed and as determined by the Farm Manager or Livestock Technician.

    Using a tractor, a thorough cleaning of the Feed Bunker Alley shall be done after the Feed

    Bunkers are no longer in use.



    FACILITIES continued

    Pastures: Although cattle in confinement have minimum space requirements, the amount of land

    needed for cattle to graze on varies considerably based on several physical factors including, but

    not limited to amount and type of forage, slope, water access, supplements, type of cattle (cows:

    maintenance, pregnant, lactating, weaning), calves, bulls and the extend of grazing desired.

    Shone Farm has 2 irrigated pastures, 2 dry pastures (that grow grass in the wet seasons) and 3

    dry smaller pastures used on a temporary basis.

    Cattle are moved to different pastures based on pasture condition, cattle body condition and

    nutritional needs (maintenance, pregnant and trimester, lactation, weaning, weaned calves, bulls,


    Cattle are supplemented with, but not limited to: Orchard Grass Hay; Alfalfa Hay; Iodized Salt

    Blocks; Lick Tubs when needed.

    Fencing: Fence statutes are in place to protect livestock, people and property from damage or

    injury th