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Lecture 7 The Bauhaus and the 20th-Century Modern Movement · PDF file Walter Gropius, diagram of Bauhaus curriculum, 1919, from “outside” to “inside” the circle, or from “introductory

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Text of Lecture 7 The Bauhaus and the 20th-Century Modern Movement · PDF file Walter Gropius, diagram...

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    Lecture 7

    The Bauhaus and the 20th-Century Modern Movement

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    Rudolf Petersdorff Department Store, Breslau, 1927/28

    Night view of another Schocken Department Store by Mendelson – note the effects of his ‘Lichtarchitektur’ (light architecture) and the purposely achieved transparency of the floor-to-ceiling shop

    windows on the ground floor

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    Piet Mondrian, Dutch Modernist painter, 1872-1944 An important contributor to 20th-century abstract painting and the Dutch De Stijl

    movement. His journey from realism to Impressionism to abstraction represents a major moment in the evolution of 20th-century artistic expression in painting. Contemporary

    Photograph, “Live Oak” – very similar to Mondrian’s early hyper-realist graphite sketches of trees and views of the forest executed in the 1890s

    Piet Mondrian, Red Trees, 1908

    Piet Mondrian (Dutch), Study of Trees, 1913

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    Piet Mondrian, The Red Tree, 1910

    Piet Mondrian, The Red Tree, 1910, detail

    Piet Mondrian, The Grey Tree, 1911

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    Piet Mondrian, Trees, 1912

    Piet Mondrian, Flowering Tree, 1912

    Piet Mondrian, Line and Color, 1915

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    Piet Mondrian, Composition, 1915

    Piet Mondrian, Composition, 1915

    Piet Mondrian, Composition, 1921

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    Piet Mondrian, Broadway Boogie Woogie, 1943

    Theo van Doesburg, Project for the “Cinema Dance Hall,” perspective view, Strasbourg, France, 1928

    Theo van Doesburg, Cinema Dance Hall, Strasbourg, France, 1928

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    Gerritt Rietveld, Schroeder House, Utrecht, 1924

    Gerritt Rietveld, Schroeder House, Utrecht (Holland), 1924, exterior view

    Gerritt Rietveld, Schroeder House, Utrecht, 1924, ground floor plan

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    Gerritt Rietveld, Schroeder House, Utrecht, 1924, second floor plan (note retractable partitions)

    Gerritt Rietveld, Schroeder House,

    Utrecht, 1924, interior perspective

    view

    Gerritt Rietveld, Schroeder House, Utrecht, 1924, interior view

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    Gerritt Rietveld, table and chair, 1924

    Mondrian composition, Rietveld Chair, Schroeder House interior perspective view

    Walter Gropius in Weimar, Dessau, and at Harvard (1919; 1926; 1960)

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    Lyonel Feininger, (Church at)

    Gelmeroda XII

    Paul Klee, Small squares and pine tree, approximately 1922

    Wassily Kandinsky, Fairy Tale, 1905, and Untitled, 1930

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    Johannes Itten, Swiss painter and devotee of

    religious mysticism as a

    basis for individual

    liberation and creativity,

    shown here with his color wheel

    for teaching color theory

    Johannes Itten design used as a watch face, Mondaine Company, Switzerland, 2000

    A woodcut of a cathedral, by Lyonel Feininger, illustrated

    the four page Bauhaus Manifesto.

    Beams of light converging upon the

    cathedral’s three spires representing

    the three arts; architecture, sculpture

    and painting

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    Walter Gropius, diagram of Bauhaus curriculum, 1919, from “outside” to “inside” the circle, or from “introductory

    course” to mastery of a craft, to art, to architecture

    Walter Gropius, diagram of Bauhaus curriculum, 1919, from “outside” to “inside” the circle, or from “introductory course” to

    mastery of a craft, to art, to architecture

    Josef Albers, student work for the Bauhaus introductory course, watercolor on paper, 1922

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    "In visual perception, a color is almost never seen as it really is- as

    it physically is. This fact makes color the most relative medium in

    art." - Josef Albers

    Top center, Annie Albers, Bauhaus carpet design, 1923

    Anni Albers, wall hanging from Bauhaus weaving workshop, 1923; Josef Albers, set of nesting tables,

    Bauhaus wood workshops, 1926

    Joost Schmidt, Bauhaus student, design of a chess set in which the design of each piece contains information about

    its movement according to the rules of the game; birch, ebony, executed in Bauhaus workshop (1923)

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    Wilhelm Wagenfeld, Bauhaus lamp from metal w orkshop, Dessau, 1928; Marianne Brandt, Tea-extract pot, 1924, Brass, silver, ebony

    Gropius, design for a door handle, 1923; Mies van der Rohe, cantilevered chair using

    metal tubing, 1928

    Laszlo Moholy- Nagy, Forms in

    Space, 1924

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    Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Light-Space Modulator, 1922-1930

    Walter Gropius, shown with his

    design (with Adolf Meyer), Competition

    Design for the Chicago Tribune

    Tower, 1922

    Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, 1922 Competition Design for the

    Chicago Tribune Tower (below, the winning design by John Mead Howells

    and Raymond Mead and Hood , as completed in 1925)

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    Burnham, Flatiron building, 1902 and Lebrun, Met Life Tower, 1909

    Walter Gropius, Bauhaus building, Dessau, Germany, 1926, aerial view visit: http://www.bauhaus-dessau.de/en/history.asp?p=bauhaus

    Below: Walter Gropius, Bauhaus building, Dessau, Germany, aerial view today. Visit: http://www.bauhausdessau.de/en/history.asp?p=bauhaus

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    Dessau-Bauhaus school, designed by Gropius, 1926

    1924-25 Bauhaus Building, Dessau

    Gropius, Bauhaus building plan, Dessau, 1925-26

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    3-D computer model from year 2000 showing Bauhaus building and its distribution of functions (Prellerhaus = student dormitory tower)

    Gropius’s Bauhaus plan (1926) compared to Palladio’s Villa Rotunda in Vicenza, Italy (1550)

    Gropius: Bauhaus Master's House (top: Gropius house; bottom: house for Lyonel Feininger), Dessau, 1926

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    Walter Gropius, Torten housing estate, Dessau,

    1926-30

    Josef Albers, Example of Bauhaus typography, 1925

    Hannes Meyer, Project for the League fo Nations competition,

    1927, Geneva, axonometric view

    Marianne Brandt, table lamp, 1929, fulfilling dictum that

    form = function x economy

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    Iwao Yamawaki, “Attack on the

    Bauhaus,” collage, 1932

    Walter Gropius, Gropius house, Lincoln, Mass., 1938

    Walter Gropius/The Architects Collaborative, Harkness Commons and Graduate Center, Harvard University, 1950

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    Max Bill, Hochschule fuer Gestaltung (Academy of Design), Ulm, 1956; student-designed “living pod,” 1965; a radio for Braun Co. by Dieter Rams, 1958; Tomas Maldonado, Lufthansa corporate image design

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    Hans M. Wingler (left) and Walter

    Gropius (right) - Opening

    ceremony of the Bauhaus Archive in Darmstadt,

    1961

    The bauhaus- shop offers a panorama of design from Bauhaus to

    Contemporary. The range

    includes "icons" of design such as the Bauhaus lamp or vases by Alvar Aalto,

    but also anonymous

    items of industrial design.

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