Bauhaus ( 1919 1933 )THE BAUHAUS MOVEMENT, GERMANY :The German word Bauhaus essentially means House of Building or Building School. A movement in the twentieth century. The school was first opened in 1919 by architect Walter Gropius, and over the years existed in three different German cities: Weimar (1919-1925), Dessau (1925-1932) and Berlin (1932-1933). Goals'modernization process could be mastered by means of design.The integration of all branches of art and craft under the primacy of architecture. A synthesis of aesthetic production around the needs of a broad segment of the population. The second goal according to Wick, from Teaching at the Bauhaus, was3VisionThe Bauhaus vision was to embrace the new technological developments unifying art, craft, and technology. It was primarily focused on clean geometric forms and balanced visual compositions.
They focus on: Architecture Industrial design Graphic design Fine art Photography New media.The greatest achievements Interior, product, and graphic design. For example:Marcel Breuer created many furniture designs at the Bauhaus that have become classics, including the first tubular-steel chair. He said that, unlike heavily upholstered furniture, his simple, machine-made chairs were "airy, penetrable," and easy to move. The greatest practical achievements at the Bauhaus were probably 6Marcel Breuers chair
Bauhaus design cabinet
Gropius resigned his position in 1928 and named as his successor Hannes Meyer, a Marxist who placed less emphasis on aesthetics and creativity than on rational, functional, and socially responsible design. 10Typography
At the Bauhaus, typography was conceived as both an empirical means of communication and an artistic expression, with visual clarity stressed above all. Concurrently, typography became increasingly connected to corporate identity and advertising. The promotional materials prepared for the Bauhaus at the workshop, with their use of sans serif typefaces and the incorporation of photography as a key graphic element, served as visual symbols of the avant-garde institution.
11Walter Gropius - the Monument to the March dead
the Monument to the March dead, or sometimes the Monument to the March Fallen. Designed by Walter Gropius in 1921 and completed in 1922. It is an example of Gropius in his short-lived Expressionist phase.12ClosurePolitical pressure by the Nazi movement continued to cast a shadow over the school. In 1928 Gropius resigned and was then succeeded by Hannes Meyer. The school carried on with practice as usual.In the 1930s the Bauhaus received criticism from the Nazi writers, labeling the Bauhaus 'un-German' - not agreeing with the modernistic styles the school was predominately based on. The writers characterized the Bauhaus as a front for Communists, Russians, and social liberals. Further pressure from the Nazi rgime forced the Bauhaus to close on April 11, 1933.
1- (which strongly opposed modernism in favor of classicism) 2- , labeling the Bauhaus 'un-German' - not agreeing with the modernistic styles the school was predominately based on. 3- 13 Thank you for your attention.