Asphalt

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Text of Asphalt

ASPHALT

ASPHALTAnisah SalmaDeni MaryantoJuventa Dwi LestariMunif Bayu Imam SuhadaRyan Rahadian

Definition of asphaltAsphalt or bitumen is a thick liquid that is a compound with a hydrocarbon containing sulfur, oxygen, and chlorine. Asphalt is also adhesive material which is black or brown.

Types of AsphaltBased on the sources :Natural Asphalt : asphalt that we can find in nature, for example in mountain/lake. Natural asphalt is divided into two groups:Rock asphalt : asphalt that we can find on mountain, example : asbuton.Lake asphalt : asphalt that we can find on lake, example : bermudaz asphalt.

Types of AsphaltNon-natural asphalt : we can get it form the process. Non-natural asphalt is divided into two grup :Tar : this type is made from distillation of coal in some country, this type is declined because has a cause cancer.Petroleum asphalt : asphalt made from distillation of crude oil. This type is divided into 2 groups. Based on the form :

Asphalt Cement In room temperature (250 C 300C) is solid.Asphalt cement divided depend on penetration. Pen 60/70, it mean asphalt cement with penetration between 60-79.Asphalt cement with lower penetration usually used in hot weather area and high traffic volume.Asphalt cement with higher penetration usually used in cold weather area and low traffic volume.

Cut back asphaltIs asphalt cement mixed with liquid materials from distillation of crude oil.In room temperature this asphalt is liquid.Cut back asphalt is divided into three grups:

based on its solvent Rapid curing : cut back asphalt with the solvent is easily evaporate (usually is gasoline)Medium curing : cut back asphalt with the solvent is not too easily evaporate (usually is carrosene)slow curing : cut back asphalt with the solvent is hardly evaporate (usually is diesel fuel)

Emulsilfied AsphaltIs asphalt cement mixed with water and emulsifer agent.The function of emulsifer agent is as a stabilizer.Emulsifer agent is an ionicif (+) cationIf (-) anion

Emulsified asphalt is divided into two groups:

Based on the electric chargeCationic / acid emulsified asphalt : that has a positive electric charge.Anionic / alkali emulsified asphalt : that has a negative electric charge.Non- ionic : emulsified asphalt that cannot distributed the electric charge.

Based on the setting time rateRapid setting : the setting time is fastest, usually rapid setting is used for tack coat.Medium setting : is lower than rapid setting but higher than slow setting, usually for seal coat.Slow setting : is lower than medium setting, usually for prime coat.

Types of AsphaltBased on the base material :Asphaltic base crude oil : the dominan base material is asphaltic.Parafin base crude oil : the dominan base material is parafin.Mixed base crude oil : there is no dominan base material. Amount of parafin and asphaltic is same.

USES AND APPLICATIONSUses For binding aggregate, make sure that aggregate is not loose from the road.

Uses and applicationsPavements/ RunwayRoof Shingles (not commonly found in Thailand) Waterproof CoatingExpansion JointsJoint and Crack SealantUses and applicationsRunwayRoof Shingles

Uses and ApplicationsExpansion JointsJoints and crack Sealant

Characteristics of AsphaltDurabilityDurability is asphalt ability to keep their original properties during the road services.

AdhesionAdhesion is asphalt ability to bind aggregates.Characteristics of AsphaltCohesionCohesion is asphalt ability to keep the aggregates stay in their position after binding process.

Sensitivity of TemperatureAsphalt is a thermoplastic material. means it will be harder or more thick if the temperature is reduced and will be soft or more liquid if the temperature increased.

AdvantangesWeather : Asphalt is the preferred material to use if you live in a cold climate. Asphalt driveways can contract and expand without sustaining damage. Those made from concrete will likely crack when exposed to extremely cold weather. Also, you won't be able to use salt to melt ice because salt it will damage the concrete.

AdvantangesRepair : If asphalt driveways are cracked, they are far easier to repair than the concrete variety.Cost : One of the best advantages of asphalt driveways is their cost. They are usually cheaper to install than driveways made of concrete.

DISADVANTAGESStrength : One of the first disadvantages of asphalt driveways is their strength. You should never allow heavy machinery on your driveway if it is made from asphalt. Asphalt driveways are very susceptible to damage from heavy machinery.Heat : Another disadvantage of asphalt driveways deals with heat. Asphalt driveways will become very soft when exposed too hot temperatures.DISADVANTAGESMaintenance : They require much more maintenance than concrete driveways. You will need to have asphalt driveways sealed every three years or so. Also, you won't be able to park on the driveway with your car for two or three days after sealing it.22DISADVANTAGES Durability : One of the final disadvantages of asphalt driveways is their durability. Concrete driveways can last more than 30 years. Most asphalt driveways will only last approximately 15 years.

REFERENCEShttp://voices.yahoo.com/five-disadvantages-asphalt-driveways-578971.html?cat=32http://voices.yahoo.com/five-advantages-asphalt-driveways-578971.html?cat=32http://mucc.mahidol.ac.th/~egpcp/Handout271/27110%20-%20Asphalt.pdfhttp://www.aema.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=79:tackcoat&catid=7&Itemid=25http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/cicad59_rev_1.pdfREFERENCEShttp://ftp.dot.state.tx.us/pub/txdot-info/cst/AsphaltMaterialsandUses.pdfhttp://lecturer.poliupg.ac.id/efraim/Lab%20Aspal/ASPAL.pptxhttp://www.fs.fed.us/eng/pubs/html/99771201/99771201.htmhttp://tekniksipil-45.blogspot.com/2011/07/sifat-sifat-aspal.htmlQUESTIONS1. What is the different of rock asphalt and lake asphalt?

2. Why asphalt is not preferred material if we use in hot climate?

3. What is the colour of bitumen?

4. Why the use of tar is declined in some country?

5. From where we can get the petroleum asphalt?