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11/4/2011 1 Standard K-2 The student will read and comprehend a variety of informational texts in print and nonprint formats. Kindergarten students read informational (expository/persuasive/argumentative) texts of the following types: informational trade books and magazine articles. They also read directions, graphs, and recipes embedded in informational texts. Indicator K-2.3 Exemplify facts in texts read aloud. Definition of Revised Bloom’s Verb Exemplify: Finding a specific example or illustration of a concept or principle Explanation of Indicator A fact is what is actually real. It can be proven it to be true. For example, a turtle has a shell. To prove this statement to be true, students can see the shell on a turtle to confirm that it does have a shell. Instructional Progression of Indicator The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some areas of focus for facts differ at each grade level. What do students need to know before they can understand facts in text read aloud? Kindergarten students should be able to listen to stories read aloud. However, some students may have more experience with print than others. Kindergarten students should understand the difference between fictional text and nonfiction text. However, some students may have more experience with text types than others. Kindergarten students vary in beginning reading skills that support comprehension such as vocabulary, fluency, phonemic awareness, and phonics. Within facts, what have students been taught and what will they be taught in the future? Because the Academic Standards for English language arts begin at grade K, there are not any previous indicators. A kindergarten classroom may be very diverse; students may have had various levels of exposure to print. The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade. K-2.3 Exemplify facts in texts read aloud. 1-2.3 Understand the difference between facts and opinions. 2-2.3 Distinguish between facts and opinions in informational texts. 3-2.3 Distinguish between facts and opinions in informational texts.

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  • 11/4/2011 1

    Standard K-2 The student will read and comprehend a variety of informational texts in print and nonprint formats.

    Kindergarten students read informational

    (expository/persuasive/argumentative) texts of the following types:

    informational trade books and magazine articles. They also read directions, graphs, and recipes embedded in informational texts.

    Indicator K-2.3 Exemplify facts in texts read aloud.

    Definition of Revised Blooms Verb Exemplify: Finding a specific example or illustration of a concept or principle

    Explanation of Indicator

    A fact is what is actually real. It can be proven it to be true. For example, a turtle has a shell. To prove this statement to be true, students can see the shell on a turtle to confirm that it does have a shell.

    Instructional Progression of Indicator

    The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some areas of focus for facts differ at each grade level.

    What do students need to know before they can understand facts in text read aloud?

    Kindergarten students should be able to listen to stories read aloud. However, some students may have more experience with

    print than others. Kindergarten students should understand the difference

    between fictional text and nonfiction text. However, some

    students may have more experience with text types than others.

    Kindergarten students vary in beginning reading skills that support comprehension such as vocabulary, fluency, phonemic awareness, and phonics.

    Within facts, what have students been taught and what will

    they be taught in the future? Because the Academic Standards for English language arts begin at grade K, there are not any previous indicators. A kindergarten

    classroom may be very diverse; students may have had various levels of exposure to print.

    The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade. K-2.3 Exemplify facts in texts read aloud. 1-2.3 Understand the difference between facts and opinions.

    2-2.3 Distinguish between facts and opinions in informational texts.

    3-2.3 Distinguish between facts and opinions in informational texts.

  • 11/4/2011 2

    4-2.3 Analyze informational texts to locate and identify facts and opinions.

    5-2.3 Analyze a given text to detect author bias by locating indicators such as unsupported opinions.

    6-2.3 Understand indicators of an authors bias such as the omission of relevant facts and statements of unsupported opinions.

    When teaching facts, what connections, links, or ties can be

    made to other indicators and/or content areas? K-2.1 Summarize the central idea and details from informational

    texts read aloud.

    K-2.2 Analyze texts during classroom discussions to make inferences.

    K-2.3 Exemplify facts in texts read aloud. K-2.4 Create responses to informational texts through a variety of

    methods such as drawings, written works, and oral

    presentations. K-2.5 Carry out independent reading to gain information.

    K-2.6 Understand that headings and print styles (e.g., italics, bold, larger type) provide information to the reader.

    K-2.7 Understand graphic features such as illustrations and graphs. K-2.8 Recognize tables of contents. K-2.9 Conclude the cause of an event described in a text read aloud.

    K-5.1 Use drawings, letters, or words to create written communications such as notes, messages, and lists to inform a

    specific audience. K-5.2 Use drawings, letters, or words to create narratives such as

    stories and journal entries about people, places, or things.

    K-5.3 Use drawings, letters, or words to create descriptions of personal experiences, people, places, or things.

    K-6.1 Generate how and why questions about a topic of interest. K-6.2 Understand that information can be found in print sources

    such as books, pictures, simple graphs, and charts and

    nonprint media such as videos, television, films, radio, and the Internet.

    K-6.3 Classify information by constructing categories such as living and nonliving things.

    K-6.4 Use complete sentences when orally communicating with

    others. K-6.5 Understand and follow one- and two-step oral directions.

    Classroom Assessment Students should be taught and assessed using similar methods. For example, in this

    indicator, the verb is exemplify. Students should be challenged to provide examples. When it is time for assessment, students should be asked to show what

    they have learned in the same way they were taught, using cold text (text the students have not previously experienced). For example, during a discussion about

  • 11/4/2011 3

    spiders, students can orally give facts about spiders, such as, Spiders have eight legs. Or, Spiders have many eyes. A teachable moment may arise if a student

    mentions something that is an opinion, for example, Spiders are scary!

    Students understanding of facts may also be assessed within their writing. Kindergarten students can create a variety of works containing facts with teacher assistance. For example, students may be asked to respond to a text or discussions

    about spiders with a drawing. The teacher may ask students to state one fact about spiders. The teacher or students may then write the factual statement on

    their drawings. Other assessment ideas for kindergarten are teacher observations/questions, writing and illustrating a factual sentence, and

    making factual books.

    Suggested Instructional Resources Professional Texts Harvey, Stephanie, and Anne Goudvis. Strategies That Work. Portland, ME:

    Stenhouse, 2007.

    Portalupi, Joann and Ralph Fletcher. Nonfiction Craft Lessons. New York:

    Stenhouse, 2001.

    Nonprint Materials

    For additional Internet sources, use the following search terms: fact and opinion teaching fact and opinion

    how do you teach fact and opinion?

  • 11/4/2011 1

    Standard K-1 The student will begin to read and comprehend a variety of literary texts in print and nonprint formats.

    Students in kindergarten read four major types of literary texts: fiction, literary

    nonfiction, poetry, and drama. In the category of fiction, they read the following

    specific types of texts: picture books and fantasy. In the category of literary nonfiction, autobiographical and biographical sketches are read aloud to students. In the category of poetry, they read nursery and counting rhymes, songs,

    narrative poems, lyrical poems, humorous poems, and free verse.

    The teacher should continue to address earlier indicators as they apply to more difficult texts.

    Indicator K-1.5 Understand how the authors choice of words affects the

    meaning of the text. Definition of Revised Blooms Verb

    Understand: Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written, and graphic communication

    Explanation of Indicator

    Authors craft refers to the specific techniques that an author chooses to relay an intended message (e.g., figurative language, flashback, imagery, irony, word choice, and dialogue). Authors craft is best taught in the context of guided

    literature conversations, shared-reading discussions, and reading aloud time. Example: After reading aloud The Very Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle, the

    literature conversation can focus on the descriptive words and repetitive lines that were used throughout the book.

    Instructional Progression of Indicator The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some

    areas of focus for the authors craft differ at each grade level. What do students need to know before they can understand

    authors craft? Students need to know that pictures are sources of information

    that give us clues to words. Students need to know that the meaning of a story and the text

    will make sense and have structure (sounds right).

    Students need to understand that print conveys meaning. Students need to know that pictures usually support the text

    and that activating their schema to a storyline will give clues to the meaning of words. (e.g., when listening to a story about cats, children should have the expectation that it will contain

    words associated with cats, such as tail, purr, and whiskers. Students need to know that authors use a certain craft to make

    their reading and writing more interesting.

  • 11/4/2011 2

    Within context clues, what have students been taught and what will they be taught in the future?

    The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade. K-1.5 Understand how the authors choice of words affects the

    meaning of the text. 1-1.5 Understand how elements of the authors craft such as word

    choice affect the meaning of a given literary text.

    2-1.5 Understand the effect of the authors craft, such as word choice and the use of repetition, on the meaning of a given

    literary text. 3-1.5 Understand the effect of the authors craft, such as word

    choice and sentence structure, on the meaning of a given

    literary text. 4-1.5 Understand the effect of an authors craftsuch as word

    choice, sentence structure, the use of figurative language, and the use of dialogueon the meaning of literary texts.

    5-1.5 Understand the effect of an authors craftsuch as tone and

    the use of figurative language, dialogue, and imageryon the meaning of literary texts.

    When teaching authors craft, what connections, links, or ties

    can be made to other indicators and/or content areas? K-1.1 Use pictures and words to make predictions regarding a story

    read aloud.

    K-1.3 Exemplify sound devices (including onomatopoeia and alliteration) in texts read aloud.

    K-1.9 Recall the characteristics of fantasy. K-2.6 Understand that headings and print styles (e.g., italics, bold,

    larger type) provide information to the reader.

    K-2.7 Understand graphic features such as illustrations and graphs. K-3.1 Use pictures and context to construct the meaning of

    unfamiliar words in texts read aloud. K-3.5 Use oral rhymes, poems, and songs to build fluency. K-4.3 Use pictures, letters, or words to tell a story from beginning to

    end. K-5.1 Use drawings, letters, or words to create written

    communications such as notes, messages, and lists to inform a specific audience.

    K-5.2 Use drawings, letters, or words to create narratives such as

    stories and journal entries about people, places, or things. K-5.3 Use drawings, letters, or words to create descriptions of

    personal experiences, people, places, or things. K-5.4 Use drawings, letters, or words to create written pieces such

    as simple rhymes to entertain others.

    Classroom Assessment

    Students should be taught and assessed using similar methods. For example, the verb is understand. Students should be challenged to construct meaning from

  • 11/4/2011 3

    authors craft and to demonstrate how the authors craft contributes to the overall meaning of the text. When its time for assessment, students should be asked to

    show what they have learned in the same way they were taught using cold text (text the students have not previously experienced).

    The primary focus of assessment for authors craft is to determine if students understand the effect of authors craft on reading and writing and if they can

    transfer that knowledge to their own reading and writing. Sample assessments may include

    teacher observations, classroom discussions during read alouds, and reading and writing conferences.

    In order to be consistent with the indicator, the expectation on any assessment

    strategy is that students must demonstrate they can understand the authors craft.

    Suggested Instructional Resources

    Professional Texts Fisher, Bobbi. Joyful Learning in Kindergarten. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1998.

    Fletcher, Ralph and Joann Portalupi. Craft Lessons Teaching Writing K-8, Portland,

    ME: Stenhouse , 1998.

    Hoyt, Linda. Interactive Read-Alouds: K-1. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2007.

    Neuman, Susan B., Carol Copple, and Sue Bredekamp. Learning to Read and Write.

    Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children,

    2002.

    Pinell, Gay Su and Patricia L. Scharer. Teaching for Comprehension in Reading:

    Grades K-2. New York: Scholastic, 2003.

    Portalupi, Joann and Ralph Fletcher. Nonfiction Craft Lessons Teaching Information

    Writing K-8. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 2001.

    Taberski, Sharon. On Solid Ground, Strategies for Teaching Reading K-3.

    Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.

    Nonprint Materials

    http://www.readwritethink.org

    http://www.readwritethink.org/

  • 11/4/2011 4

    Reading Rainbow This program explores reading for children. It is available through SC Educational

    Television. Refer to the book list and correlate it to the Program Title.

    http://www.unitedstreaming.com For additional Internet sources, use the following search terms:

    authors craft grade K

    http://www.unitedstreaming.com/

  • 10/7/2011 1

    Standard K-2 The student will begin to read and comprehend a variety of informational texts in print and nonprint formats.

    Kindergarten students read informational

    (expository/persuasive/argumentative) texts of the following types:

    informational trade books and magazine articles. They also read directions, graphs, and recipes embedded in informational texts.

    Indicator K-2.2 Analyze texts during classroom discussions to make inferences.

    Definition of Revised Blooms Verb Analyze: Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts

    relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose. Other verb terminology that speaks to the notion of analyzing might be

    differentiating, organizing, and attributing. Explanation of Indicator

    Making inferences is the act or process of drawing a conclusion or making a prediction based on what one already knows either from prior knowledge,

    observations, or evidence found in the text. When making an inference, ideas and facts are implied or suggested rather than stated outright.

    Instructional Progression The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some

    areas of focus for the study of making inferences differ at each grade level.

    What do students need to know before they can understand the study of making inferences? Students should understand the meaning of reading between the

    lines and that sometimes readers have to make educated guesses in order to make meaning from the text. Students should know that

    these educated guesses should be based on evidence that comes from their prior knowledge as well as the text itself. At this level, the analysis of informational text will occur during read alouds.

    Within the study of making inferences, what have students

    been taught and what will they be taught in the future? The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade. K-2.2 Analyze texts during classroom discussions to make inferences.

    1-2.2 Analyze informational texts to draw conclusions and make inferences during classroom discussions.

    2-2.2 Analyze informational texts to draw conclusions and make inferences during classroom discussions.

    3-2.2 Analyze informational texts to draw conclusions and make

    inferences. 4-2.2 Analyze informational texts to draw conclusions and make

    inferences.

  • 10/7/2011 2

    5-2.2 Analyze informational texts to draw conclusions and make inferences.

    When teaching the study of making inferences, what

    connections, links, or ties can be made to other indicators? K-1.2 Use pictures and words to make predictions regarding a story

    read aloud.

    K-1.6 Create responses to literary texts through a variety of methods (for example, writing, creative dramatics, and the

    visual and performing arts). K-2.4 Create responses to informational texts through a variety of

    methods (for example, drawings, written works, and oral

    presentations). K-2.6 Understand graphic features (for example, illustrations and

    graphs). K-3.19 Use prior knowledge and life experiences to construct meaning

    from texts.

    K-5.2 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create narratives (for example, stories and journal entries) about

    people, places, or things. K-5.3 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create

    descriptions of personal experiences, people, places, or things. K-5.4 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create written

    pieces (for example, simple rhymes) to entertain others.

    Classroom Assessment

    Students should be assessed in the same ways they are taught. During instruction and assessment, students should make inferences from informational text read aloud. Assessments may include but are not limited to classroom discussions,

    reading and writing conferences, and student drawings.

    Suggested Instructional Resources Professional Texts Cunningham, Andie and Ruth Shagoury. Starting With Comprehension: Reading

    Strategies for the Youngest Learners. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 2005.

    Harvey, Stephanie and Anne Goudis. Strategies That Work: Teaching

    Comprehension to Enhance Understanding. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 2007.

    Keene, Ellin and Susan Zimmerman. Mosaic of Thought, Second Edition.

    Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2007.

    Keene, Ellin. To Understand: New Horizons in Reading Comprehension. Portsmouth,

    NH: Heinemann, 2008.

  • 10/7/2011 3

    Miller, Debbie. Reading With Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the Primary

    Grades. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 2002.

    Owocki, Gretchen. Comprehension: Strategic Instruction for K-3 Students.

    Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2003.

    Student Texts

    There are many titles that teachers and students may select to better understand the study of making inferences. Library Media Specialists from the South Carolina Association of School Librarians (SCASL) are collaborating with the South Carolina

    Department of Education to provide a sampling of texts to match the indicators. This will continue to be a work in progress. Teachers should collaborate with their

    library media specialists for additional suggestions. These titles can be used for read alouds, shared reading, and independent reading. While each title on the list has been read and reviewed by professionals, some of these titles may not meet

    the needs of each classroom environment. Teachers are encouraged to read the texts prior to using them in class. Use the following link for the SCASL suggested

    texts: http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA%20Standards The Little Seed by Eric Carle

    Bugs Are Insects by Anne Rockwell Nonprint Materials

    Environmental print, such as the golden arches M for McDonalds.

    http://www.readwritethink.org http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=27

    Best Practices http://ed.sc.gov/agency/offices/cso/standards/ela/index.html

    http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA%20Standardshttp://www.readwritethink.org/http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=27http://ed.sc.gov/agency/offices/cso/standards/ela/index.html

  • 10/10/2011 1

    Standard K-3 The student will learn to read by applying appropriate skills and strategies.

    Indicators for this standard in kindergarten through grade two focus on

    beginning reading skills and strategies and support the five componentscomprehension, fluency, phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary

    delineated by the National Reading Panel as central to a childs learning to read. Although the phonics and phonemic awareness indicators are separated, the National Reading Panel found that the most effective way of teaching phonemic

    awareness is in conjunction with phonics.

    These indicators will be assessed by the classroom teacher.

    Instructional appendixes are provided as the baseline expectations for

    instruction and are not intended to be all-inclusive documents.

    Indicator K-3.3 Use vocabulary acquired from a variety of sources (including

    conversations, texts read-aloud, and the media).

    Definition of Revised Blooms Verb

    Use: implementing; applying a procedure to an unfamiliar task Explanation of Indicator

    Vocabulary instruction is the teaching of words needed to communicate effectively. In kindergarten, children learn to use new words through speaking and listening,

    read alouds, and interaction with media. Acquiring new vocabulary helps students unlock the meaning of text.

    Instructional Progression of Indicator The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some

    areas of focus for vocabulary acquired from a variety of sources differ at each grade level.

    What do students need to know before they can use vocabulary acquired from a variety of sources?

    Students should be able to tell stories orally. Students should be able to listen to stories read aloud.

    Students should be able to have conversations with others. Within vocabulary acquired from a variety of sources, what

    have students been taught and what will they be taught in the future?

    K-3.3 Use vocabulary acquired from a variety of sources (including conversations, texts read-aloud, and the media).

    1-3.3 Use vocabulary acquired from a variety of sources (including

    conversations, texts read-aloud, and the media). 2-3.4 Identify idioms in context.

  • 10/10/2011 2

    3-3.3 Interpret the meaning of idioms encountered in texts. 4-3.3 Interpret the meaning of idioms encountered in texts.

    5-3.3 Interpret the meaning of idioms and euphemisms encountered in texts.

    When teaching vocabulary acquired from a variety of sources, what connections, links, or ties can be made to other

    indicators? K-1.1 Summarize the main idea and details from literary texts read

    aloud. K-1.2 Use pictures and words to make predictions regarding a story

    read aloud.

    K-1.4 Find examples of sound devices (including onomatopoeia and alliteration) in texts read aloud.

    K-1.5 Generate a retelling that identifies the characters and the setting in a story and relates the important events in sequential order.

    K-1.6 Discuss how the authors choice of words affects the meaning of the text (for example, yell rather than said).

    K-1.7 Use relevant details in summarizing stories read aloud. K-1.8 Create responses to literary texts through a variety of

    methods (for example, writing, creative dramatics, and the visual and performing arts).

    K-1.9 Recall the characteristics of fantasy.

    K-1.10 Explain the cause of an event described in stories read aloud. K-1.11 Read independently for pleasure.

    K-2.1 Summarize the central idea and details from informational texts read aloud.

    K-2.2 Analyze texts during classroom discussions to make

    inferences. K-2.3 Find facts in texts read aloud.

    K-2.4 Create responses to informational texts through a variety of methods (for example, drawings, written works, and oral presentations).

    K-3.1 Use pictures and context to construct the meaning of unfamiliar words in texts read aloud.

    K-3.3 Use vocabulary acquired from a variety of sources (including conversations, texts read aloud, and the media).

    K-3.4 Recognize high-frequency words. (See Instructional Appendix:

    High-Frequency Words.) K-3.6 Use oral rhymes, poems, and songs to build fluency.

    K-4.1 Generate ideas for writing by using techniques (for example, participating in conversations and looking at pictures).

    K-4.2 Generate complete sentences orally.

    K-5.1 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create written communications (for example, notes, messages, and lists) to

    inform a specific audience.

  • 10/10/2011 3

    K-5.2 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create narratives (for example, stories and journal entries) about

    people, places, or things. K-5.3 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create

    descriptions of personal experiences, people, places, or things. K-5.4 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create written

    pieces (for example, simple rhymes) to entertain others.

    Classroom Assessment

    Students should be assessed in the same ways they are taught. Teachers should observe conversations kindergarten students hold with their peers. Vocabulary development can be monitored during reading conferences with the teacher, during

    shared reading experiences, center time, circle time, and during small group time. By engaging in casual conversation with the kindergarten students, teachers can

    monitor the use of words in spoken language. Other sample assessments may also include

    formal teacher observations,

    classroom discussion, reading and writing conferences, and

    student writing samples.

    Suggested Instructional Resources Professional Texts Cunningham, Patricia M. Phonics They Use. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 2004.

    Diller, Debbie. Literacy Work Stations Making Centers Work. Portland, ME:

    Stenhouse, 2003.

    Fletcher, Ralph. Craft Lessons. New York, NY: Steinhouse, 2002.

    Harvey, Stephanie, and Anne Goudvis. Strategies That Work. Portland, ME:

    Stenhouse, 2007.

    Ray, Katie Wood. Wondrous Words. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of

    English, 1999.

    Routman, Regie. Invitations Changing as Teachers and Learners K-12. Portsmouth,

    NH: Heinemann, 1991.

    Routman, Regie. Conversations. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.

    Student Texts

    There are many titles that teachers and students may select to better understand using vocabulary from a variety of sources. Library Media Specialists from the

  • 10/10/2011 4

    South Carolina Association of School Librarians (SCASL) are collaborating with the South Carolina Department of Education to provide a sampling of texts to match

    the indicators. This will continue be a work in progress. Teachers should collaborate with their library media specialists for additional suggestions. These titles can be

    used for read alouds, shared reading, and independent reading. While each title on the list has been read and reviewed by professionals, some of these titles may not meet the needs of each classroom environment. Teachers are encouraged to read

    the texts prior to using them in class. Use the following link for the SCASL suggested texts. http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA+Standards.

    Nonprint Materials http://www.idiomsbykids.com/

    http://www.englishdaily626.com

    http://www.englishdaily626.com/idioms.php

    http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA+Standardshttp://www.idiomsbykids.com/http://www.englishdaily626.com/http://www.englishdaily626.com/idioms.php

  • January 26, 2009 1

    Standard K-3 The student will learn to read by applying appropriate skills and strategies.

    Indicators for this standard in kindergarten through grade two focus on beginning

    reading skills and strategies and support the five componentscomprehension, fluency, phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabularydelineated by the National

    Reading Panel as central to a childs learning to read. These indicators will be assessed by the classroom teacher. Although the phonics and phonemic awareness indicators are separated, the National Reading Panel found that the most effective way of

    teaching phonemic awareness is in conjunction with phonics.

    These indicators will be assessed by the classroom teacher. Instructional appendixes are provided as the baseline expectations for instruction and

    are not intended to be all-inclusive documents.

    Indicator K-3.2 Create a different form of a familiar word by adding an s or ing ending.

    Definition of Revised Blooms Verb Create: Put elements together to form a coherent or functional whole;

    reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure

    Explanation of Indicator A study of base words and inflectional endings offers an effective tool for teachers to nurture students vocabulary development. Base words and inflectional endings provide

    students with an understanding of word parts. Students use the knowledge of individual word parts to create a different form of the base word by adding endings. Instruction

    should foster an interest in word exploration. The study of word parts should not be done as an exercise in memorization but as an opportunity to connect words with other words that have the same base word or inflectional ending. Teachers should immerse

    students in rich oral and written language that promotes effective word study. Students can then apply their knowledge of words to make connections. The purpose of

    vocabulary instruction is to make students stronger readers and writers.

    Instructional Progression of the Indicator The area of focus for the study of prefixes and suffixes differ at each grade level.

    What do students need to know before they can understand suffixes?

    Students must understand what a base word is and be able to identify them.

    Students must understand that suffixes (or endings) have meaning and

    when added to a base word, creates new words. Students should understand that suffixes are added to the end of base

    words.

  • January 26, 2009 2

    Within prefixes and suffixes, what will students be taught in

    the future?

    The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade. 1-3.2 Identify base words and their inflectional endings (including -s,

    -es, -ing, -ed, -er, and -est). 2-3.2 Construct meaning through a knowledge of base words, prefixes

    (including un-, re-, pre-, bi-, mis-, dis-) and suffixes (including -er, -est, -ful) in context.

    3-3.2 Use base words and affixes to determine the meanings of words.

    4-3.2 Use base words and affixes to determine the meanings of words. 5-3.2 Use base words and affixes to determine the meanings of words

    within texts. (See Instructional Appendix: Greek and Latin Roots and Affixes.)

    When teaching suffixes, what connections, links, or ties can be made to other indicators and/or content areas?

    K-3.1 Use pictures and context to construct the meaning of unfamiliar words in texts read aloud.

    K-3.3 Use vocabulary acquired from a variety of sources (including conversations, texts read aloud, and the media).

    K-3.4 Recognize high-frequency words (see Instructional Appendix:

    High-Frequency Words). K-3.17 Begin to spell high-frequency words (see Instructional

    Appendix: High-Frequency Words). Students should transfer their understanding of how words work

    through oral language development and vocabulary study to their writing.

    Authentic connections should be made to content area vocabulary Classroom Assessment

    Students should be taught and assessed using similar methods. Students need multiple opportunities and ways to demonstrate their knowledge of words. If vocabulary

    instruction is to be rich and authentic, the way vocabulary is assessed must also change. Ideally, teachers will observe students using vocabulary strategies in authentic contexts, for example, reading conferences related to independent, shared, or guided

    reading, to unlock the meaning of unfamiliar words.

  • January 26, 2009 3

    Suggested Instructional Resources

    Professional Texts

    Allen, Janet. Words, Words, Words. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 1999.

    ---. Yellow Brick Roads. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 2000.

    Bear, Donald, et al. Words Their Way. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill, 2000.

    Beck, Isabelle, Margaret McKeown, and Linda Kucan. Bringing Words to Life:

    RobustVocabulary Instruction. New York: Gilford, 2002.

    Beers, Kylene. When Kids Cant Read What Teachers Can Do. Portsmouth, NH:

    Heinemann, 2003.

    Newton, Rick and Evangeline Newton. A Little Latin and A Lot of English. Adolescent

    Literacy in Perspective. The Ohio Resource Center, 2005.

    Rasinski, Tim, Nancy Padak, Rick Newton, and Evangeline Newton. Building Vocabulary from Word Roots. Huntington Beach, CA: Beach CityPress, 2007

    Student Texts

    There are many titles that teachers and students may select to better understand suffixes. Library Media Specialists from the South Carolina Association of School Librarians (SCASL) are collaborating with the South Carolina Department of Education

    to provide a sampling of texts to match the indicators. This will continue to be a work in progress. Teachers should collaborate with their library media specialists for additional

    suggestions. These titles can be used for read alouds, shared reading, and independent reading. While each title on the list has been read and reviewed by professionals, some of these titles may not meet the needs of each classroom environment. Teachers are

    encouraged to read the texts prior to using them in class. Use the following link for the SCASL suggested texts http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA+Standards

    Nonprint Materials http://teachers.net/lessons/posts/4159.html

    http://www.resourceroom.net/comprehension/idavocab2004.asp

    http://www.tasaliteracy.com/rpe/instruction/vocab.html#teachprefixes

    http://www.adlit.org/article/19692

    http://www.localschooldirectory.com/include/teachers/lesson_plan.php/lesson_plan_id/

    12

    http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA+Standardshttp://teachers.net/lessons/posts/4159.htmlhttp://www.resourceroom.net/comprehension/idavocab2004.asphttp://www.tasaliteracy.com/rpe/instruction/vocab.html#teachprefixeshttp://www.adlit.org/article/19692http://www.localschooldirectory.com/include/teachers/lesson_plan.php/lesson_plan_id/12http://www.localschooldirectory.com/include/teachers/lesson_plan.php/lesson_plan_id/12

  • January 26, 2009 4

    http://www.collaborativelearning.org/suffixconnect4.pdf

    http://www.tv411.org/lessons/cfm/vocabulary.cfm?str=vocabulary&num=10&act=1

    http://books.google.com/books?id=Fzqb3c59VOgC&pg=PA96&lpg=PA96&dq=teaching+affixes+to+elementary+children&source=web&ots=dUD2E7DVMP&sig=6W8eI9KS2Ba

    57hBw4Un-566g24E&hl=en http://www.kent.k12.wa.us/ksd/MA/resources/greek_and_latin_roots/transition.html

    http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hangar/7594/roots.html

    http://www.espindle.org/roots.html#up

    http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0907017.html

    http://www.quia.com/jg/65969.html

    http://www.collaborativelearning.org/suffixconnect4.pdfhttp://www.tv411.org/lessons/cfm/vocabulary.cfm?str=vocabulary&num=10&act=1http://books.google.com/books?id=Fzqb3c59VOgC&pg=PA96&lpg=PA96&dq=teaching+affixes+to+elementary+children&source=web&ots=dUD2E7DVMP&sig=6W8eI9KS2Ba57hBw4Un-566g24E&hl=enhttp://books.google.com/books?id=Fzqb3c59VOgC&pg=PA96&lpg=PA96&dq=teaching+affixes+to+elementary+children&source=web&ots=dUD2E7DVMP&sig=6W8eI9KS2Ba57hBw4Un-566g24E&hl=enhttp://books.google.com/books?id=Fzqb3c59VOgC&pg=PA96&lpg=PA96&dq=teaching+affixes+to+elementary+children&source=web&ots=dUD2E7DVMP&sig=6W8eI9KS2Ba57hBw4Un-566g24E&hl=enhttp://www.kent.k12.wa.us/ksd/MA/resources/greek_and_latin_roots/transition.htmlhttp://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hangar/7594/roots.htmlhttp://www.espindle.org/roots.html#uphttp://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0907017.htmlhttp://www.quia.com/jg/65969.html

  • 10/10/2011 1

    Standard K-5 The student will begin to write for a variety of purposes and audiences.

    Students in the first grade use pictures, letters, or words to generate a story from

    beginning to end. They use an understanding of the alphabet and a knowledge of

    letter names to spell words independently when writing. Teachers should continue to address earlier indicators as they apply to more

    difficult text.

    Indicator K-5.1 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create

    written communications (for example, notes, messages,

    and lists) to inform a specific audience.

    Definition of Revised Blooms Verb Create: Put elements together to form a coherent or functional

    whole

    Explanation of Indicator Creating informational pieces of writing requires a different approach to composing.

    This type of writing is more authentic, is about knowledge that the writer has to share, gives information to explain realities or ideas, has a purpose that is related

    to a real-life situation, and is written for a specific audience. Various techniques can be used to convey information. Students in kindergarten might write notes or make lists for a specific audience. Students might write a note to a friend or make a list of

    their favorite foods for the cafeteria workers.

    Instructional Progression The level of difficulty of the writing increases at each grade level. Additionally, some areas of focus differ at each grade level.

    What do students need to know before they can create

    informational pieces? Students need to be familiar with writing. However, some students

    may have more experience than others.

    Students writing skills will vary. Students need to be able to write a message or list in order to

    inform and should be allowed to use symbols, pictures, or words.

    Within informational writing, what have students been taught

    and what will they be taught learn in the future? The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade.

    K-5.1 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create written communications (for example, notes, messages, and lists) to

    inform a specific audience.

    1-5.1 Create written communications (for example, thank you notes) for a specific audience.

  • 10/10/2011 2

    2-5.1 Create written communications (for example, directions and instructions) to inform a specific

    audience 3-5.1 Create written communications (for example, friendly

    letters that include a greeting, body, closing, and signature and invitations that include the time, date, and place of the event).

    4-5.1 Create informational pieces (for example, postcards, flyers, letters, and e-mails) that use language

    appropriate for the specific audience. 5-5.1 Create informational pieces (for example, book

    reviews and newsletter articles) that use language

    appropriate for the specific audience.

    When teaching informational writing, what connections, links, or ties can be made to other indicators?

    K-1.8 Create responses to literary texts through a variety of methods (for example, writing, creative dramatics, and the visual and

    performing arts). K-2.4 Create responses to informational texts through a variety of

    methods (for example, drawings, written works, and oral presentations).

    K-4.1 Generate ideas for writing by using techniques (for example,

    participating in conversations and looking at pictures). K-4.2 Generate complete sentences orally.

    K-4.3 Use pictures, letters, or words to tell a story from beginning to end.

    K-4.4 Use letters and relationships to sounds to write words.

    K-4.5 Begin to spell high-frequency words. (See Instructional Appendix: High-Frequency Words.)

    K-4.6 Understand that a persons name is a proper noun. K-4.7 Edit writing with teacher support. K-4.8 Revise writing with teacher support.

    K-4.9 Use uppercase and lowercase letters. K-4.10 Use appropriate letter formation when printing.

    K-4.11 Identify sounds orally by segmenting words.

    Classroom Assessment Students should be taught and assessed using similar methods. For example, in this

    indicator, the verb is create. In kindergarten, written communications may be assessed during one-on-one writing conferences, during small group discussions, or as a written assessment. When it is time for assessment, students should be asked

    to show what they have learned in the same way they were taught.

    Students understanding of written communications may also be assessed within their writing. Kindergarten students can write a variety of texts, some containing

  • 10/10/2011 3

    information. The teacher may ask students to create lists or other writings, depending on the purpose of writing. Students should be able to write a piece

    including the important details. The primary focus of assessment for written communications is to determine if students can write an informational piece.

    Suggested Instructional Resources Professional Texts

    Harvey, Stephanie, and Anne Goudvis. Strategies That Work. Portland, ME:

    Stenhouse, 2007.

    Portalupi, Joann and Ralph Fletcher. Nonfiction Craft Lessons. New York:

    Stenhouse, 2001.

    Student Texts There are many titles that teachers and students may select to better understand

    informational writing. Library Media Specialists from the South Carolina Association of School Librarians (SCASL) are collaborating with the South Carolina Department

    of Education to provide a sampling of texts to match the indicators. This will continue be a work in progress. Teachers should collaborate with their library media

    specialists for additional suggestions. These titles can be used for read alouds, shared reading, and independent reading. While each title on the list has been read and reviewed by professionals, some of these titles may not meet the needs of each

    classroom environment. Teachers are encouraged to read the texts prior to using them in class. Use the following link for the SCASL suggested texts

    http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA+Standards. Nonprint Materials

    http://www.teachersdesk.org/news.html This site provides ideas on using newspapers in the classroom.

    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/multimedia/strategies.html

    http://readwritethink.org

    http://www.teachersfirst.com http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com

    Discovering Language Arts: Nonfiction (Grades 3-5).

    http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com Discovering Language Arts: Fiction (Grades 6-8).

    http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA+Standardshttp://www.teachersdesk.org/news.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/multimedia/strategies.htmlhttp://readwritethink.org/http://www.teachersfirst.com/http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/

  • January 29. 2009

    1

    Standard K-6 The student will begin to access and use information from a variety of sources.

    Indicator K-6.1 Generate how and why questions about a topic of

    interest. Definition of Revised Blooms Verb

    Generate: Coming up with alternative hypotheses based on criteria

    Explanation of Indicator Before any formal research process can begin, students must understand the concept of inquiry or wondering about something, for example, Why is the sky

    blue? Young students begin this process by learning how to develop and ask how and why questions about a topic of interest both formally and informally. Oral

    discussions and conversations are the best way to begin this process with kindergarten students.

    Instructional Progression The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some

    areas of focus for generating questions differ at each grade level.

    What do students need to know before they can understand how to generate how and why questions? Students need to be curious and ask questions about things in their world in

    which they are interested. This can be done during read alouds and classroom discussions lead by the teacher.

    Students need to know the difference between questions that ask how

    and questions that ask why.

    Students need to experience asking and answering questions of others.

    Students need to understand that questions provide information. Students must feel comfortable participating in conversations and

    discussions in both large and small groups.

    Students must learn how to actively and appropriately participate in conversations and discussions.

    Within how to generate how and why questions, what have students been taught and what will they be taught in the future?

    The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade.

    K-6.1 Generate how and why questions about a topic of interest. 1-6.1 Generate how and why questions about a topic of interest. 2-6.1 Generate how and why questions about a topic of interest.

    3-6.1 Generate a topic for inquiry. 4-6.1 Clarify and refine a research topic.

    5-6.1 Clarify and refine a research topic.

  • January 29. 2009

    2

    When teaching how to generate how and why questions, what connections, links, or ties can be made to other indicators?

    K-1.1 Summarize the main idea and details from literary texts read aloud.

    K-1.2 Use pictures and words to make predictions regarding a story read aloud.

    K-1.6 Discuss how the authors choice of words affects the meaning of the

    text (for example, yell rather than said). K-1.8 Create responses to literary texts through a variety of methods (for

    example, writing, creative dramatics, and the visual and performing arts).

    K-2.1 Summarize the central idea and details from informational texts read

    aloud. K-2.2 Analyze texts during classroom discussions to make inferences.

    K-2.3 Find facts in texts read aloud. K-2.4 Create responses to informational texts through a variety of methods

    (for example, drawings, written works, and oral presentations).

    K-2.5 Understand that headings and print styles (for example, italics, bold, larger type) provide information to the reader.

    K-2.6 Understand graphic features (for example, illustrations and graphs). K-2.7 Recognize tables of contents.

    K-2.8 Explain the cause of an event described in a text read aloud. K-2.9 Read independently to gain information. K-4.1 Generate ideas for writing by using techniques (for example,

    participating in conversations and looking at pictures). K-4.2 Generate complete sentences orally.

    K-4.4 Use letters and relationships to sounds to write words. K-6.2 Recognize that information can be found in print sources (for example,

    books, pictures, simple graphs, and charts) and nonprint sources (for

    example, videos, television, films, radio, and the Internet). K-6.3 Classify information by constructing categories (for example, living and

    nonliving things). K-6.4 Use complete sentences when orally communicating with others.

    Classroom Assessment Students should be taught and assessed using similar methods. For example, in this

    indicator, the verb is generate This indicator addresses one part of a larger whole in which students will ultimately participate. At this grade level, students should only be assessed based upon that what the indicator is asking of them, in this case

    generating questions about a topic of interest using the words how and why as guiding language. Students should first learn the foundational components of the

    total research process which will be demonstrated in authentic contexts in later grades.

    Conferencing with students is an excellent way to assess understanding of this indicator.

  • January 29. 2009

    3

    Suggested Instructional Resources Research is not taught in isolation. Students need to know how they can find out

    about things they dont know, and they need to know how to share what theyve learned with others. Suggested texts are listed below; however, what you use

    depends on topics of interest. Students ask the best how and why questions about topics that interest them and thereby able to later clarify and refine research about that topic.

    Professional Texts

    Buzzeo, Toni. Collaborating to Meet Standards: Teacher/Librarian Partnerships for

    K-6. Worthington, OH: Linworth Publishing Co., 2007.

    Fisher, Bobbi. Joyful Learning in Kindergarten. Portsmouth,

    NH: Heinemann. 1998.

    Johnson, Doug. Learning Right From Wrong in the Digital Age: An Ethics Guide for

    Parents, Teachers, Librarians, and Others Who Care About Computer-Using

    Young People. Worthington, OH: Linworth Publishing Co., 2003.

    Koechlin, Carol, and Sandi Zwaan. Build Your Own Information Literate School. Salt

    Lake City: Hi Willow Research and Publishing, 2003.

    Koechlin, Carol, and Sandi Zwaan. Info Tasks for Successful Learning. Portland, ME:

    Pembroke Publishers, 2001.

    Loertscher, David V., and Blanche Wools. Information Literacy. 2nd ed. San Jose,

    CA: Hi Willow Research and Publishing, 2002.

    Loertscher, David V., Carol Koechlin, and Sandi Zwaan. Ban Those Bird Units: 15

    Models for Teaching and Learning in Information-Rich and Technology-Rich

    Environments. Salt Lake City: Hi Willow Research & Publishing, 2005.

    Ryan, Jenny, and Steph Capra. Information Literacy Toolkit. Chicago: American

    Library Association, 2001.

  • January 29. 2009

    4

    Thompson, Helen M, and Susan A. Henley. Fostering Information Literacy:

    Connecting National Standards, Goals 2000, and the SCANS Report.

    Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc., 2000.

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman. Power Research Tools: Learning Activities and Posters.

    Chicago: American Library Association, 2003.

    Whitley, Peggy, Catherine Olson, and Susan Goodwin. 98 Jumpstarts to Research:

    Topic Guidelines for Finding Information on Current Issues. Englewood, CO:

    Libraries Unlimited, 2001.

    Student Texts There are many titles that teachers and students may select to better understand

    clarifying and refining a research topic. Library Media Specialists from the South Carolina Association of School Librarians (SCASL) are collaborating with the South

    Carolina Department of Education to provide a sampling of texts to match the indicators. This will continue to be a work in progress. Teachers should collaborate with their library media specialists for additional suggestions. These titles can be

    used for read alouds, shared reading, and independent reading. While each title on the list has been read and reviewed by professionals, some of these titles may not

    meet the needs of each classroom environment. Teachers are encouraged to read the texts prior to using them in class. Use the following link for the SCASL suggested texts: http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA%20Standards

    Nonprint Materials

    Alewine, Martha. The Simple Four: An Information Problem-Solving Model.

    School Library Media Services, South Carolina Department of Education,

    9 Sept 2007.

    http://martha.alewine.googlepages.com/thesimplefour

    Baker, Frank. Media Literacy Clearinghouse. 28 Sept. 2007.

    http://www.frankwbaker.com/

    DISCUS. 2007. South Carolina State Library. 28 Sept. 2007.

    http://www.scdiscus.org/databases/discus-kids/

    http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA%20Standardshttp://martha.alewine.googlepages.com/thesimplefourhttp://www.frankwbaker.com/http://www.scdiscus.org/databases/discus-kids/

  • January 29. 2009

    5

    Magic Schoolbus

    The program is based on science facts. It is available through SC Instructional Televisions and through Streamline SC. Refer to the list of

    programs availabe and correlate those to what is being taught in the classroom. http://www.itv.scetv.org/

    Reading Rainbow

    This program explores reading for children. It is available through SC Educational Television. Refer to the program listings to correlate programming to classroom instruction.

    http://www.itv.scetv.org/

    ReadWriteThink. 27 Sept. 2007. IRA/NCTE. 28 Sept. 2007. http://www.readwritethink.org

    StreamlineSC. 2007. ETV. Sept. 28.

    http://www.myetv.org/education/streamlinesc/index.cfm

    "The Four Phases of Instruction in an I-Search Unit: Phase 1: Becoming Immersed in a Topic and Generating a Question

    Literacy Matters. 23 Aug.2007. Education Development Center, Inc.

    http://www.itv.scetv.org/http://www.itv.scetv.org/http://www.readwritethink.org/http://www.myetv.org/education/streamlinesc/index.cfm

  • January 30, 2009 1

    Standard K-3 The student will learn to read by applying appropriate skills and strategies.

    Indicators for this standard in kindergarten through grade two focus on

    beginning reading skills and strategies and support the five componentscomprehension, fluency, phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary

    delineated by the National Reading Panel as central to a childs learning to read. Although the phonics and phonemic awareness indicators are separated, the National Reading Panel found that the most effective way of teaching phonemic

    awareness is in conjunction with phonics.

    These indicators will be assessed by the classroom teacher.

    Instructional appendixes are provided as the baseline expectations for

    instruction and are not intended to be all-inclusive documents.

    Indicator K-3.1 Use pictures and context to construct the meaning of unfamiliar

    words in texts read aloud.

    Definition of Revised Blooms Verb

    Use Applying a procedure to an unfamiliar task Explanation of Indicator

    Context clues provide students multiple ways of understanding the meanings of new and unknown words they may hear in texts read aloud. When good readers

    hear unknown words, they use the pictures, the words or the sentences around the words to make attempts to understand the meanings of the words.

    Instructional Progression of Indicator The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some

    areas of focus for context clues differ at each grade level. What do students need to know before they can understand

    context clues? Students need to know that print conveys meaning.

    Students need to know that it is not unusual to hear words that are unfamiliar when listening to a text read aloud.

    Students need to know that when good readers get stuck on a problem as they are constructing meaning in a text, they stop and figure out how to fix the problem.

    Students need to know that when good readers find unfamiliar words, they use the pictures and the surrounding words (the context) to predict

    the meaning. Students need to know that reading, writing, listening, and

    speaking demonstrate ways they are already using contexts as they

    construct meaning and understandings.

  • January 30, 2009 2

    Within context clues, what have students been taught and what will they be taught in the future?

    The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade.

    K-3.1 Use pictures and context to construct the meaning of unfamiliar words in texts read aloud.

    1-3.1 Use pictures, context, and letter-sound relationships to read

    unfamiliar words. 2-3.1 Use context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.

    3-3.1 Generate the meaning of unfamiliar and multiple-meaning words by using context clues.

    4-3.1 Generate the meaning of unfamiliar and multiple-meaning

    words by using context clues (for example, those that provide an example or a definition).

    5-3.1 Use context clues (for example, those that provide an example, a definition, or a restatement) to generate the meanings of unfamiliar and multiple-meaning words.

    When teaching context clues, what connections, links, or ties

    can be made to other indicators? Students in Kindergarten will use context clues as they interact with

    other indicators such as:

    K-3.1 Use pictures and context to construct the meaning of unfamiliar words in texts read aloud.

    K-3.2 Create a different form of a familiar word by adding an s or ing

    ending. K-3.3 Use vocabulary acquired from a variety of sources (including

    conversations, texts read aloud, and the media).

    K-3.4 Recognize high-frequency words. (See Instructional Appendix: High-Frequency Words.)

    K-3.5 Understand that multiple small words can make compound words. K-3.19 Use prior knowledge and life experiences to construct meaning from

    texts.

    Classroom Assessment

    Students should be taught and assessed using similar methods. In this indicator, the verb is use; students should be challenged to construct meaning by using context clues and to demonstrate how that process contributes to the

    understanding of unfamiliar words in texts read aloud. When students are assessed, the, students should be asked to show what they have learned in the same way

    they were taught. If students have the opportunity to hear texts read aloud, with an expectation of

    understanding, analyzing, interpreting, and using pictures and contexts, then assessment should also focus on these levels of thinking.

  • January 30, 2009 3

    In order to be consistent with the indicator, the expectation of any assessment strategy is that students must demonstrate they can use pictures and context clues

    to construct meanings of unfamiliar words heard in texts read aloud. In Kindergarten, conversations and teacher observations about the ways students

    discuss and problem solve texts, and words within texts, are effective ways to teach and to assess this indicator.

    Examples of strategies to assist students with using context clues and assist teachers in observing student understanding include:

    Search pictures for information beyond what is presented in the words in texts.

    Search pictures for specific information about the text.

    Stop during read-alouds or shared readings to talk about what students know, so far, about the context of the story, or stop at the end of each page

    to summarize the clues given in that part of text. Refer to that information as the reading continues and as new words are encountered.

    In read-alouds or shared readings, reread the sentence before or after the

    unknown word as students listen for hints about the words meaning. Use post-it notes to mark words that are identified as unknown or difficult.

    After one reading, return to the post-its to use the information from the reading to problem-solve the word meanings.

    Use the CLOZE method to read text up to the unfamiliar word and predict what kinds of words would make sense within the given context.

    Suggested Instructional Resources Professional Texts

    Harvey, Stephanie and Anne Goudvis. Strategies That Work. Portland, ME, 2000. Keene, Ellin Oliver. To Understand. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2008.

    Miller, Debbie. Reading With Meaning. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 2002.

    Pinnell, Gay Su and Patricia L. Scharer. Teaching for Comprehension in Reading. Grades K-2. New York, NY: Scholastic Professional Books.

    Rasinski, Timothy and Nancy Padak. Effective Reading Strategies. Upper Saddle

    River, NJ: Pearson/ Merrill Prentice Hall, 2004. Routman, Regie. Invitations. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1991.

    Taberski, Sharon. On Solid Ground. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.

  • January 30, 2009 4

    Student Texts

    There are many titles that teachers and students may select to better understand the use of context clues. Library Media Specialists from the South Carolina

    Association of School Librarians (SCASL) are collaborating with the South Carolina Department of Education to provide a sampling of texts to match the indicators. This will continue to be a work in progress. Teachers should collaborate with their

    library media specialists for additional suggestions. These titles can be used for read alouds, shared reading, and independent reading. While each title on the list

    has been read and reviewed by professionals, some of these titles may not meet the needs of each classroom environment. Teachers are encouraged to read the texts prior to using them in class. Use the following link for the SCASL suggested

    texts http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA%20Standards.

    Reading aloud from a wide range of books of different genres, topics, and purposes will give students opportunities to learn to use context clues in many different kinds of situations, all for the ultimate purpose of more clearly understanding an authors

    message.

    Nonprint Materials http://pbskids.org/read/

    http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA%20Standards

  • February 2, 2009

    Standard K-1 The student will read and comprehend a variety of literary texts in print and nonprint formats.

    Students in kindergarten will begin to read four major types of literary texts: fiction,

    literary nonfiction, poetry, and drama. In the category of fiction, they read the

    following specific types of texts: picture books and fantasy. In the category of literary nonfiction, autobiographical and biographical sketches, are read aloud to students. In the category of poetry, they read nursery and counting rhymes, songs,

    narrative poems, lyrical poems, humorous poems, and free verse.

    Indicator K-1.1 Summarize the main idea and details from literary texts read aloud.

    Definition of Revised Blooms Verb Summarize Abstracting a general theme or major point(s) (e.g., Write a short

    summary of events.)

    Explanation of Indicator

    Details are the individual bits of information about a subject or topic. The main idea is the major topic of a passage or work that may be stated directly or

    inferred.

    Instructional Progression of Indicator The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some areas of focus for details and main idea differ at each grade level.

    Teaching strategies for identifying details and the main idea is important.

    What do students need to know before they can understand the difference between main idea and details in a literary text?

    Kindergarten students should be able to listen to stories read aloud. However, some students may have more experience with print than others.

    Kindergarten students vary in beginning reading skills that support comprehension such as vocabulary, fluency, phonemic awareness, and phonics.

    Kindergarten students should be able to identify details from a variety of text types.

    Kindergarten students should be able to identify the main thing the author is writing about.

  • February 2, 2009

    Within main idea and details, what have students been taught and what will they be taught in the future?

    A kindergarten classroom will be diverse with students having various levels of

    exposure to print. The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade.

    K-1.1 Summarize the main idea and details from literary texts read aloud.

    1-1.1 Summarize the main idea and supporting evidence in literary text during classroom discussion.

    2-1.1 Analyze the details that support the expression of the main idea in a given literary text.

    3-1.1 Analyze the details that support the expression of the main idea in a

    given literary text. 4-1.1 Analyze the details that support the expression of the main idea in a

    given literary text. 5-1.6 Analyze the details that support the expression of the main idea in a

    given literary text.

    6-1.6 Compare/contrast main ideas within and across literary texts.

    When teaching main idea and details, what connections, links, or ties can be made to other indicators and/or content areas?

    K-1.2 Use pictures and words to make predictions regarding a story read aloud.

    K-1.3 Understand that a narrator tells the story.

    K-1.5 Generate a retelling that identifies the characters and the setting in a story and relates the important events in sequential order.

    K-1.6 Discuss how the authors choice of words affects the meaning of the text (for example, yell rather than said)

    K-1.7 Use relevant details in summarizing stories read aloud.

    K-1.8 Created responses to literary texts through a variety of methods (for example, writing, creative dramatics, and the visual and performing

    arts). K-1.9 Recall the characteristics of fantasy. K-1.10 Explain the cause of an event described in stories read aloud.

    K-2.1 Summarize the central idea and details from informational texts read aloud.

    K-2.2 Analyze texts during classroom discussions to make inferences. K-2.3 Find facts in texts read aloud. K-2.5 Understand that headings and print styles (for example, italics, bold,

    larger type) provide information to the reader. K-2.8 Explain the cause of an event described in a text read aloud.

    K-2.9 Read independently to gain information. K-3.19 Use prior knowledge and life experiences to construct meaning from

    texts.

    K-4.2 Generate complete sentences orally. K-4.3 Use pictures, letters, or words to tell a story from beginning to end.

    K-5.2 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create narratives (for example, stories and journal entries) about people, places, or things.

  • February 2, 2009

    K-5.3 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create descriptions of personal experiences, people, places, or things.

    K-5.4 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create written pieces (for example, simple rhymes) to entertain others.

    K-6.1 Generate how and why questions about a topic of interest. K-6.2 Recognize that information can be found in print sources (for example,

    books, pictures, simple graphs, and charts) and non-print sources (for

    example, living and non-living things). K-6.4 Use complete sentences when orally communicating with others.

    Classroom Assessment Students should be assessed in the same way they are taught. During instruction and

    assessment, students should identify important details and participate in creating a summary of the storys message. The student should construct meaning from the

    text focusing on important details and the order of events in the story. Assessment suggestions for kindergarten might include teacher observations/questions, written responses using symbols or words, and illustrations.

    Suggested Instructional Resources

    Professional Texts Harvey, Stephanie, and Anne Goudis, Strategies That Work, Portland, ME:

    Stenhouse, 2007

    Portalupi, Joann and Ralph Fletcher, Craft Lessons, New York: Stenhouse, 2001.

    Student Texts There are many titles that teachers and students may select to better understand the author main idea based on an analysis of the essential details in a text. Library

    Media Specialists from the South Carolina Association of School Librarians (SCASL) are collaborating with the South Carolina Department of Education to provide a

    sampling of texts to match the indicators. This will continue to be a work in progress. Teachers should collaborate with their library media specialists for additional suggestions. These titles can be used for read alouds, shared reading, and

    independent reading. While each title on the list has been read and reviewed by professionals, some of these titles may not meet the needs of each classroom

    environment. Teachers are encouraged to read the texts prior to using them in class. Use the following link for the SCASL suggested texts: http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA+Standards

    Nonprint Sources:

    http://readingrockets.org http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com

    http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA+Standardshttp://readingrockets.org/http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/

  • January 30, 2009 1

    Standard K-6 The student will begin to access and use information from a variety of sources.

    Indicator K-6.2 Recognize that information can be found in print sources (for

    example, books, pictures, simple graphs, and charts) and nonprint sources (for example, videos, television, films, radio, and the Internet).

    Definition of Revised Blooms Verb

    Recognize Locate knowledge in long term memory. Explanation of Indicator

    Information is found in a variety of places, some of which are print or hard copies of text, and others which are electronic or the types of text that may be accessed

    through a computer of another media form. Instructional Progression of Indicator

    The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some areas of focus for understanding that information can be found in a variety of

    sources that differ at each grade level.

    What do students need to know before they can understand that information can be found in a variety of sources?

    Students need to know that there are different sources of information.

    Students should be exposed to print sources such as books, pictures, simple graphs, and charts, as well as nonprint media such as video,

    television, film, radio, and the Internet. Students need to know there is a difference between each source of

    information and each type of information (print or nonprint).

    Within understanding that information can be found in a variety of

    sources, what have students been taught and what will they be taught in the future? The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade.

    1-6.2 Use print sources of information (for example, books,

    newspapers, pictures, charts, and graphs) and nonprint media to access information.

    2-6.2 Use a variety of print sources (for example, books,

    pictures, charts, graphs, diagrams, and picture dictionaries) and nonprint media to access information.

    3-6.2 Use print sources (for example, books, magazines, charts, graphs, diagrams, dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases, and thesauri) and nonprint sources (for

    example, pictures, photographs, video, and television) to access information.

  • January 30, 2009 2

    4, 5-6.2 Use print sources (for example, books, magazines, charts, graphs, diagrams, dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases,

    thesauri, newspapers, and almanacs) and nonprint sources to access information.

    1, 2-6.4 Use the Internet with the aid of a teacher. 3-6.5 Use the Internet as a source of information. 4-6.6 Use the Internet as a source of information.

    When teaching understanding that information can be found in

    a variety of sources, what connections, links, or ties can be made to other indicators? K-2.4 Create responses to informational texts through a variety

    of methods (for example, drawings, written works, and oral presentations).

    K-2.6 Understand graphic features (for example, illustrations and graphs).

    K-2.7 Recognize tables of contents.

    K-3.20 Recognize environmental print in such forms as signs in the school, road signs, restaurant and store signs, and logos.

    Classroom Assessment

    Students should be taught and assessed using similar methods. Students might be assessed through teacher observations, classroom discussions, reading and writing conferences and through the collection and analysis of work samples.

    Suggested Instructional Resources

    Research is not taught in isolation. Students need to know how they can find out about things they dont know and they need to know how to share what theyve learned with others. Suggested texts are listed below; however, what you use

    depends on the topic of interest.

    Professional Texts Fisher, Bobbi. Joyful Learning in Kindergarten. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. 1998.

    ReadWriteThink. 27 Sept. 2007. IRA/NCTE.

    Student Texts There are many titles that teachers and students may select to better understand that information can be found in a variety of sources. Library Media Specialists from

    the South Carolina Association of School Librarians (SCASL) are collaborating with the South Carolina Department of Education to provide a sampling of texts to

    match the indicators. This will continue to be a work in progress. Teachers should collaborate with their library media specialists for additional suggestions. These titles can be used for read alouds, shared reading, and independent reading. While

    each title on the list has been read and reviewed by professionals, some of these titles may not meet the needs of each classroom environment. Teachers are

    encouraged to read the texts prior to using them in class. Use the following link for the SCASL suggested texts: http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA%20Standards.

    http://www.readwritethink.org/http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA%20Standards

  • January 30, 2009 3

    Nonprint Materials

    http://www.readwritethink.org.

    http://www.hubbardscupboard.org/i_can_read_html. http://pbskids.org/sesame/.

    http://www.brainpopjr.com/.

    StreamlineSC. 2007. ETV. 28 Sept. 2007. http://www.myetv.org/education/streamlinesc/index.cfm.

    DISCUS. 2007. South Carolina State Library. 28 Sept. 2007.

    http://www.scdiscus.org/databases/discus-kids/. http://www.moma.org/modernteachers/lessons.php.

    Lessons and images from the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

    http://www.images.library.uiuc.edu/projects/tdc/lessonplans/#gk4. Lessons plans using nonprint media.

    http://www.readwritethink.org/http://www.hubbardscupboard.org/i_can_read_htmlhttp://pbskids.org/sesame/http://www.brainpopjr.com/http://www.myetv.org/education/streamlinesc/index.cfmhttp://www.scdiscus.org/databases/discus-kids/http://www.moma.org/modernteachers/lessons.phphttp://www.images.library.uiuc.edu/projects/tdc/lessonplans/#gk4

  • February 5, 2009 1

    Standard K-2 The student will begin to read and comprehend a variety of informational texts in print and nonprint formats.

    Kindergarten students read informational (expository/ persuasive/

    argumentative) texts of the following types: informational trade books and

    magazine articles. They also read directions, graphs, and recipes embedded in informational texts.

    Indicator K-2.7 Recognize tables of contents.

    Definition of Revised Blooms Verb Recognize Locating knowledge in long-term memory that is consistent with

    presented material Explanation of Indicator

    A table of contents often simply labeled "Contents," is a list of the parts of a document or book organized in the order in which the parts appear. Usually, the

    contents include the titles of the chapters. The amount of detail in a table of contents depends on the length of the work.

    Instructional Progression of Indicator The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some

    areas of focus differ at each grade level.

    What do students need to know before they can recognize a

    table of contents? Students must have had many experiences recognizing, naming,

    and recalling information such as pictures in print materials. Students must be familiar with a book and its parts. Students should understand the structure of books and how print is

    organized. Students should be able to handle books appropriately.

    Students should know the table of contents is found in front part of a book.

    Within text features, what have students been taught and what will they be taught in the future?

    The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade. 1-2.7 Use functional text features (including tables of contents).

    2-2.7 Use functional text features (including tables of contents

    and glossaries) as sources of information. 3-2.7 Use functional text features (including tables of contents,

    glossaries, and indexes) as sources of information. 4-2.7 Use functional text features (including tables of contents, glossaries,

    indexes, and appendixes) as sources of information.

  • February 5, 2009 2

    5-2.7 Use functional text features (including tables of contents, glossaries, indexes, and appendixes).

    6-2.7 Interpret information from functional text features (for example, tables of contents and glossaries).

    When teaching text features (table of contents), what connections, links, or ties can be made to other indicators?

    K-2.5 Understand that headings and print styles (for example, italics, bold, larger type) provide information to the reader.

    K-2.6 Understand graphic features (for example, illustrations and graphs). K-3.21 Know the parts of a book (including the front and back covers,

    the title, and the authors name).

    K-3.22 Carry out left-to-right and top-to-bottom directionality on the printed page.

    K-3.23 Distinguish between letters and words. Classroom Assessment

    Students should be taught and assessed using similar methods. For example, in this indicator, the verb is recognize. In kindergarten, text features including tables of

    contents may be assessed during one-on-one reading conferences or during small group or whole class discussions. When students are assessed, they should be

    asked to show what they have learned in the same way they were taught, using cold text (text the students have not previously experienced). For example, students may look at a book they have not seen before and recognize the table of

    contents.

    Suggested Instructional Resources Professional Texts Harvey, Stephanie and Anne Goudvis. Nonfiction Matters, Portland, ME:

    Stenhouse, 1998.

    Harvey, Stephanie, and Anne Goudvis. Strategies That Work. Portland, ME:

    Stenhouse, 2007.

    Miller, Debbie. Reading With Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the Primary

    Grades. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 2002.

    Portalupi, Joann and Ralph Fletcher. Nonfiction Craft Lessons. New York:

    Stenhouse, 2001.

  • February 5, 2009 3

    Student Texts There are many titles that teachers and students may select to better understand

    text features. Library Media Specialists from the South Carolina Association of School Librarians (SCASL) are collaborating with the South Carolina Department of

    Education to provide a sampling of texts to match the indicators. This will continue be a work in progress. Teachers should collaborate with their library media specialists for additional suggestions. These titles can be used for read alouds,

    shared reading, and independent reading. While each title on the list has been read and reviewed by professionals, some of these titles may not meet the needs of each

    classroom environment. Teachers are encouraged to read the texts prior to using them in class. Use the following link for the SCASL suggested texts http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA+Standards.

    Nonprint Materials http://pbskids.org/readingrainbow/ http://readingrockets.org

    http://readwritethink.org

    http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com

    Discovering Language Arts: Nonfiction (Grades K-2).

    http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA+Standardshttp://pbskids.org/readingrainbow/http://readingrockets.org/http://readwritethink.org/http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/

  • May 27, 2009 1

    Standard K-2 The student will read and comprehend a variety of informational texts in print and nonprint formats.

    Students in grade one read informational

    (expository/persuasive/argumentative) texts of the following types:

    informational trade books, textbooks and magazine articles. They also read directions, graphs, and recipes embedded in informational texts.

    The teacher should continue to address earlier indicators as they apply to more difficult texts.

    Indicator K-2.1 Summarize the central idea and details from informational

    texts read aloud. Definition of Revised Blooms Verb

    Summarize Abstracting a general theme or major point(s) (e.g., Write a short summary of events portrayed on a videotape.)

    Explanation of Indicator Central idea is what the writer wants the reader to understand about the topic of

    story or passage in informational text.

    Details are the individual bits of information about a subject or topic. Informational text is text that provides facts, and ideas that are related to science,

    social studies or the world and is classified as a nonfiction text. It is organized by topic and supporting evidence/details, whereas literary text is organized by the

    structure of a story, poem or drama. The central idea is the main or most important idea in a piece of informational text. It is what the author wants you to remember most. Some authors state the central idea directly. Others expect you to infer it.

    Finding the Central Idea

    Teaching the strategy of how to find the central idea is important. Once the subject/topic of the text is discovered, the central idea (what the author wants the reader to remember) will be determined by summarizing the details and information.

    Subject/Topic +What the author says about the subject

    = Central Idea Guidelines for Finding the Central Idea

    1. Read the text. 2. Find the topic. (What is this about?)

    3. Tell important information and details. 4. What does the author want you to know?

    5. Combine your thinking with the details to determine the big idea. 6. Retell the information.

  • May 27, 2009 2

    Instructional Progression of Indicator

    The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some areas of focus for understanding the central idea differ at each grade level.

    What do students need to know before they can understand how to summarize the central idea based on the supporting evidence?

    Students should understand that central idea is the selections principle point. It is what the author wants the reader to learn. It is also

    important for students to understand summarize. When a student summarizes, he retells the important details, events, or facts in his own words. The key to summarizing is picking out only the key points from

    the beginning, middle and end of the text. For example: What is a detail or key point?

    What are important details we can find in the text and/or illustrations?

    What are the important facts, ideas or concepts expressed by the

    author?

    Within central idea and supporting evidence, what have students been taught and what will they be taught in the future?

    The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade. 1-2.1 Summarize the central idea and supporting evidence in an

    informational text during classroom discussion. 2-2.1 Analyze the central idea and supporting evidence in an

    informational text during classroom discussion. 3-2.1 Summarize the evidence that supports the central idea of a

    given informational text.

    4-2.1 Summarize evidence that supports the central idea of a given informational text.

    5-2.1 Summarize the central idea and supporting evidence of a given informational text.

    6-2.1 Analyze central ideas within and across informational texts.

    7-2.1 Analyze central ideas within and across informational texts. 8-2.1 Compare/contrast central ideas within and across informational

    texts.

    When teaching central idea what connections, links, or ties can be

    made to other indicators and/or content areas? K-1-1 Summarize the main idea and details from literary texts read

    aloud K-1.2 Use pictures and words to make predictions regarding a story

    read aloud.

    K-1.3 Understand that a narrator tells the story. K-1.5 Generate a retelling that identifies the characters and the setting

    in a story and relates the important events in sequential order.

  • May 27, 2009 3

    K-1.6 Discuss how the authors choice of words affects the meaning of the text (for example, yell rather than said)

    K-1.7 Use relevant details in summarizing stories read aloud. K-1.8 Created responses to literary texts through a variety of methods

    (for example, writing, creative dramatics, and the visual and performing arts).

    K-1.10 Explain the cause of an event described in stories read aloud.

    K-2.2 Analyze texts during classroom discussions to make inferences. K-2.3 Find facts in texts read aloud.

    K-2.5 Understand that headings and print styles (for example, italics, bold, larger type) provide information to the reader.

    K-2.8 Explain the cause of an event described in a text read aloud.

    K-2.9 Read independently to gain information. K-3.19 Use prior knowledge and life experiences to construct meaning

    from texts. K-4.2 Generate complete sentences orally. K-4.3 Use pictures, letters, or words to tell a story from beginning to

    end. K-5.2 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create narratives

    (for example, stories and journal entries) about people, places, or things.

    K-5.3 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create descriptions of personal experiences, people, places, or things.

    K-5.4 Use symbols (drawings, letters, and words) to create written

    pieces (for example, simple rhymes) to entertain others K-6.1 Generate how and why questions about a topic of interest.

    K-6.2 Recognize that information can be found in print sources (for example, books, pictures, simple graphs, and charts) and non-print sources (for example, living and non-living things).

    Classroom Assessment

    Students should be taught and assessed using similar methods. In this indicator, the verb is summarize. In kindergarten, students should be able to summarize in their own words, the details/information found in the text to show they understand the

    authors central idea. Students should be assessed in the same way they are taught.. Assessment ideas for kindergarten are:

    Teacher observations/questioning Illustrations Classroom discussions during read alouds, and

    Reading and writing conferences

    Suggested Instructional Resources Professional Texts Harvey, Stephanie, and Anne Goudvis, Strategies That Work, Portland, ME:

    Stenhouse, 2007

    Portalupi, Joann and Ralph Fletcher, Nonfiction Craft Lessons, New York: Stenhouse,

  • May 27, 2009 4

    2001.

    Readers Handbook: A Student Guide for Reading and Learning, Wilmington, MA:

    Great Source Education Group, 2002. (Although this is a student book it has excellent examples of reading strategies and skills.)

    Harvey, Stephanie, and Anne Goudis, The Primary Comprehension Toolkit,

    Portsmouth, NH: firsthand, 2008.

    Oczkus, Lori, Interactive Think-Aloud Lessons, New York, Scholastic, Inc. 2009.

    Student Texts There are many titles that teachers and students may select to better understand organizing writing. Library Media Specialists from the South Carolina Association of

    School Librarians (SCASL) are collaborating with the South Carolina Department of Education to provide a sampling of texts to match the indicators. This will continue to

    be a work in progress. Teachers should collaborate with their library media specialists for additional suggestions. These titles can be used fo