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Argumentative/ Persuasive Essay Lecture 13

Argumentative/ Persuasive Essay

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Argumentative/ Persuasive Essay. Lecture 13. Recap. How to Write a Compare & Contrast Essay ? Well Written Compare & Contrast Essay Steps for Writing a Compare & Contrast Essay Topic Selection Dos and Don’ts Common Mistakes Example Exercise. Argumentative Essay . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Argumentative/ Persuasive  Essay

Argumentative/ Persuasive Essay

Lecture 13

Page 2: Argumentative/ Persuasive  Essay

Recap

• How to Write a Compare & Contrast Essay?• Well Written Compare & Contrast Essay• Steps for Writing a Compare & Contrast Essay• Topic Selection• Dos and Don’ts• Common Mistakes• Example• Exercise

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3

An argumentative essay is one that attempts to persuade the reader to the writer's point of view. The writer can either be serious or funny, but always tries to convince the reader of the validity of his or her opinion.

Examples: An argumentative essay may persuade a reader that . . .

* he or she should use public transportation instead of driving

* cats are better than dogs

Argumentative Essay

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Argumentative Essay

• In persuasive or argumentative writing, we try

to convince others to:

– agree with our facts,

– share our values,

– accept our argument and conclusions, and

– adopt our way of thinking

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Elements toward building a good Argumentative/Persuasive essay

include…• establishing facts– to support an argument

• clarifying relevant values– for your audience (perspective)

• prioritizing, editing, and/or sequencing– the facts and values in importance to build the argument

• forming and stating conclusions• "persuading" your audience that your conclusions– are based upon the agreed facts and shared values

• having the confidence– to communicate your "persuasion" in writing

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How to Write a Argumentative/Persuasive Essay?

• A persuasive essay is a form of essay writing that is built around a

certain argument.

• Persuasive essays are thus also called argumentative essays.

• In this type of essay, the writer aims to persuade the reader to

accept the writer’s point of view, using certain persuasive

techniques to prove the point and convince the reader.

• Therefore, a successful persuasive essay requires following certain

rules and omitting common mistakes that students often make,

when writing their persuasive essays.

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Steps for Writing a Argumentative/Persuasive Essay

Step # 1: Decide upon the issue you will discuss. It needs to be

something you have a solid opinion on, and also something people disagree about.

Step # 2: Research the issue, to be aware of how to best prove your point.

Consider what your possible opponents can object to with every point you make.

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Step # 3: Make an outline, listing your strongest

arguments that will help you prove your point. Look for

statistics, factual data and quotes of famous people to

support your arguments.

Step # 4: Write an introduction, stating how debated the

issue is and why it is important to reach consensus on

the matter. Finish the introduction with a thesis statement,

indicating your personal position on the discussed matter.

Steps for Writing a Argumentative/Persuasive Essay

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Step # 5: Argue your point, introducing a

new reason or fact in every paragraph.

There should be no less than three

strong arguments to support your

point of view.

Steps for Writing a Argumentative/Persuasive Essay

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Step # 6: Draw a conclusion. Here you may express your understanding as to why the matter is so hard to agree on, but conclude that the position you support is the best possible (or most likely to be true) variant

based on the evidence you provided earlier in the essay.

Step # 7: Thoroughly proofread your essay

Steps for Writing a Argumentative/Persuasive Essay

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Topic Selection• There are limitless opportunities for good topics, since there

are a lot of debated issues you can discuss in your persuasive essay.

• Here are just a few examples of good topics for your argumentative essay: – Is boarding school a good idea for your child?– Should there be a division between boys’ and girls’ sports?– People should not be allowed to keep guns at home– If we want to stop the global warming process, we need to stop

driving cars– Is school uniform a good idea?– Children should not be allowed to play computer games

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Key Points to Consider

• There are various persuasion techniques that have been proven to be the most effective in a good argumentative essay. Three basic persuasion techniques are: – appeal to emotions, – appeal to facts and evidence – appeal to logic

• Try to combine and mix them to make a stronger point.

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• Always build your argument based on your

audience and its qualities.

– Think of whom you are appealing to

– envision your audience’s main characteristics

– build your arguments based on what your audience

most values.

Key Points to Consider

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Key Points to Consider

• A very good approach to persuasion is when the writer is

aware of the point of view of an opposing side, and then

argues about its weakness.

– Use parenthesis clauses, like:

• “however”

• “nevertheless”

• “despite the fact that”

• “on the other hand”, etc.

• to link the two sentences together.

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Key Points to Consider

• Combine main points with minor points that

also contribute to the general idea.

– Start each paragraph with the major point, then

go on to explain it, and introduce a minor point

closer to the end of the paragraph to support your

initial major point.

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Dos

• Do always prove your point with factual data.

– Just stating something as a fact is considered a

weak point

– a successful essay should have quotes that serve

as good supporting evidence.

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Dos• Do be certain about your position.

• Do appeal to the emotions of your readers. This always has a much stronger effect than just raw facts.

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Dos

• Do make sure to review the points of both

sides of the argument before you start building

your outline.

• Do remain tolerant of other people’s opinion,

even if you strongly disagree with it.

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Don'ts

• Don’t be too flat and immovable in trying to

prove your point.

– Recognizing the fact that a lot of people might not

agree does not mean that you expose your

argument’s weak side.

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Don’ts

• Don’t choose a topic where you are hesitant

about which side to take.

– You should be solid and steady in what you are

trying to prove, otherwise it will be almost

impossible to persuade your reader.

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Don’ts

• Don’t try to introduce another argument in

the conclusion.

– The conclusion should be about summarizing and

making the final point, not about making another

argument.

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Don’ts

• Don’t appeal to subjective personal or

religious beliefs – this is crossing the line.

– Try to remain objective and focus on facts.

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• Becoming too aggressive-

– while trying to prove your point only shows your weakness.

– A good persuasive essay should be thoroughly based on

cold-hearted arguments, even though it may apply to

emotions as well.

– It is important to stay within the boundaries of academic

writing and not approach the discussion the way you would

in a real-life conversation.

Common Mistakes

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• Changing your mind as you develop your

arguments.

– This is why you need to get acquainted with both sides

of the issue you are planning to discuss.

– Do not rush into writing.

– Research all of the arguments of the opposing side and

make sure that you disagree with them; otherwise, your

hesitation will weaken the argument you present.

Common Mistakes

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• Overloading your essay with facts and arguments without a clear structure or a general logical idea. – This is why you need to make a plan or an outline for

your persuasive essay before you start writing it. – If you just randomly list arguments and quote

relevant data, but fail to organize your essay, then the paper will not be effective in persuading your readers, no matter how good your evidence is.

Common Mistakes

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Example of Argumentative/ Pesruasive Essay

Why People Should Read Books?

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Introduction ParagraphIt is quite a disappointment that people have stopped reading books.

Books used to be the only kind of intellectual entertainment just a

hundred years ago, but, with the invention of radio, television, cinema,

and, most recently, the Internet and computer games, it seems that

reading books is no longer an option of a leisure activity, at least for the

younger generation. However, I believe that books are an irreplaceable

part of our lives, and the role that good books play on the personal

growth and development of a particular person throughout one’s life, is a

remarkable one. Books can hardly be replaced with movies, music and

interactive TV shows, and there are several reasons for that.

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1. Supporting Details

First of all, books expand our knowledge and conception of the world around

us. You may argue that movies and TV documentaries do just that too, but I

believe that books are a much better alternative, since they allow each reader

to experience the same story using one’s own imagination. When a hundred

people watch a movie or a TV show, they see the same thing – whatever the

director and the operator wish to show. Books are very different. The

experience achieved through reading is richer and more personal, since the

same description and the same word choice will result in as many different

interpretations as there are readers. We are all unique, and books allow us to

experience whatever is narrated, in the light of our own personal values,

through our ideas and our imagination.

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2. Supporting DetailsSecondly, books enrich our vocabulary, introduce us to new notions and offer us a

wider choice of words. With every book you read, you become more intelligent. Even

reading one seemingly more primitive pulp fiction book per month, can enrich one’s

personal vocabulary with dozens of new words, help build more concise sentences and

express oneself better, make one’s speech more intelligent and sophisticated. Watching

certain TV programs and documentary movies can also widen one’s vocabulary, but

hardly as effectively as books do, since when reading, we operate with both visual and

audial (if reading aloud) receptors, so our perception becomes more effective and our

memory works more efficiently. In addition to that, our imagination reproduces mental

pictures of what we are reading about, so a new word automatically links to a certain

image and a certain feeling that it relates to. Therefore, reading books is a great tool

when it comes to learning and developing one’s vocabulary at any age.

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Finally, books are a great source of inspiration. Unlike fine art,

architecture or travelling, books help us create our own mental

illustration for everything we read on paper. So, in a way, books make

us all artists and creators of our own mental cartoon, movie or

illustration collection. Every image we create ourselves is

automatically allotted a certain emotion, whether a simple or a more

complicated one. So, every mental image that a written word causes

is vibrant with feelings and emotions. This is what makes books so

powerful and so memorable. Books are an endless source of

inspiration and motivation to become a better person.

3. Supporting Details

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Conclusion

I am certain that creating a system of symbols and eventually an alphabet, words, and

books was the greatest invention of humankind. Of course, the books I am talking about

are classics, those that do not have an expiration date and will be priceless for any

generation. Books like that stay forever, they cannot die and cannot become outdated.

They will keep sparking new ideas, inspiring new deeds and enriching the lives of every

generation to come. Therefore, I am positive that books will eventually regain their

popularity for today’s youth, since, unlike the popular kinds of entertainment in fashion

today, books are those roots to which people will always go back, in search of the

motivation, inspiration and aspiration, to find the meaning and value of things in life.

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Tips

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Tips

• Use synonyms- – Having the same word over and over will place a

toll on the reader's nerves. – Mix it up a bit.

• Also, do not use boring words, such as:– "big" or "nice."

• Instead, try:– "enormous" or "compassionate."

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Tips

• Make sure you know your audience. – Stick to a certain tone, whether it is:• formal, • informal, • funny, • pleading, etc.

• Use persuasive statements.

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Tips

• Don't make the essay too long.

– Long papers are not always impressive and can be

plain boring.

• Use similes and metaphors.

– Say things like, "She was as graceful as a butterfly." Or

"He was like a tiger, always hungry." Use 'like' and 'as'

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Tips

• Try to hook your audience in your first paragraph.– then slowly draw them in throughout your entire essay,

until the last paragraph, where you let them go (a lot like fishing).

• Make each sentence count. – Adding extra sentences will not drive your point home.

Keep the essay clear and concise.• When restating, do not duplicate any sentence. – Your audience will not skip over any part, so there isn't

a need for stressing the same point over and over.

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Tips

• Be sure to keep your deadline in mind if you're

having issues brainstorming!

• You can also write three paragraphs for the

body, and instead of minor points, write logical,

supporting reasons for the topic.

• Use facts or statistics.

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Tips

• Don't plagiarize people's work.

• Be aware of the possible counter-arguments that

would go against what you are trying to say.

– You need to plan ahead for oppositions.

– Therefore, list some common oppositions and have

counters for them.

Page 39: Argumentative/ Persuasive  Essay

Summary

• How to Write an Argumentative/ Persuasive Essay?• Well Written Argumentative/ Persuasive Essay• Steps for Writing a Argumentative/ Persuasive Essay• Topic Selection• Dos and Don’ts• Common Mistakes• Example• General Essay writing Tips

Page 40: Argumentative/ Persuasive  Essay

References

• http://academichelp.net/academic-assignments/essay/write-persuasive-essay.html

• http://academichelp.net/samples/essays/persuasive/people-read-books.html

• http://www.studygs.net/wrtstr4.htm• http://

www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Persuasive-Essay