Beef cattle nutrition (australia)

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  • Beef cattle nutritionAn introduction to the essentials

    Grazing Land Management

    Nutrition

    Managing the Breeder Herd

    Selling Marketing

    Nutrition.indd 1 10/1/07 3:08:04 PM

  • Copyright MLA 2006 Beef cattle nutrition

    Beef cattle nutrition

    Contents

    A Quick Quiz to start you thinking ................................................................ iii

    Do I need to read this book? ........................................................................ iv

    Basic digestive anatomy and function ......................................................1Rumen and reticulum .......................................................................................2Ideal rumen environment ........................................................................ 3Omasum ................................................................................................. 3Abomasum .............................................................................................. 3Small intestine ........................................................................................ 4Large intestine ........................................................................................ 4

    What are nutrients? .....................................................................................5Water ....................................................................................................... 6Guide to use of saline water ................................................................... 7Energy ..................................................................................................... 7Partition of feed energy ........................................................................... 8Which has the most energy? .................................................................. 8Protein ................................................................................................... 12Protein digestion and absorption .......................................................... 12The basic process of protein in digestion and absorbtion ................... 12Undegraded dietary protein (UDP) or bypass protein .......................... 14Intake of feed ........................................................................................ 16Primary limiting nutrient ........................................................................ 17

    What does pasture cost? ..........................................................................18Pasture the cheapest source of cattle feed ....................................... 19Measures of pasture quantity and quality ............................................. 20Principles of pasture growth (quantity) and its quality .......................... 21Land type .............................................................................................. 21Pasture type and species ..................................................................... 22Four phases of pasture growth and development ................................ 23Temperate and tropical pastures .......................................................... 24Legumes and grasses ........................................................................... 243Ps ........................................................................................................ 24Indicators of pasture quality ................................................................. 24How does stocking rate influence liveweight numbers? ...................... 24Carrying capacity (CC) .......................................................................... 26Principles of choosing a grazing system .............................................. 28Notes on some grazing systems .......................................................... 28

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    Published by Meat & Livestock Australia Limited

    Meat & Livestock Australia 2006 ABN 39 081 678 364 ISBN 1 74036 9289

    Care is taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this publication. However MLA cannot accept responsibility

    for the accuracy or completeness of the information or opinions contained in the publication. You should make your own

    enquiries before making decisions concerning your interests.

    Nutrition.indd 2 10/1/07 3:08:05 PM

    Revised March 2015

    accepts no for lo sesMLA liability incurreds if you rely solely on this publication.any

    Reproduction in whole or part of this publication is prohibited without prior consent of . and acknowledgement of Meat Livestock Australiaand

  • Copyright MLA 2006 Beef cattle nutrition

    Beef cattle nutrition

    Contents

    A Quick Quiz to start you thinking ................................................................ iii

    Do I need to read this book? ........................................................................ iv

    Basic digestive anatomy and function ......................................................1Rumen and reticulum .......................................................................................2Ideal rumen environment ........................................................................ 3Omasum ................................................................................................. 3Abomasum .............................................................................................. 3Small intestine ........................................................................................ 4Large intestine ........................................................................................ 4

    What are nutrients? .....................................................................................5Water ....................................................................................................... 6Guide to use of saline water ................................................................... 7Energy ..................................................................................................... 7Partition of feed energy ........................................................................... 8Which has the most energy? .................................................................. 8Protein ................................................................................................... 12Protein digestion and absorption .......................................................... 12The basic process of protein in digestion and absorbtion ................... 12Undegraded dietary protein (UDP) or bypass protein .......................... 14Intake of feed ........................................................................................ 16Primary limiting nutrient ........................................................................ 17

    What does pasture cost? ..........................................................................18Pasture the cheapest source of cattle feed ....................................... 19Measures of pasture quantity and quality ............................................. 20Principles of pasture growth (quantity) and its quality .......................... 21Land type .............................................................................................. 21Pasture type and species ..................................................................... 22Four phases of pasture growth and development ................................ 23Temperate and tropical pastures .......................................................... 24Legumes and grasses ........................................................................... 243Ps ........................................................................................................ 24Indicators of pasture quality ................................................................. 24How does stocking rate influence liveweight numbers? ...................... 24Carrying capacity (CC) .......................................................................... 26Principles of choosing a grazing system .............................................. 28Notes on some grazing systems .......................................................... 28

    Nutrition.indd 3 10/1/07 3:08:05 PM

  • Beef cattle nutrition4 Copyright MLA 2006

    Some of the more common grazing systems ....................................... 29Determining livestock numbers using adult equivalents ...................... 29The limitations of AEs ........................................................................... 30Relative adult equivalents ..................................................................... 31

    Developing a grazing management plan .................................................32Principles of grazing management ....................................................... 32Grazing pressure (GP) ........................................................................... 33

    Mineral nutrition of cattle .........................................................................35Phosphorus ........................................................................................... 36

    Other nutritional issues .............................................................................41Supplementation ................................................................................... 41Primary limiting nutrient ........................................................................ 41Compensatary growth .......................................................................... 42Rumen modifiers ................................................................................... 43Hormonal growth promotants (HGPs) .................................................. 44Example of a break-even analysis ................................